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181. The impact of maternal antenatal treatment with two doses of azithromycin and monthly sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine on child weight, mid-upper arm circumference and head circumference: A randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

months.Throughout follow-up, the mean child weight was approximately 100 g higher (difference in means 0.12 kg, 95% CI 0.04-0.20, P = 0.003 at one month; 0.19 kg, 95% CI 0.05-0.33, P = 0.007, at six months), mean head circumference 2 mm larger (0.3 cm, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.5, P = 0.004 at one month) and the cumulative incidence of underweight by five years of age was lower (hazard ratio 0.74, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.90, P = 0.002) in the AZI-SP group than in the control group. The 2 mm difference in the mean mid-upper arm (...) circumference at one month (0.2 cm, 95% CI 0.0 to 0.3, P = 0.007) disappeared after three years of age. There was no difference in mean weight-for-height Z-score at any time point.In Malawi, IPTp with azithromycin and monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has a modest, 3-5-year positive impact on child weight, mid-upper arm circumference and head circumference, but not on weight-for-height Z-score.

2019 PLoS ONE Controlled trial quality: uncertain

182. Use of validated objective methods of locomotion characteristics and weight distribution for evaluating the efficacy of ketoprofen for alleviating pain in cows with limb pathologies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

) and after 1 h and 18 h of treatment. All variables were expressed as differences across contralateral limbs, and the measurements at 1 h and 18 h were compared to the baseline. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine the differences between groups K and P. A logistic regression model with a binary outcome (0 = no improvement and 1 = improvement of the differences across the contralateral limbs over time) was calculated. Mean (± SD) of locomotion scores at baseline were not significantly (...) different (P = 0.102) in group K (3.10 ± 0.80) as compared to group P (3.48 ± 0.64). Cattle of group K showed significantly lower differences across contralateral limbs at 1 h as compared to group P for the relative stance phase and the weight distribution. Only the treatment (P versus K) remained a significant factor in the model for relative stance phase (odds ratio (OR) = 6.5; 95% CI = 1.38-30.68) and weight distribution (OR = 6.36; 95% CI = 1.30-31.07). The effects of ketoprofen were evident

2019 PLoS ONE Controlled trial quality: uncertain

183. Chronic antibiotic use during adulthood and weight change in the Sister Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

) and subsequent obesity at enrollment (mean age = 55) via logistic regression. We also examined associations between chronic antibiotic use in the 5 years and 12 months prior to enrollment and weight gain after enrollment in linear mixed models. Models were adjusted for race/ethnicity, education, urban/rural status, age, and smoking.In adjusted analyses (n = 50,237), chronic penicillin use during the 4th decade of life was associated with obesity at enrollment (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.40, 2.87), and use in the 5 (...) Chronic antibiotic use during adulthood and weight change in the Sister Study. Antibiotic use in early life has been associated with weight gain in several populations. However, associations between chronic antibiotic use and weight among adults in the general population are unknown.The NIEHS Sister Study is a longitudinal cohort of sisters of women with breast cancer. We examined associations between chronic antibiotic use (≥ 3 months) during the fourth decade of life (30-39 years

2019 PLoS ONE

184. A pilot study of metabolic fitness effects of weight-supported walking in women with obesity. Full Text available with Trip Pro

changes in standard oral glucose tolerance (OGT) tests including metabotropic molecules after 22 twice-weekly, 30-minute bouts of weight-supported light-moderate physical activity in 16 non-diabetic obese, otherwise healthy, reproductive-age, volunteer women walking on an "anti-gravity" lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmill.Subjects had reference base-line fasting plasma glucose and triglycerides (TG) but 2-hr OGT insulin levels of 467 ± 276 pmol • liter-1 (mean± S.D.) indicating nascent (...) insulin resistance, compared to post-study 308 ± 179 (p = 0.002). Fasting TG decreased from 0.80 ± 0.30 mmol • liter-1 to 0.71 ± 0.25 (p = 0.03). Concomitantly plasma total ghrelin decreased from 69.6 ± 41.6 pmol • liter-1 to 56.0 ± 41.3 (p = 0.008). There were no statistically significant changes in body weight or any correlations between weight change and cardiometabolic markers. However, there were robust positive correlations between changes among different classes of peptides including C-reactive

2019 PLoS ONE

185. Development of a human milk concentrate with human milk lyophilizate for feeding very low birth weight preterm infants: A preclinical experimental study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human Milk Analyzer. Micronutrients were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and by the automated colorimetric method. Bayesian linear mixed effect models were adjusted using OpenBUGS to estimate mean differences and 95% credibility intervals (CrI) of osmolality and of macro- and micronutrients between the types of HM samples. A comparison of dosage values showed a significant increase between HM baseline and HMCI, HMC3m, and HMC6m. Comparing HM baseline and HMCI highlighted (...) Development of a human milk concentrate with human milk lyophilizate for feeding very low birth weight preterm infants: A preclinical experimental study. Breast milk is considered the gold standard nutritional resource for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants in terms of nutrients and protective factors. If mother's milk is not available, the second choice is donated and fortified human milk (HM) from the Human Milk Bank (HMB). This study hypothesized that HM could be lyophilized and used

2019 PLoS ONE

186. Maintenance of body weight is an important determinant for the risk of ischemic stroke: A nationwide population-based cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Maintenance of body weight is an important determinant for the risk of ischemic stroke: A nationwide population-based cohort study. Overweight is known as a risk factor for ischemic stroke. However, the effect of weight change on the development of ischemic stroke remains controversial. We investigated the relationship between weight change and the risk of ischemic stroke using a nationwide population-based cohort.Our study enrolled 11,084,683 participants (Mean age 49.7±13.5 years, range 20 (...) -114 years) in the Korean National Health Screening Program from 2009 to 2012. Weight change was calculated using the difference between the baseline weight and the weight at health screening four years prior to the baseline. The occurrence of newly-diagnosed ischemic stroke was observed until the end of 2015. We categorized the study population according to weight change and performed multivariable analysis to compare the risk.Ischemic stroke was newly diagnosed in 113,591 subjects. The crude

2019 PLoS ONE

187. A validation of the PAWPER XL-MAC tape for total body weight estimation in preschool children from low- and middle-income countries. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to 59 months from standardised nutritional surveys in 51 low- and middle-income countries. The performance of PAWPER XL-MAC method was compared with the Broselow tape and a new length- and habitus-based tape, the Ralston method.The bias of the weight estimation methods was assessed using the mean percentage error (MPE) and precision using the 95% limits of agreement (LOA) of the MPE. The overall accuracy was denoted by the percentage of weight estimates falling within 10% and 20% of actual weight (...) A validation of the PAWPER XL-MAC tape for total body weight estimation in preschool children from low- and middle-income countries. The PAWPER tape system is one of the three most accurate paediatric weight estimation systems in the world. The latest version of the tape, which does not rely on a subjective assessment of habitus, is the PAWPER XL-MAC method which uses length and mid-arm circumference (MAC) to estimate weight. It was derived and validated in a population in the USA and has

2019 PLoS ONE

188. Functional imagery training versus motivational interviewing for weight loss: a randomised controlled trial of brief individual interventions for overweight and obesity Full Text available with Trip Pro

and 2.72 cm in the MI group (N = 55) at 6 months (weight mean difference (WMD) = 3.37 kg, p < .001, 95% CI [-5.2, -2.1], waist-circumference mean difference (WCMD) = 4.3 cm, p < .001, 95% CI [-6.3,-2.6]). Between-group differences were maintained and increased at month 12: FIT participants lost 6.44 kg (W) and 9.1 cm (WC) compared to the MI who lost .67 kg and 2.46 cm (WMD = 5.77 kg, p < .001, 95% CI [-7.5, -4.4], WCMD = 6.64 cm, p < .001, 95% CI [-7.5, -4.4]).FIT is a theoretically informed (...) Functional imagery training versus motivational interviewing for weight loss: a randomised controlled trial of brief individual interventions for overweight and obesity Functional Imagery Training (FIT) is a new brief motivational intervention based on the Elaborated Intrusion theory of desire. FIT trains the habitual use of personalised, affective, goal-directed mental imagery to plan behaviours, anticipate obstacles, and mentally try out solutions from previous successes. It is delivered

2018 EvidenceUpdates

189. Pharmaceutical interventions for weight-loss maintenance: no effect from cabergoline (Abstract)

conducted a 2-year double blind randomised controlled trial comparing the effect of a dopamine agonist, cabergoline, with placebo on weight regain in obese individuals who had lost at least 5% of their body weight using an 800 kcal/day commercial meal replacement programme. The primary outcome measure was the difference in mean weight between the treatment and control groups over the 2-year period following randomisation.At 24 months, there was no difference in body weight between cabergoline (...) and placebo treatment after adjustment for age, gender and baseline values (0.6 kg (95% CI: -1.5, 2.6), p = 0.58). The mean (±SD) baseline body weight of the randomised participants was 101.8 kg, the mean (±SD) weight loss with the 800 kcal/day diet was 7.1 ± 1.8 kg and the mean (±SD) weight regain at 24 months was 5.1 ± 7.5 kg. There were no significant differences in BMI, percent weight loss, waist circumference, resting energy expenditure, blood pressure or metabolic parameters at 24 months between

2018 EvidenceUpdates

190. Social Incentives and Gamification to Promote Weight Loss: The LOSE IT Randomized, Controlled Trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

: - 4.8 lbs; 95% CI: - 7.4 to - 2.3; P < 0.001). At 36 weeks, weight loss from baseline remained significant in the control arm (mean: - 3.5 lbs; 95% CI: - 6.1 to - 0.8; P = 0.01), the gamification arm (mean: - 6.3 lbs; 95% CI: - 9.2 to - 3.3; P < 0.001), and the gamification arm with PCP data sharing (mean: - 5.2 lbs; 95% CI: - 8.5 to - 2.0; P < 0.01). However, in the main adjusted model, there were no significant differences in weight loss between each of the intervention arms and control at either (...) incentives. One of the gamification arms also had weight and step data shared regularly with each participant's primary care physician (PCP).The primary outcome was weight loss at 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes included weight loss at 36 weeks.At 24 weeks, participants lost significant weight from baseline in the control arm (mean: - 3.9 lbs; 95% CI: - 6.1 to - 1.7; P < 0.001), the gamification arm (mean: - 6.6 lbs; 95% CI: - 9.4 to - 3.9; P < 0.001), and the gamification arm with PCP data sharing (mean

2018 EvidenceUpdates

191. Effect of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy vs Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Weight Loss at 5 Years Among Patients With Morbid Obesity: The SLEEVEPASS Randomized Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

).The primary end point was weight loss evaluated by percentage excess weight loss. Prespecified equivalence margins for the clinical significance of weight loss differences between gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy were -9% to +9% excess weight loss. Secondary end points included resolution of comorbidities, improvement of quality of life (QOL), all adverse events (overall morbidity), and mortality.Among 240 patients randomized (mean age, 48 [SD, 9] years; mean baseline body mass index, 45.9, [SD, 6.0 (...) ]; 69.6% women), 80.4% completed the 5-year follow-up. At baseline, 42.1% had type 2 diabetes, 34.6% dyslipidemia, and 70.8% hypertension. The estimated mean percentage excess weight loss at 5 years was 49% (95% CI, 45%-52%) after sleeve gastrectomy and 57% (95% CI, 53%-61%) after gastric bypass (difference, 8.2 percentage units [95% CI, 3.2%-13.2%], higher in the gastric bypass group) and did not meet criteria for equivalence. Complete or partial remission of type 2 diabetes was seen in 37% (n = 15

2018 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

192. Effect of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy vs Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Weight Loss in Patients With Morbid Obesity: The SM-BOSS Randomized Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

= 107) or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 110).The primary end point was weight loss, expressed as percentage excess body mass index (BMI) loss. Exploratory end points were changes in comorbidities and adverse events.Among the 217 patients (mean age, 45.5 years; 72% women; mean BMI, 43.9) 205 (94.5%) completed the trial. Excess BMI loss was not significantly different at 5 years: for sleeve gastrectomy, 61.1%, vs Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 68.3% (absolute difference, -7.18%; 95% CI, -14.30 (...) Effect of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy vs Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Weight Loss in Patients With Morbid Obesity: The SM-BOSS Randomized Clinical Trial. Sleeve gastrectomy is increasingly used in the treatment of morbid obesity, but its long-term outcome vs the standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure is unknown.To determine whether there are differences between sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in terms of weight loss, changes in comorbidities, increase

2018 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

193. Effect of a Responsive Parenting Educational Intervention on Childhood Weight Outcomes at 3 Years of Age: The INSIGHT Randomized Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

percentile) at 3 years.Among 291 mother-child dyads randomized, 279 received the first home visit and were included in the primary analysis. 232 mother-child dyads (83.2%) completed the 3-year trial. Mean age of the mothers was 28.7 years; 86% were white and 86% were privately insured. At age 3 years, children in the responsive parenting group had a lower mean BMI z score (-0.13 in the responsive parenting group vs 0.15 in the control group; absolute difference, -0.28 [95% CI, -0.53 to -0.01]; P = .04 (...) ). Mean BMI percentiles did not differ significantly (47th in the responsive parenting group vs 54th in the control group; reduction in mean BMI percentiles of 6.9 percentile points [95% CI, -14.5 to 0.6]; P = .07). Of 116 children in the responsive parenting group, 13 (11.2%) were overweight vs 23 (19.8%) of 116 children in the control group (absolute difference, -8.6% [95% CI, -17.9% to 0.0%]; odds ratio [OR], 0.51 [95% CI, 0.25 to 1.06]; P = .07); 3 children (2.6%) in the responsive parenting group

2018 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

194. Greater Neonatal Fat-Free Mass and Similar Fat Mass Following a Randomized Trial to Control Excess Gestational Weight Gain Full Text available with Trip Pro

and activity behaviors or to usual obstetrical care (UC). Infant fat and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth were measured by using air displacement plethysmography (PEA POD) and by using quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR).At baseline, there were no between-group differences in maternal characteristics (mean [SD]): age: 33.8 (4.3) years, weight: 81.9 (13.7) kg, BMI: 30.4 (4.5), and gestational age at randomization: 14.9 (0.8) weeks. GWG was less in the LI group by 1.79 kg (P = 0.003) or 0.0501 kg/wk (P = 0.002 (...) Greater Neonatal Fat-Free Mass and Similar Fat Mass Following a Randomized Trial to Control Excess Gestational Weight Gain The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of controlling maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) in the second and third trimesters on neonate body composition.Two hundred ten healthy women with overweight (25 > BMI < 30) or obesity (BMI ≥ 30) were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention (LI) program focused on controlling GWG through nutrition

2018 EvidenceUpdates

195. Cost-Effectiveness of Supplemental Donor Milk Versus Formula for Very Low Birth Weight Infants Full Text available with Trip Pro

mother's milk was unavailable. Formal health care costs for initial hospitalization and readmissions were obtained from standardized cost-accounting systems and physician fees. Informal and nonhealth care sector costs (eg, caregiver transportation, labor market earnings) were calculated from parent reports.Mean infant birth weight was 996 (SD, 272) grams. Incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) differed between groups (all stages 3.9% DHM, 11.0% PTF; P = .01). Costs to 18 months did not differ (...) with a mean (95% confidence interval) of 217 624 (197 697-237 551) and 217 245 (196 494-237 995) 2015 Canadian dollars in the DHM and PTF groups. Postdischarge costs were lower in the DHM (46 440 [40 648-52 233]) than PTF group (55 102 [48 269-61 934]) (P = .04), driven by parent lost wages. DHM cost an additional $5328 per case of averted NEC.In a high mother's milk use setting, total costs from a societal perspective to 18 months of providing supplemental DHM versus PTF to VLBW infants did not differ

2018 EvidenceUpdates

196. Effect of Low-Fat vs Low-Carbohydrate Diet on 12-Month Weight Loss in Overweight Adults and the Association With Genotype Pattern or Insulin Secretion: The DIETFITS Randomized Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

μIU/mL), 481 (79%) completed the trial. In the HLF vs HLC diets, respectively, the mean 12-month macronutrient distributions were 48% vs 30% for carbohydrates, 29% vs 45% for fat, and 21% vs 23% for protein. Weight change at 12 months was -5.3 kg for the HLF diet vs -6.0 kg for the HLC diet (mean between-group difference, 0.7 kg [95% CI, -0.2 to 1.6 kg]). There was no significant diet-genotype pattern interaction (P = .20) or diet-insulin secretion (INS-30) interaction (P = .47) with 12-month (...) the lowest fat or carbohydrate intake that could be maintained long-term and emphasized diet quality.Primary outcome was 12-month weight change and determination of whether there were significant interactions among diet type and genotype pattern, diet and insulin secretion, and diet and weight loss.Among 609 participants randomized (mean age, 40 [SD, 7] years; 57% women; mean body mass index, 33 [SD, 3]; 244 [40%] had a low-fat genotype; 180 [30%] had a low-carbohydrate genotype; mean baseline INS-30, 93

2018 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

197. Anti-tumour effect of low molecular weight heparin in localised lung cancer: a phase III clinical trial (Abstract)

tinzaparin 100 IU·kg-1 once a day for 12 weeks or no treatment in addition to standard of care. The trial was open-label with blinded central adjudication of study outcomes. The primary outcome was overall survival.In 549 patients randomised to tinzaparin (n=269) or control (n=280), mean±sd age was 61.6±8.9 years, 190 (34.6%) patients had stage II-III disease, and 220 (40.1%) patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 5.7 years. There was no significant difference in overall survival (...) Anti-tumour effect of low molecular weight heparin in localised lung cancer: a phase III clinical trial The anti-tumour and anti-metastatic properties of heparins have not been tested in patients with early stage cancer. Whether adjuvant low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) tinzaparin impacts the survival of patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was investigated.Patients with completely resected stage I, II or IIIA NSCLC were randomly allocated to receive subcutaneous

2018 EvidenceUpdates

198. Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Bariatric Procedures for Weight Loss: A PCORnet Cohort Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

events were 5.0% for RYGB, 2.6% for SG, and 2.9% for AGB. One-year mean TWLs were 31.2% (95% CI, 31.1% to 31.3%) for RYGB, 25.2% (CI, 25.1% to 25.4%) for SG, and 13.7% (CI, 13.3% to 14.0%) for AGB. At 1 year, RYGB patients lost 5.9 (CI, 5.8 to 6.1) percentage points more weight than SG patients and 17.7 (CI, 17.3 to 18.1) percentage points more than AGB patients, and SG patients lost 12.0 (CI, 11.6 to 12.5) percentage points more than AGB patients. Five-year mean TWLs were 25.5% (CI, 25.1% to 25.9 (...) the highest 30-day rate of major adverse events. Small subgroup differences in weight loss outcomes were observed.Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute.

2018 Annals of Internal Medicine

199. Low-Calorie Vegetarian Versus Mediterranean Diets for Reducing Body Weight and Improving Cardiovascular Risk Profile: CARDIVEG Study (Cardiovascular Prevention With Vegetarian Diet) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mediterranean diet (MD), each lasting 3 months, with a crossover design. The primary outcome was the difference in body weight, body mass index, and fat mass changes between the 2 groups. Secondary outcomes were differences in circulating cardiovascular disease risk parameters changes between the 2 groups.One hundred eighteen subjects (mean age: 51.1 years, females: 78%) were enrolled. The total participation rate at the end of the study was 84.7%. No differences between the 2 diets in body weight were (...) for triglycerides (P<0.01), and 32.32 pg/mL for vitamin B12 (P<0.01). Finally, no significant difference was found between Vd and MD interventions in oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines, except for interleukin-17, which improved only in the MD group. Forty-six participants during the Vd period and 35 during the MD period reached the target values for ≥1 cardiovascular risk factor.Both Vd and MD were effective in reducing body weight, body mass index, and fat mass, with no significant differences

2018 EvidenceUpdates

200. Weight-based carbohydrate treatment of hypoglycaemia in people with Type 1 diabetes using insulin pump therapy: a randomized crossover clinical trial (Abstract)

, with a repeat dose if still <4 mmol/l.Of the 37 participants enrolled, 35 (aged 6-68 years) completed the study. Twenty-four participants completed all treatment episodes, while 10 participants had <10 hypoglycaemic episodes and two withdrew without data. The mean glucose difference between weight-based and usual treatment after 10 min was 0.33 mmol/l (95% CI 0.005 to 0.66; P=0.047) in adults and 0.45 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.72; P=0.001) in children. The odds ratios for resolution of hypoglycaemia at 10 min (...) Weight-based carbohydrate treatment of hypoglycaemia in people with Type 1 diabetes using insulin pump therapy: a randomized crossover clinical trial To test whether weight-based treatment is more effective than usual care in people with Type 1 diabetes receiving continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy with regard to both hypoglycaemia and avoiding excessive rebound hyperglycaemia.Children and adults on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion were enrolled into a study

2018 EvidenceUpdates

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