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Wechsler Intelligence Scale

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1701. Mental status of females with an FMR1 gene full mutation. (PubMed)

Mental status of females with an FMR1 gene full mutation. The cloning of the FMR1 gene enables molecular diagnosis in patients and in carriers (male and female) of this X-linked mental retardation disorder. Unlike most X-linked disorders, a considerable proportion of the female carriers of a full mutation of the FMR1 gene is affected. In this study, the intelligence quotients (IQs) were ascertained by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale in 33 adult females with a full mutation, with 28 first

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1996 American Journal of Human Genetics

1702. Intellectual functioning in adults with ADHD: a meta-analytic examination of full scale IQ differences between adults with and without ADHD. (PubMed)

with and without ADHD via a meta-analytic review. Of the 33 studies meeting inclusion criteria, primary analyses focused on 18 studies representing 1,031 adults with ADHD and 928 non-ADHD, nonclinical comparison adults and containing Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS; D. Wechsler, 1955, 1981, 1994) Full Scale IQ scores or estimates. A significant effect was found such that adults with ADHD scored lower than non-ADHD adults on WAIS intelligence tests. However, this difference was small and not clinically (...) Intellectual functioning in adults with ADHD: a meta-analytic examination of full scale IQ differences between adults with and without ADHD. Although attention has been given to the intellectual functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relative to their non-ADHD peers, few studies have examined intellectual functioning in adults with ADHD. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine differences in intellectual ability between adults

2006 Psychological assessment

1703. The influence of head growth in fetal life, infancy, and childhood on intelligence at the ages of 4 and 8 years. (PubMed)

with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence at the age of 4 years and with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at the age of 8 years. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate postnatal head growth between successive time points, conditional on previous size, and to examine the relationship between head growth during different periods of development and later IQ.When the influence of head growth was distinguished for different periods, only prenatal growth and growth during (...) The influence of head growth in fetal life, infancy, and childhood on intelligence at the ages of 4 and 8 years. We investigated the effects of head growth prenatally, during infancy, and during later periods of development on cognitive function at the ages of 4 and 8 years.We studied 633 term-born children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort whose head circumference was measured at birth and at regular intervals thereafter. Their cognitive function was assessed

2006 Pediatrics

1704. Association of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 with intelligence quotient among 8- to 9-year-old children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. (PubMed)

, members of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, with IGF-I and IGFBP-3 measurements (obtained at a mean age of 8.0 years) and IQ measured with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (at a mean age of 8.7 years). We also investigated associations with measures of speech and language based on the Wechsler Objective Reading Dimensions test (measured at an age of 7.5 years) and the Wechsler Objective Language Dimensions test (listening comprehension subtest only, measured at an age (...) levels measured at age 5 and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children scores (n = 407) were similar to those for IGF-I levels measured at age 7 to 8. For every 100 ng/mL increase in IGF-I levels at 5 years of age, IQ increased by 2.3 points (95% CI: -0.21 to 4.89 points).This study provides some preliminary evidence that IGF-I is associated with brain development in childhood. Additional longitudinal research is required to clarify the role of IGF-I in neurodevelopment. Because IGF-I levels

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2005 Pediatrics

1705. Intelligence and brain size in 100 postmortem brains: sex, lateralization and age factors. (PubMed)

. The study of intelligence in relation to postmortem cerebral volume is not available to date. We report the results of such a study on 100 cases (58 women and 42 men) having prospectively obtained Full Scale Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores. Ability correlated with cerebral volume, but the relationship depended on the realm of intelligence studied, as well as the sex and hemispheric functional lateralization of the subject. General verbal ability was positively correlated with cerebral volume (...) Intelligence and brain size in 100 postmortem brains: sex, lateralization and age factors. The neural basis of variation in human intelligence is not well delineated. Numerous studies relating measures of brain size such as brain weight, head circumference, CT or MRI brain volume to different intelligence test measures, with variously defined samples of subjects have yielded inconsistent findings with correlations from approximately 0 to 0.6, with most correlations approximately 0.3 or 0.4

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2006 Brain

1706. The correlation between striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability and verbal intelligence quotient in healthy volunteers. (PubMed)

availability of 64 healthy subjects was determined with the [123I]iodobenzamide ([123I]IBZM) ligand. Intelligence quotients (IQs) of the subjects were measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS-R).In addition to age, left striatal D2/D3 receptor availability correlated positively with VIQ. In females, left striatal D2/D3 receptor availability was the only variable that correlated significantly with the similarities subtest of VIQ.There is a relationship between left striatal D2/D3 (...) The correlation between striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability and verbal intelligence quotient in healthy volunteers. Although a correlation between the central dopaminergic system and intelligence may exist, the results from imaging studies remain inconclusive. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability and verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).Striatal D2/D3 receptor

2006 Psychological Medicine

1707. Decline in intelligence is associated with progression in white matter hyperintensity volume. (PubMed)

Decline in intelligence is associated with progression in white matter hyperintensity volume. To quantify the time course of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and assess the association between progression and cognitive decline in non-demented octogenarians.From a Danish cohort of 698 people born in 1914, 26 participated in neuropsychological assessment (Wechsler adult intelligence scale) initiated at age 50, including cognitive testing and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging at the 80 and 85

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2005 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

1708. Normal intelligence in children with prenatal exposure to carbamazepine. (PubMed)

Normal intelligence in children with prenatal exposure to carbamazepine. To investigate the effect of antiepileptic drugs, especially carbamazepine and valproate, on intelligence in prenatally exposed children of mothers with epilepsy.Intelligence of 182 children of mothers with epilepsy (study group) and 141 control children was tested in a blinded setting at preschool or school age using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (...) to valproate (mean, 82; 95% CI, 78-87) and to polytherapy (mean, 85; 95% CI, 80-90) compared with the other study group children and control subjects.Carbamazepine monotherapy with maternal serum levels within the reference range does not impair intelligence in prenatally exposed offspring. Exposures to polytherapy and to valproate during pregnancy were associated with significantly reduced verbal intelligence. The independent effects of valproate remain unconfirmed because the results were confounded

2004 Neurology

1709. The relation of infantile spasms, tubers, and intelligence in tuberous sclerosis complex. (PubMed)

recruited who were able to undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without the need for an anaesthetic. Epilepsy history was determined by interview and review of clinical records. IQ was assessed using either Wechsler intelligence scales or Raven's matrices.A total of 41 patients consented to have an MRI scan. IQ scores were normally distributed about a mean of 91. Twenty six patients had a positive history of epilepsy, and 11 had suffered from infantile spasms. There was a significant relation (...) The relation of infantile spasms, tubers, and intelligence in tuberous sclerosis complex. The aetiology of the learning difficulty in tuberous sclerosis is debated. It may be related to the amount of tubers in the brain or caused by the infantile spasms that occur in early life.To examine the relative contributions to final intelligence (IQ) made by both cerebral tubers and infantile spasms.As part of an epidemiological study of tuberous sclerosis in the south of England, patients were

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2004 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1710. Rising verbal intelligence scores: implications for research and clinical practice. (PubMed)

Rising verbal intelligence scores: implications for research and clinical practice. Evidence suggests that scores on various intelligence tests have been rising at a fast rate. To find out whether performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Vocabulary subtest has also been rising, the authors searched major psychology journals for investigations involving healthy younger and older adult participants and collected the reported WAIS Vocabulary scores. The meta-analysis shows

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2003 Psychology and aging

1711. Intelligence and psychosocial functioning during long-term growth hormone therapy in children born small for gestational age. (PubMed)

= 74), after 2 yr of GH treatment (n = 76), and in 2001 (n = 53). IQ was assessed by a short-form Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Block-design and Vocabulary subtests). Behavioral problems were measured by the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Young Adult Behavior Checklist, and self-perception was measured by the Harter Self-Perception Profile. Mean (sem) birth length sd score was -3.6 (0.2), mean age and height at start was 7.4 (0.2) yr (...) Intelligence and psychosocial functioning during long-term growth hormone therapy in children born small for gestational age. Short stature is not the only problem faced by small for gestational age (SGA) children. Being born SGA has also been associated with lowered intelligence, poor academic performance, low social competence, and behavioral problems. Although GH treatment in short children born SGA can result in a normalization of height during childhood, the effect of GH treatment

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2004 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1712. The association between duration of breastfeeding and adult intelligence. (PubMed)

cohort study conducted in a sample of 973 men and women and a sample of 2280 men, all of whom were born in Copenhagen, Denmark, between October 1959 and December 1961. The samples were divided into 5 categories based on duration of breastfeeding, as assessed by physician interview with mothers at a 1-year examination.Intelligence, assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) at a mean age of 27.2 years in the mixed-sex sample and the Børge Priens Prøve (BPP) test at a mean age of 18.7 (...) The association between duration of breastfeeding and adult intelligence. A number of studies suggest a positive association between breastfeeding and cognitive development in early and middle childhood. However, the only previous study that investigated the relationship between breastfeeding and intelligence in adults had several methodological shortcomings.To determine the association between duration of infant breastfeeding and intelligence in young adulthood.Prospective longitudinal birth

2002 JAMA

1713. Vitamin-mineral intake and intelligence: a macrolevel analysis of randomized controlled trials. (PubMed)

, Scotland, and Wales participated, with 1477 school children, aged 6 to 17 years, and 276 young adult males, aged 18 to 25 years, in 2 American correctional facilities.All studies used 1 of 3 standardized tests of nonverbal intelligence: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, or the Calvert Non-verbal test.The activities in each study performed better, on average, than placebo in nonverbal IQ, regardless of formula, location, age, race, gender (...) Vitamin-mineral intake and intelligence: a macrolevel analysis of randomized controlled trials. Two independent groups suspected that poor diets in school children might impair intelligence. Because dietary changes produce psychological effects, both groups conducted randomized trials in which children were challenged with placebo or vitamin-mineral tablets. Both reported significantly greater gains in intelligence among the actives. The findings were important because of the apparent

1999 Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine

1714. A cohort study of behavioral problems and intelligence in children with high prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. (PubMed)

to have ectodermal defects, developmental delay, and disordered behavior. We have continued to observe the children.From 1992 through 1995, 118 children born between 1978 and 1985 (during or after their mothers' exposure) and 118 matched neighborhood control children had cognitive function measured yearly with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and behavioral problems measured with the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and the Rutter Child Behavior Scale A.The exposed children (...) A cohort study of behavioral problems and intelligence in children with high prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. In 1978, about 2000 persons in Taiwan were poisoned when their cooking oil was contaminated during manufacture with heat-degraded polychlorinated biphenyls, which are toxic, very widespread pollutant chemicals. The chemicals cannot be metabolized or excreted, and 8 of the first 39 children born to affected women died. When examined in 1985, 117 surviving children were found

2002 Archives of General Psychiatry

1715. Correlates of intelligence test results in treated phenylketonuric children. (PubMed)

, the most important predictors of IQ for 6-year-old children were: (1) mothers' intellectual ability (as measured on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale); (2) age at which the subjects were first treated; and (3) how well the subjects adhered to the phenylalanine-restricted diet. It was concluded that optimal early treatment will result in normal levels of intelligence at 6 years of age. (...) the prescribed ranges, a steady increase over time resulted in mean six year levels of 11.4 mg/100 ml and 13.0 mg/100 ml for the two groups, respectively. Because it was not possible to maintain the prescribed differences in blood phenylalanine levels between the two groups, they were combined for further analyses. The mean IQ of the total sample at age 6 years was 98 on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Multiple regression analysis showed that, among selected treatment and psychosocial factors

1981 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1716. The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on the intelligence of American schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. (PubMed)

intelligence.Two "working class," primarily Hispanic, elementary schools in Phoenix, Arizona, participated in the study. Slightly more than half the teachers in each school distributed the tablets daily to 245 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years.Daily vitamin-mineral supplementation at 50% of the U.S. daily recommended allowance (RDA) for 3 months versus placebo.Post-test nonverbal IQ, as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), while controlling for pretest nonverbal IQ (...) The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on the intelligence of American schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Many medical, nutrition, and education professionals have long suspected that poor diet impairs the academic performance of Western schoolchildren; academic performance often improves after improved diet. However, others have suggested that such academic gains may be due to psychologic effects rather than nutrition. To resolve this issue, two

2000 Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1717. [Influence of intelligence level of the type I diabetic patients handling hi-tech glycemia monitoring system on the effectiveness of intensive insulin treatment]. (PubMed)

-groups. Eight patients used the transmission system and the remaining 9 patients were treated classically. Patient's intelligence level was assessed according Wechsler scale. Analysis of variance indicated that intelligence level did not influence significantly on average result of the treatment (p > 0.05) in whole study group and in both subgroups. Generally, in patients with lower (93 +/- 2.0) and higher (114.1 +/- 1.2) intelligence level glycemic control indices were found to be similar and did (...) [Influence of intelligence level of the type I diabetic patients handling hi-tech glycemia monitoring system on the effectiveness of intensive insulin treatment]. An intensive care system designed and developed in IBBE PAS allows for electronic storage and automatic transmission of BG values and other parameters directly from a patient's BG meter and electronic logbook (Glucometer M+ Bayer) to central clinical computer by telematic connection. Despite effort made to keep the system as simple

2000 Ginekologia polska

1718. Intelligence indices in people with a high/low risk for developing Huntington's disease. (PubMed)

Intelligence indices in people with a high/low risk for developing Huntington's disease. Intelligence in 20 presymptomatic subjects with an increased risk (> 95%) for carrying the gene for Huntington's disease (HD) was studied in a prospective, case-control, single blind study. No significant differences between the groups were detected for intelligence indices and subtest scores (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale). The high level of the performance IQ and the significant discrepancy between

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1997 Journal of Medical Genetics

1719. Biochemical markers of intelligence: a proton MR spectroscopy study of normal human brain. (PubMed)

the concentrations of NAA and Cho in the left occipitoparietal white matter of 26 healthy adults and compared them with intellectual performance assessed by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3. We found that NAA (b = 0.6, p < 0.01) and Cho (b = -0.42, p < 0.01) were independently associated with the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient. Together, these metabolites accounted for a large proportion of the variance in intelligence (r2 = 0.45). Possible mechanisms underlying these correlations, such as mitochondrial (...) Biochemical markers of intelligence: a proton MR spectroscopy study of normal human brain. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) offers a unique non-invasive approach to measurement of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline (Cho), putative markers of neuronal and glial integrity. Previous studies revealed that these neurochemicals predict cognitive impairment in diseased subjects, although little is known about their relationship to cognitive functioning in healthy people. We measured

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1999 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

1720. Neurofibromatosis type 1 in childhood: correlation of MRI findings with intelligence. (PubMed)

Neurofibromatosis type 1 in childhood: correlation of MRI findings with intelligence. In a group of 28 children with neurofibromatosis type 1 aged between 4 and 16 years, neuroradiological findings were correlated with intelligence as measured by the Wechsler scales. The presence or specific location in the brain of T2 weighted prolonged signals on MRI was not associated with cognitive problems. No other physical characteristics associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 were found to correlate

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1995 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

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