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41. Sound reduction management in the neonatal intensive care unit for preterm or very low birth weight infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

difference in weight at 34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA): mean difference (MD) 111 g (95% confidence interval (CI) -151 to 374 g) (n = 23). There was no significant difference in weight at 18 to 22 months corrected age between the groups: MD 0.31 kg, 95% CI -1.53 to 2.16 kg (n = 14). There was a significant difference in Mental Developmental Index (Bayley II) favouring the silicone earplugs group at 18 to 22 months corrected age: MD 14.00, 95% CI 3.13 to 24.87 (n = 12), but not for Psychomotor (...) Sound reduction management in the neonatal intensive care unit for preterm or very low birth weight infants. Infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are subjected to stress, including sound of high intensity. The sound environment in the NICU is louder than most home or office environments and contains disturbing noises of short duration and at irregular intervals. There are competing auditory signals that frequently challenge preterm infants, staff and parents. The sound levels

2020 Cochrane

42. Late erythropoiesis-stimulating agents to prevent red blood cell transfusion in preterm or low birth weight infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

for this outcome (RR I² = 66%; RD I² = 58%). The quality of the evidence was very low. We obtained similar results in secondary analyses based on different combinations of high/low doses of EPO and iron supplementation. There was no significant reduction in the total volume (mL/kg) of blood transfused per infant (typical mean difference (MD) -1.6 mL/kg, 95% CI -5.8 to 2.6); 5 studies, 197 infants). There was high heterogeneity for this outcome (I² = 92%). There was a significant reduction in the number (...) Late erythropoiesis-stimulating agents to prevent red blood cell transfusion in preterm or low birth weight infants. Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia. Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs.To assess the effectiveness and safety of late initiation of ESAs, between eight and 28 days after birth, in reducing the use of red blood cell (RBC

2020 Cochrane

43. Low molecular weight heparin for prevention of microvascular occlusion in digital replantation. (Abstract)

. The mean age of participants ranged from 24.5 to 37.6 years. In the studies reporting the sex of participants, there were a total of 145 men and 59 women. The certainty of the evidence was downgraded to low or very low because all studies were at high risk of performance or reporting bias (or both) and there was imprecision in the results due to the small numbers of participants. The three studies comparing LMWH versus UFH reported the success rate of replantation using different units of analysis (...) Low molecular weight heparin for prevention of microvascular occlusion in digital replantation. The success of digital replantation is highly dependent on the patency of the repaired vessels after microvascular anastomosis. Antithrombotic agents are frequently used for preventing vascular occlusion. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been reported to be as effective as unfractionated heparin (UFH) in peripheral vascular surgery, but with fewer adverse effects. Its benefit in microvascular

2020 Cochrane

44. Early versus late erythropoietin for preventing red blood cell transfusion in preterm and/or low birth weight infants. (Abstract)

preterm or LBW infants less than eight days of age.Early initiation of EPO (initiated at less than eight days of age) versus late initiation of EPO (initiated at eight to 28 days of age).The standard methods of the CNRG were followed. Weighted treatment effects included typical risk ratio (RR), typical risk difference (RD), number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB), number needed to treat to harm (NNTH) and mean difference (MD), all with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A fixed-effect model was used (...) Early versus late erythropoietin for preventing red blood cell transfusion in preterm and/or low birth weight infants. Low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) in preterm infants provide a rationale for the use of EPO to prevent or treat anaemia.To assess the effectiveness and safety of early versus late initiation of EPO in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in preterm and/or low birth weight (LBW) infants.The standard search of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group (CNRG) was performed

2020 Cochrane

45. Early erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in preterm or low birth weight infants. (Abstract)

Index (MDI) at 18 to 24 months in the ESA group (weighted mean difference (WMD) 8.22, 95% CI 6.52 to 9.92; I2 = 97% (high heterogeneity); 3 studies, 981 children). The quality of the evidence was low. The total volume of RBCs transfused per infant was reduced by 7 mL/kg. The number of RBC transfusions per infant was minimally reduced, but the number of donors to whom infants who were transfused were exposed was not significantly reduced. Data show no significant difference in risk of stage ≥ 3 (...) Early erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in preterm or low birth weight infants. Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia and to provide neuro protection and protection against necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs.To assess the effectiveness and safety of ESAs (erythropoietin (EPO) and/or Darbe) initiated early

2020 Cochrane

46. Are healthy weight management interventions effective before, during and after pregnancy?

effective at improving weight outcomes; others, that a combination of diet and exercise was more effective • The best dietary approach or exercise intervention to maintain healthy weight in pregnancy or postpartum is currently unclear; this is partly due to the heterogeneity and methodological quality of the primary studies, and their different methods of data collection • Dietary, exercise and combined approaches have been shown to reduce GWG, caesareans, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), maternal (...) . Diet Five systematic reviews on dietary interventions alone to prevent weight gain in pregnancy were identified (3-7). These showed that dietary interventions conducted during pregnancy, and in some cases, postpartum, were significantly more effective at improving weight outcomes compared to usual care or other interventions. For example: • 9/13 RCTs reduced gestational weight gain (GWG) in overweight and obese pregnant women (3) • 10/15 RCTs/CTs reported significant differences in GWG of obese

2020 Public Health England - Evidence Briefings

47. Ibuprofen for the prevention of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm and/or low birth weight infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

complications. We performed meta-analyses and reported treatment estimates as typical mean difference (MD), risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD) and, if statistically significant, number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) or to harm (NNTH), along with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed between-study heterogeneity by the I-squared test (I²). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence.In this updated analysis, we included nine trials (N = 1070 infants) comparing prophylactic (...) Ibuprofen for the prevention of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm and/or low birth weight infants. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) complicates the clinical course of preterm infants and increases the risk of adverse outcomes. Indomethacin has been the standard treatment to close a PDA but is associated with renal, gastrointestinal, and cerebral side effects. Ibuprofen has less effect on blood flow velocity to important organs.Primary objectivesTo determine the effectiveness and safety

2019 Cochrane

48. Dilute versus full-strength formula in exclusively formula-fed preterm or low birth weight infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

or quasi-randomised trials comparing strengths of formula milk in exclusively formula-fed preterm or low birth weight infants. We excluded studies if infants received formula as a supplement to breast milk.We independently assessed studies for inclusion. We collected data using the standard methods of Cochrane Neonatal, with independent assessment of risk of bias and data extraction. We synthesised mean differences using a fixed-effect meta-analysis model. We used the GRADE approach to assess (...) . This review focuses on whether dilute or full-strength formula is the preferable mode of introducing feeds in preterm infants for whom expressed breast milk is unavailable.To assess the effects of dilute versus full-strength formula on the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis, feeding intolerance, weight gain, length of stay in hosptial and time to achieve full calorie intake in exclusively formula-fed preterm or low birth weight infants. A secondary objective was to assess the effects of different

2019 Cochrane

49. Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) or the number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) for categorical data; and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned to use the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence.No studies met the inclusion criteria.We found no evidence to support or refute the effect of banked donor preterm milk compared (...) Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants. Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk.To determine the effect of banked donor preterm milk compared with banked donor term milk regarding

2019 Cochrane

50. Formula versus donor breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

donor breast milk. Only the five most recent trials used nutrient-fortified donor breast milk. The trials contain various weaknesses in methodological quality, specifically concerns about allocation concealment in four trials and lack of blinding in most of the trials. Most of the included trials were funded by companies that made the study formula.Formula-fed infants had higher in-hospital rates of weight gain (mean difference (MD) 2.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.93 to 3.08 g/kg/day), linear (...) Health Literature (3 May 2019), as well as conference proceedings, previous reviews, and clinical trials.Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing feeding with formula versus donor breast milk in preterm or LBW infants.Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and extracted data independently. We analysed treatment effects as described in the individual trials and reported risk ratios (RRs) and risk differences (RDs) for dichotomous data, and mean

2019 Cochrane

51. Prolonged thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin for abdominal or pelvic surgery. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prolonged thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin for abdominal or pelvic surgery. This an update of the review first published in 2009.Major abdominal and pelvic surgery carries a high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The efficacy of thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) administered during the in-hospital period is well-documented, but the optimal duration of prophylaxis after surgery remains controversial. Some studies suggest that patients undergoing (...) period only. The population consisted of persons undergoing abdominal or pelvic surgery for both benign and malignant pathology. The outcome measures included VTE (deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE)) as assessed by objective means (venography, ultrasonography, pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, spiral computed tomography (CT) scan or autopsy). We excluded studies exclusively reporting on clinical diagnosis of VTE without objective confirmation.Review authors identified

2019 Cochrane

52. Formula versus maternal breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

eligibility and risk of bias, and extract data. We planned to analyse treatment effects as described in the individual trials and report risk ratios and risk differences for dichotomous data, and mean differences for continuous data, with 95% confidence intervals. We planned to use a fixed-effect model in meta-analyses and to explore potential causes of heterogeneity in subgroup analyses. We planned to use the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence.We did not identify any eligible trials.There (...) Formula versus maternal breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants. Artificial formula can be manipulated to contain higher amounts of macro-nutrients than maternal breast milk but breast milk confers important immuno-nutritional advantages for preterm or low birth weight (LBW) infants.To determine the effect of feeding preterm or LBW infants with formula compared with maternal breast milk on growth and developmental outcomes.We used the standard strategy of Cochrane Neonatal

2019 Cochrane

53. Identification of Early Response to Anti-Angiogenic Therapy in Recurrent Glioblastoma: Amide Proton Transfer-weighted and Perfusion-weighted MRI compared with Diffusion-weighted MRI. (Abstract)

Identification of Early Response to Anti-Angiogenic Therapy in Recurrent Glioblastoma: Amide Proton Transfer-weighted and Perfusion-weighted MRI compared with Diffusion-weighted MRI. Background Amide proton transfer (APT) MRI has the potential to demonstrate antitumor effects by reflecting biologically active tumor portion, providing different information from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) or dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging. Purpose To evaluate whether a change in APT signal (...) nonenhancing. Changes in mean and histogram parameters (fifth and 95th percentiles) of APT signal intensity, apparent diffusion coefficient, and normalized cerebral blood volume (CBV) between imaging time points were calculated. Predictors of 12-month progression and progression-free survival (PFS) were determined by using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard modeling and according to progression type. Results A total of 54 patients were included (median age, 56 years [interquartile range, 49-64

2020 Radiology

54. Physical development by means of fitness technologies as one of general aspects of student's health. (Abstract)

classes according to traditional educational system, which provided development of only those physical qualities that are necessary for successful assimilation of motor activity techniques. Students from experimental group took classes according to fitness technologies program.Results: The data obtained has shown that men and women from experimental groups during the formative have reliable differences only in body weight and in the index of Erisman. The dynamics of anthropometric indices of students (...) Physical development by means of fitness technologies as one of general aspects of student's health. Іntroduction: The problem of the formation, preservation and strengthening of students' health during higher educational period is becoming increasingly relevant. Following factors have a purposeful impact on health and physical development of students: correct organization of physical education process, motivation to study, student's personality and adaptation process to new educational

2019 Wiadomosci lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

55. Addressing the social and commercial determinants of healthy weight

available; the financial, psychosocial and physical conditions of working life, and the degree of social participation. 14 ADDRESSING THE SOCIAL AND COMMERCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTHY WEIGHT | SAX INSTITUTE The social and commercial determinants of inequities in obesity Promoting health equity through healthy weight also means tackling some of the fundamental economic, commercial and cultural factors (the structural determinants) that affect peoples living conditions, their daily practices and behaviour (...) Addressing the social and commercial determinants of healthy weight An Evidence Check rapid review brokered by the Sax Institute for Queensland Department of Health on behalf of the national obesity strategy Working Group. October 2019 Addressing the social and commercial determinants of healthy weight An Evidence Check rapid review brokered by the Sax Institute for the Queensland Department of Health on behalf of the national obesity strategy Working Group. October 2019. This report

2019 Sax Institute Evidence Check

56. Population-level strategies to support healthy weight

Ensure all primary and tertiary care settings adopt best-practice breastfeeding policies and practices 34 Provide resources for physical activity promotion, lifestyle and behaviour change programs, and advice on reducing screen time in primary care settings, tailored to different socioeconomic groups 35 Provide pre-conception and antenatal nutrition guidance and support for healthy pregnancy in primary care settings 10 SAX INSTITUTE | POPULATION-LEVEL STRATEGIES TO SUPPORT HEALTHY WEIGHT Background (...) change programs, and advice on reducing screen time in primary care settings, tailored to different socioeconomic groups Personal skill development Primary care ECHO2.1 Int18 A35 Individual food consumption Provide pre-conception and antenatal nutrition guidance and support for healthy pregnancy in primary care settings Personal skill development Primary care ECHO3.1, ECHO3.2, ECHO3.3, ECHO3.4, ECHO4.3 Int17 POPULATION-LEVEL STRATEGIES TO SUPPORT HEALTHY WEIGHT | SAX INSTITUTE 43 Discussion Summary

2019 Sax Institute Evidence Check

57. Evaluation of different mathematical models and different b-value ranges of diffusion-weighted imaging in peripheral zone prostate cancer detection using b-value up to 4500 s/mm2. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of different mathematical models and different b-value ranges of diffusion-weighted imaging in peripheral zone prostate cancer detection using b-value up to 4500 s/mm2. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of different mathematical models and different b-value ranges of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in peripheral zone prostate cancer (PZ PCa) detection.Fifty-six patients with histologically proven PZ PCa who underwent DWI-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using 21 b-values (0 (...) -4500 s/mm2) were included. The mean signal intensities of the regions of interest (ROIs) placed in benign PZs and cancerous tissues on DWI images were fitted using mono-exponential, bi-exponential, stretched-exponential, and kurtosis models. The b-values were divided into four ranges: 0-1000, 0-2000, 0-3200, and 0-4500 s/mm2, grouped as A, B, C, and D, respectively. ADC, , D*, f, DDC, α, Dapp, and Kapp were estimated for each group. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R2) was calculated

2017 PLoS ONE

58. Reductions in food cravings are similar with low-fat weight loss diets differing in protein and carbohydrate in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial. (Abstract)

Reductions in food cravings are similar with low-fat weight loss diets differing in protein and carbohydrate in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial. Food cravings are common in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Higher-protein diets are effective in improving satiety but their effect on cravings is unclear. It was hypothesized that a high protein (HP) diet would provide greater reductions in cravings than an isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC). In a randomized (...) controlled trial, 61 adults (54% males) with T2D (means ± SD: BMI 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2; aged 55 ± 8 years) consumed either a HP diet (mean across study: 29% protein, 34% carbohydrate, 31% fat) or an isocaloric HC diet (21%:48%:24%) for 12-weeks each of weight loss (WL) and weight maintenance (WM). The Food Craving Inventory (FCI), measuring types of foods craved and the General Food Craving Questionnaires measuring traits (G-FCQ-T) and states (G-FCQ-S) were assessed at Weeks 0, 12 and 24. Weight changes were

2018 Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

59. Conventional weight loss interventions across the different BMI obesity classes: a quantitative analysis based on a systematic literature search

Conventional weight loss interventions across the different BMI obesity classes: a quantitative analysis based on a systematic literature search Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content (...) will be reported through a descriptive summary. ">Planned approach If a meta-analysis is planned , please specify the following:"> Example: number of metastases: standardized mean difference; incidence of metastasis: risk ratio. ">Effect measure The random-effects model is the typical model of choice for pre-clinical meta-analyses. This is because in the fixed-effect model, it is assumed that the differences in observed effect between studies is solely due to sampling error (i.e. differences in sample size

2020 PROSPERO

60. Gender differences in weight loss outcomes on a low-carbohydrate diet: a systematic review

Gender differences in weight loss outcomes on a low-carbohydrate diet: a systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites (...) is planned , please specify the following:"> Example: number of metastases: standardized mean difference; incidence of metastasis: risk ratio. ">Effect measure The random-effects model is the typical model of choice for pre-clinical meta-analyses. This is because in the fixed-effect model, it is assumed that the differences in observed effect between studies is solely due to sampling error (i.e. differences in sample size), and that the true effect is the same (fixed) across all studies. However

2020 PROSPERO

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