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61. Biofeedback in Partial Weight Bearing: Usability of Two Different Devices from a Patient's and Physical Therapist's Perspective. (PubMed)

Biofeedback in Partial Weight Bearing: Usability of Two Different Devices from a Patient's and Physical Therapist's Perspective. Partial weight bearing is frequently instructed by physical therapists in patients after lower-limb trauma or surgery. The use of biofeedback devices seems promising to improve the patient's compliance with weight-bearing instructions. SmartStep and OpenGo-Science are biofeedback devices that provide real-time feedback. For a successful implementation, usability (...) with partial weight bearing and their physical therapists were asked to use SmartStep and OpenGo-Science during supervised rehabilitation. Usability was qualitatively tested by a think-aloud method and a semi-structured interview and quantitatively tested by the System-Usability-Scale (SUS) and closed questions. For the qualitative data thematic content analyses were used.Nine pairs of physical therapists and their patients participated. The mean SUS scores for patients and physical therapists were

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2016 PLoS ONE

62. Differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

. Results were pooled when possible and mean differences (MDs) were calculated between normal-weight and overweight and normal-weight and obese children for bone content and density measures at different body sites.Twenty-seven studies, with a total of 5,958 children, were included. There was moderate and high quality of evidence that overweight (MD 213 g; 95% confidence interval [CI] 166, 261) and obese children (MD 329 g; 95%CI [229, 430]) have a significantly higher whole body bone mineral content (...) Differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. This study examines the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight or obesity.A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies (published up to 22 June 2016) on the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and overweight and obese children was performed

2017 Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

63. Preference Weighting of Health State Values: What Difference Does It Make, and Why? (PubMed)

, and reduced major axis regression.The performances of preference-weighted and unweighted measures were comparable with regard to convergent and known-group validities for each instrument. Although unweighted values in the five-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire differ considerably from the preference-weighted values at the individual level, the discrepancy is minimal at the group level with a mean difference of 0.023. The ICC (0.96) and the Bland-Altman plot also suggest strong overall agreement (...) . For the 15D, both the ICC (0.99) and the Bland-Altman plot revealed almost perfect agreement, with a negligible mean difference of -0.001. Results from the reduced major axis regression also showed small bias.Overall, preference weighting has minimal effect if the unweighted values are anchored on the same scale as the preference-weighted value sets.Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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2017 Value in Health

64. Birth Weight in Different Etiologies of Disorders of Sex Development. (PubMed)

Birth Weight in Different Etiologies of Disorders of Sex Development. It is well established that boys are heavier than girls at birth. Although the cause of birth weight (BW) difference is unknown, it has been proposed that it could be generated from prenatal androgen action.The aim of the current study was to determine the BW of children with disorders of sex development (DSD) of different etiologies and to evaluate the effects of androgen action on BW.Data regarding diagnosis, BW (...) %) cases were 46,XY, and 133 (25%) cases were 46,XX. Eighty cases (15%) were born small for gestational age (SGA). Frequency of SGA was higher in the 46,XY group (17.8%) than in the 46,XX (6.7%) group (P = 0.001). Mean BW standard deviation scores of cases with androgen excess and androgen deficiency [in disorders of gonadal development, androgen synthesis, and Leydig cell defect groups and androgen receptor gene (AR) mutation-positive cases in disorders of androgen action groups] were similar

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2017 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

65. Baseline characteristics associated with different BMI trajectories in weight loss trials: a case for better targeting of interventions.

from two 12-month dietary weight loss studies where no significant difference was detected between the treatment and control arms, thus allowing analysis independent of treatment. The data set included 231 subjects (74.5% female), with a mean weight loss of 6.40 kg (4.96). Growth mixture models were used to identify participants with similar trajectories of change in body mass index (BMI).Three subgroups were identified. A rapid and continuing BMI loss over the study period (rapid, n=53), a rapid (...) Baseline characteristics associated with different BMI trajectories in weight loss trials: a case for better targeting of interventions. Dietary weight loss interventions have heterogeneous outcomes in long-term studies, with many participants regaining part or all of the lost weight. Growth mixture modelling is a novel analytic approach that can be used to identify different trajectories of weight change during a trial rather than focussing on the total amount of weight lost.Data were pooled

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2017 European journal of clinical nutrition

66. Effects of feeding different varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) straws with concentrate supplement on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep (PubMed)

Effects of feeding different varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) straws with concentrate supplement on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep A study was conducted to evaluate the varietal differences among faba bean straws and also to assess the potentials of faba bean straws supplemented with concentrate fed at the rate 70% straws and 30% concentrate mixture on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics (...) of the animals.Forty yearling Arsi-Bale sheep with initial body weight of 19.85±0.29 kg (mean± standard deviation) were grouped in a randomized complete block design into eight blocks of five animals each based on their initial body weight. Straws included in the study were from Mosisa (T1M), Walki (T2W), Degaga (T3D), Shallo (T4S), and local (T5L) varieties of faba bean and concentrate (2:1 ratio of wheat bran to "noug" seed cake). The experiment consisted of seven days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding

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2017 Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences

67. Impact of Different Analytic Approaches on the Analysis of the Breast Fibroglandular Tissue Using Diffusion Weighted Imaging (PubMed)

Impact of Different Analytic Approaches on the Analysis of the Breast Fibroglandular Tissue Using Diffusion Weighted Imaging Purpose. This study investigated the impact of the different region of interest (ROI) approaches on measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the breast firbroglandular tissue (FT). Methods. Breast MR images of 38 women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer were studied. Percent density (PD) and ADC were measured from the contralateral normal breast (...) . Four different ROIs were used for ADC measurement. The measured PD and ADC were correlated. Results. Among the four ROIs, the manually placed small ROI on FT gave the highest mean ADC (ADC = 1839 ± 343 [×10-6 mm2/s]), while measurement from the whole breast gave the lowest mean ADC (ADC = 933 ± 383 [×10-6 mm2/s]). The ADC measured from the whole breast was highly correlated with PD with r = 0.95. In slice-to-slice comparison, the central slices with more FT had higher ADC values than the peripheral

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2017 BioMed research international

68. Intake and Dietary Food Sources of Fibre in Spain: Differences with Regard to the Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity in Adults of the ANIBES Study (PubMed)

Intake and Dietary Food Sources of Fibre in Spain: Differences with Regard to the Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity in Adults of the ANIBES Study The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18-64 years) from the ANIBES ("Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity (...) Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine of the United States (IOM). Main fibre dietary food sources were grains, followed by vegetables, fruits, and pulses. In the whole sample, considering sex, and after adjusting for age and physical activity, mean (standard error) fibre intake (adjusted by energy intake) was higher in subjects who had normal weight (NW) 13.40 (0.184) g/day, without abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.192) g/day or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity

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2017 Nutrients

69. Slender women and overweight men: gender differences in the educational gradient in body weight in South Korea (PubMed)

observed in the educational inequalities in weight status.Using the Korean National Health Survey (N = 17,947) conducted in 2008-2012 conditional quantile regression models were estimated to assess the associations between education and body weight distribution. The mean difference in the predicted probabilities of perceiving body image as average was compared by educational attainment for women and men while setting all other covariates at their means.Highly educated women were more likely to utilize (...) Slender women and overweight men: gender differences in the educational gradient in body weight in South Korea Little is known about the gender-specific mechanisms through which education is associated with weight status in societies that have experienced a rapid rise in their obesity rates. This study extends previous literature by examining how the link between education and weight status operates within the structure of gender relations in South Korea where huge gender differences have been

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2017 International journal for equity in health

70. Health utility scores in Alzheimer's disease: differences based on calculation with American and Canadian preference weights. (PubMed)

weights.We recruited participants from nine clinics across Canada and administered the EuroQol five-dimensional (EQ-5D) questionnaire HRQOL instrument. We converted participants' EQ-5D questionnaire responses into two sets of health utility scores by using US and Canadian preference weights. We assessed agreement between sets by using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman plots depicted individual-level differences between sets.For 216 persons with AD and their caregivers, mean health (...) Health utility scores in Alzheimer's disease: differences based on calculation with American and Canadian preference weights. Health utility scores quantify health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). These scores are calculated by using preference weights derived from general population samples. We recruited persons with AD and their primary informal caregivers and examined differences in health utility scores calculated by using two sets of published preference

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2017 Value in Health

71. Weight Loss Associated With Different Patterns of Self-Monitoring Using the Mobile Phone App My Meal Mate. (PubMed)

Weight Loss Associated With Different Patterns of Self-Monitoring Using the Mobile Phone App My Meal Mate. Obesity is a major global public health issue due to its association with a number of serious chronic illnesses and its high economic burden to health care providers. Self-monitoring of diet has been consistently linked to weight loss. However, there is limited evidence about how frequently individuals need to monitor their diet for optimal weight loss.The aim of this paper is to describe (...) -monitor their dietary intake. All food consumption data were automatically uploaded with a time and date stamp. Post hoc regression analysis of app usage patterns was undertaken in the My Meal Mate group (n=43; female: 77%, 33/43; white: 100%, 43/43; age: mean 41, SD 9 years; body mass index: mean 34, SD 4 kg/m2) to explore the relationship between frequency and pattern of electronic dietary self-monitoring and weight loss. Baseline characteristics of participants were also investigated to identify

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2017 JMIR mHealth and uHealth Controlled trial quality: predicted high

72. Birth weight differences between those offered financial voucher incentives for verified smoking cessation and control participants enrolled in the Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT), employing an intuitive approach and a Complier Average Caus (PubMed)

in the control group (who did not quit) 3193 g. The difference attributable to incentives, was 3338 - 3193 = 145 g (95% CI -617, +803). The mean difference in birth weight between the intervention and control groups was 21 g, and the difference in the proportion who managed to quit was 14.3%. Since the intervention consisted of the offer of incentives to quit smoking, the intervention was received by all women in the intervention group. However, "compliance" was successfully quitting with incentives (...) Birth weight differences between those offered financial voucher incentives for verified smoking cessation and control participants enrolled in the Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT), employing an intuitive approach and a Complier Average Caus The Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT), which offered financial incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy showed a clinically and statistically significant improvement in cessation. However, infant birth weight was not seen

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2017 Trials Controlled trial quality: uncertain

73. Once-weekly administration of a long-acting FGF21 analogue modulates lipids, bone turnover markers, blood pressure, and body weight differently in obese hypertriglyceridemic subjects and in non-human primates. (PubMed)

Once-weekly administration of a long-acting FGF21 analogue modulates lipids, bone turnover markers, blood pressure, and body weight differently in obese hypertriglyceridemic subjects and in non-human primates. To assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PF-05231023, a long-acting fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) analogue, in obese people with hypertriglyceridaemia on atorvastatin, with or without type 2 diabetes.Participants received PF-05231023 or placebo (...) intravenously once weekly for 4 weeks. Safety (12-lead ECGs, vital signs, adverse events [AEs], laboratory tests) and longitudinal weight assessments were performed. Blood samples were collected for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses. Cardiovascular safety studies were also conducted in telemetered rats and monkeys. Blood pressure (BP; mean, systolic and diastolic) and ECGs were monitored.A total of 107 people were randomized. PF-05231023 significantly decreased mean placebo-adjusted fasting

2017 obesity & metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

74. Effect of pregnancy weight gain on infant birth weight among mothers attending antenatal care from private clinics in Mekelle City, Northern Ethiopia: A facility based follow-up study. (PubMed)

. The relationship between dependent and independent variables was assessed and presented using descriptive statistics, as well as t-test, ANOVA, and multivariable linear regression analysis. Variables:-pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal age, parity, decision making power on monetary resources, pregnancy interval, availability of housemaid, women dietary diversity score, maternal occupation, and pregnancy weight gain were included in the multivariable analysis.Maternal weight increased monthly at a mean ± SD rate of 2 (...) ± 0.7 kg in the second trimester, and 1.5 ± 0.7 kg in the third trimester. The mean ± SD of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and total pregnancy weight gain was 23.8 ± 4.6 kg/m2, and 12 ± 2.8 kg respectively. The mean ± SD of birth weight was 3440 ± 542 grams. Weight gain has a significant effect on infant birth weight, a 1 kg increase in the pregnancy weight was associated with 94 g increase in BW (β = 97, 95% CI: 73-120). After dividing the pre-pregnancy weight into four groups (< 18.5, 18.5

2019 PLoS ONE

75. Formula versus donor breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants. (PubMed)

milk and seven compared nutrient-enriched preterm formula versus donor breast milk. Only the four most recent trials used nutrient-fortified donor breast milk. The trials contain various weaknesses in methodological quality, specifically concerns about allocation concealment in four trials and lack of blinding in most of the trials.Formula-fed infants had higher in-hospital rates of weight gain (mean difference (MD) 2.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.93 to 3.08 g/kg/day), linear growth (MD 1.21 (...) Health Literature (until 8 June 2017), as well as conference proceedings and previous reviews.Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing feeding with formula versus donor breast milk in preterm or LBW infants.Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and extracted data independently. We analysed treatment effects as described in the individual trials and reported risk ratios (RRs) and risk differences (RDs) for dichotomous data, and mean differences (MDs

2018 Cochrane

76. Interventions to prevent hypothermia at birth in preterm and/or low birth weight infants. (PubMed)

after birth (mean difference (MD) 0.58°C, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50 to 0.66; 13 studies; 1633 infants), and fewer infants had hypothermia on admission to the NICU or up to two hours after birth (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.67, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.72; typical risk reduction (RD) -0.25, 95% CI -0.29 to -0.20; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 4, 95% CI 4 to 5; 10 studies; 1417 infants). Risk of hyperthermia on admission to the NICU or up to two hours after birth (...) care (two studies; 126 infants).SSC was shown to be effective in reducing risk of hypothermia when compared with conventional incubator care for infants with birth weight ≥ 1200 and ≤ 2199 grams (RR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.64; RD -0.56, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.27; NNTB 2, 95% CI 1 to 4). Thermal (transwarmer) mattress significantly kept infants ≤ 1500 grams warmer (MD 0.65°C, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.94) and reduced the incidence of hypothermia on admission to the NICU, with no significant difference

2018 Cochrane

77. Interventions for weight reduction in obesity to improve survival in women with endometrial cancer. (PubMed)

not associated with significant weight loss at either six months (mean difference (MD) -1.88 kg, 95% CI -5.98 to 2.21 kg, P = 0.37, three RCTs, 131 participants, I2= 0%; low-certainty evidenc e)or 12 months (MD -8.98 kg, 95% CI -19.88 to 1.92 kg, P = 0.11, two RCTs, 91 participants, I2= 0%; very low-certainty evidence) when compared with usual care. Combined behaviour and lifestyle interventions were not associated with increased quality of life, when measured using either the SF-12 Physical Health (...) Interventions for weight reduction in obesity to improve survival in women with endometrial cancer. Diagnoses of endometrial cancer are increasing secondary to the rising prevalence of obesity. Obesity plays an important role in promoting the development of endometrial cancer, by inducing a state of unopposed oestrogen excess, insulin resistance and inflammation. It also affects treatment, increasing the risk of surgical complications and the complexity of radiotherapy planning, and may

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2018 Cochrane

78. Prolonged thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin for abdominal or pelvic surgery. (PubMed)

Prolonged thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin for abdominal or pelvic surgery. This an update of the review first published in 2009.Major abdominal and pelvic surgery carries a high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The efficacy of thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) administered during the in-hospital period is well-documented, but the optimal duration of prophylaxis after surgery remains controversial. Some studies suggest that patients undergoing (...) period only. The population consisted of persons undergoing abdominal or pelvic surgery for both benign and malignant pathology. The outcome measures included VTE (deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE)) as assessed by objective means (venography, ultrasonography, pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, spiral computed tomography (CT) scan or autopsy). We excluded studies exclusively reporting on clinical diagnosis of VTE without objective confirmation.Review authors identified

2018 Cochrane

79. During Conscious Sedation the Risk of Adverse Events Is Likely Increased in Obese Children Compared to Those of Healthy Weight

1 or more adverse events and the remaining 86% experienced no adverse event. The patients who experienced adverse events had higher mean weight and higher BMI, although not a statistically significant difference was observed. Adverse events include oxyhemoglobin desaturation, nausea/vomiting, and true apnea. #2) Baker/2006 N/A Literature Review Key results The purpose of this literature review is to explain the effect childhood obesity has on sedation of patients in pediatric dentistry and offer (...) compared to children who are at healthy weight? Clinical Bottom Line For children with childhood obesity, conscious sedation may lead to more adverse events including oxyhemoglobin desaturation, nausea and true apnea. However, additional evidence is needed to know if there is any clinical and statistical difference between obese children and healthy weight children during conscious sedation. This is supported by both a cross-sectional retrospective study and a review of literature on the relationship

2019 UTHSCSA Dental School CAT Library

80. Fact or Fad: Intermittent fasting for sustained weight loss

%. Evidence: • “Fasting” generally refers to reducing caloric intake by ~75% of caloric needs/day; “continuous dieting” generally refers to reducing caloric intake by ~25%/day. • Systematic review of 9 randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) at least 6 months in duration, 981 patients. 1 Example regimen: fasting 2 days/week interspersed with 5 days/week regular intake. After 6 months-2 years: o No difference in mean weight loss. o Mean weight loss range in both groups: 2.1-26.6 kg. • 6 RCTs published since (...) above review, 24 to 332 patients, randomized to intermittent fasting (alternate day fasting, 2 days fasting with 5 non-fasting days/week, or weekly fasting) versus continuous dieting and/or no intervention control: o 5/6 RCTs: mean weight loss ranged ~5-9 kg in both arms, not statistically different. 2-6 ? Best quality RCT, 100 patients, randomized to alternate-day fasting, continuous dieting, or no intervention control for 6 months. 2 After additional 6-month follow-up: • Weight loss between

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