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Wechsler Intelligence Scale

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1681. Impact of cyanotic heart disease on school performance. (PubMed)

; the difference in group mean score (adjusted for differences in maternal education, sex, and parental occupational prestige) for reading was 10.3 points (confidence interval (CI) 1.25 to 19.34), for spelling 7.8 (CI 1.11 to 14.52), and for arithmetic 6.8 (CI 0.19 to 13.39). The differences in adjusted group means for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised full scale, performance and verbal IQs were significant, particularly the later at 10.1 points (CI 2.59 to 17.61). Teacher reports indicated

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1994 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1682. Intellectual function and age of repair in cyanotic congenital heart disease. (PubMed)

Intellectual function and age of repair in cyanotic congenital heart disease. Eighty one children, comprising 51 with tetralogy of Fallot and 30 children with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) were assessed using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children--revised, and a battery of neuropsychological measures. They were compared with a group of 33 children who had surgery for ventricular septal defect. All children were aged over 10 years when reviewed and were in good health

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1995 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1683. Fragile-X: neuropsychological test performance, CGG triplet repeat lengths, and hippocampal volumes. (PubMed)

Fragile-X: neuropsychological test performance, CGG triplet repeat lengths, and hippocampal volumes. We compared cognitive performance and hippocampal volumes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in adult fragile-X [fra(X)] males and females with either premutation (pM) or full mutation (fM) (n = 10 in all groups). Cognitive performance of fM males in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised was worse than that of pM males, and the deficits in fM females were qualitatively similar

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1997 Journal of Clinical Investigation

1684. Differential effects of preterm birth and small gestational age on cognitive and motor development (PubMed)

Differential effects of preterm birth and small gestational age on cognitive and motor development To determine the differential effects of preterm birth and being small for gestational age on the cognitive and motor ability of the child.A longitudinal cohort of all infants of gestational age < or = 32 weeks born to mothers resident in the counties of Cheshire and Merseyside in 1980-1 was studied. The children were assessed at the age of 8 to 9 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale

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1997 Archives of disease in childhood Fetal and neonatal edition

1685. Mental status of females with an FMR1 gene full mutation. (PubMed)

Mental status of females with an FMR1 gene full mutation. The cloning of the FMR1 gene enables molecular diagnosis in patients and in carriers (male and female) of this X-linked mental retardation disorder. Unlike most X-linked disorders, a considerable proportion of the female carriers of a full mutation of the FMR1 gene is affected. In this study, the intelligence quotients (IQs) were ascertained by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale in 33 adult females with a full mutation, with 28 first

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1996 American Journal of Human Genetics

1686. Working Memory Spans as Predictors of Spoken Word Recognition and Receptive Vocabulary in Children with Cochlear Implants (PubMed)

of working memory were examined separately for children using oral communication (OC) (n = 32) and Total Communication (TC) (n = 29). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC) digit-spans, requiring immediate recall of auditory-only lists in both forwards and backwards directions were, collected. Two versions of a novel "memory span game" were also administered: One required memory for sequences of colored lights; the other assessed memory for colored lights presented in conjunction

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2000 The Volta review

1687. The relationship of genotype to cognitive outcome in galactosaemia (PubMed)

The relationship of genotype to cognitive outcome in galactosaemia To evaluate the cognitive outcome of a cohort of children with galactosaemia in relation to genotype.The cohort was drawn from children notified to the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit galactosaemia study which ran from 1988 to 1990. Cognitive outcome was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children or the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Parents completed a questionnaire detailing (...) educational status, and the attending paediatrician returned a questionnaire regarding age at diagnosis and biochemical outcome over the previous two years.A total of 45 children were genotyped: 30 were homoallelic for the Q188R mutation, the remainder being heteroallelic for Q188R with K285N (n = 4), L195P (n = 4), or other mutations (n = 7). Psychometric evaluation was available in 34 cases: mean full scale IQ was 79, verbal quotient 79, and performance quotient 82. Genotype was not related to galactose

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2000 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1688. Breast feeding and cognitive development at age 1 and 5 years (PubMed)

Development at age 13 months (Mental Index, MDI; Psychomotor Index, PDI), Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence (WPPSI-R), and Peabody Developmental Scales at age 5.Children breast fed for less than 3 months had an increased risk, compared to children breast fed for at least 6 months, of a test score below the median value of MDI at 13 months and of WPPSI-R at 5 years. Maternal age, maternal intelligence (Raven score), maternal education, and smoking in pregnancy were significant (...) Breast feeding and cognitive development at age 1 and 5 years To examine whether duration of breast feeding has any effect on a child's cognitive or motor development in a population with favourable environmental conditions and a high prevalence of breast feeding.In 345 Scandinavian children, data on breast feeding were prospectively recorded during the first year of life, and neuromotor development was assessed at 1 and 5 years of age. Main outcome measures were Bayley's Scales of Infant

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2001 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1689. Klinefelter's syndrome in adolescence. (PubMed)

circumference in the XXY boys. Gynaecomastia was present in 4 boys, and testicular volume was reduced in the majority but one boy had normal sized testes. On the Wechsler intelligence scale there was a significant reduction in verbal score but not in either performance or full-scale score compared with the controls. Although appreciable differences were found in growth, personality, intelligence test scores, and psychosexual development, these were of small degree.

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1982 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1690. Alcoholic Korsakoff's Psychosis: A Psychometric, Neuroradiological and Neurophysiological Investigation of Nine Cases (PubMed)

but the comprehension, vocabulary and digit span subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. A significant negative correlation was found between scores on the Digit Symbol Subtest and the degree of temporal lobe atrophy (p < 0.01), and between Evans' Ratio and the Paired Associate Learning Test of the Wechsler Memory Scale (p < 0.05). The P3 auditory evoked potential correlated significantly with a poor performance on the Digit Symbol Subtest. In all cases, cortical atrophy co-existed with ventricular

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1984 The Ulster medical journal

1691. Impaired motor function (clumsiness) in 5 year old children: correlation with neonatal ultrasound scans. (PubMed)

Impaired motor function (clumsiness) in 5 year old children: correlation with neonatal ultrasound scans. All 155 surviving children from a cohort of 200 very low birthweight infants originally studied in 1984-5 were traced. These infants had careful sequential ultrasound examinations in the neonatal period. The children were examined again at entry into school at 5 years of age. The test of motor impairment (TOMI) and the vocabulary subscale of the Wechsler preschool and primary scale (...) of intelligence (WPPSI) were administered to 152 of the index cohort and 144 control children of the same age in the same class at school. Twelve of the cohort had cerebral palsy, but eight of these were in mainstream schools. The index group scored significantly higher on both the TOMI and the WPPSI subscale compared with the controls. The index cases were subdivided on the basis of their neonatal ultrasound scans into four groups: group 1, consistently normal; group 2, 'prolonged flare'; group 3, germinal

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1992 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1692. Sequelae of haemolytic uraemic syndrome. (PubMed)

was significant at the 0.01 level. Significance values between 0.10 and 0.01 were obtained for the Wechsler full scale and verbal intelligence quotient scores and for several of the achievement measures and behaviour ratings. These results were conservatively interpreted as trends and are considered to provide preliminary indications of a post-HUS deficit in behaviour, verbal intelligence, and the verbally based skills of reading comprehension and vocabulary. The findings provide interim guidelines for follow

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1992 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1693. Intellectual functioning in adults with ADHD: a meta-analytic examination of full scale IQ differences between adults with and without ADHD. (PubMed)

with and without ADHD via a meta-analytic review. Of the 33 studies meeting inclusion criteria, primary analyses focused on 18 studies representing 1,031 adults with ADHD and 928 non-ADHD, nonclinical comparison adults and containing Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS; D. Wechsler, 1955, 1981, 1994) Full Scale IQ scores or estimates. A significant effect was found such that adults with ADHD scored lower than non-ADHD adults on WAIS intelligence tests. However, this difference was small and not clinically (...) Intellectual functioning in adults with ADHD: a meta-analytic examination of full scale IQ differences between adults with and without ADHD. Although attention has been given to the intellectual functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relative to their non-ADHD peers, few studies have examined intellectual functioning in adults with ADHD. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine differences in intellectual ability between adults

2006 Psychological assessment

1694. Intelligence and psychosocial functioning during long-term growth hormone therapy in children born small for gestational age. (PubMed)

= 74), after 2 yr of GH treatment (n = 76), and in 2001 (n = 53). IQ was assessed by a short-form Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Block-design and Vocabulary subtests). Behavioral problems were measured by the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Young Adult Behavior Checklist, and self-perception was measured by the Harter Self-Perception Profile. Mean (sem) birth length sd score was -3.6 (0.2), mean age and height at start was 7.4 (0.2) yr (...) Intelligence and psychosocial functioning during long-term growth hormone therapy in children born small for gestational age. Short stature is not the only problem faced by small for gestational age (SGA) children. Being born SGA has also been associated with lowered intelligence, poor academic performance, low social competence, and behavioral problems. Although GH treatment in short children born SGA can result in a normalization of height during childhood, the effect of GH treatment

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2004 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism

1695. The influence of head growth in fetal life, infancy, and childhood on intelligence at the ages of 4 and 8 years. (PubMed)

with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence at the age of 4 years and with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at the age of 8 years. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate postnatal head growth between successive time points, conditional on previous size, and to examine the relationship between head growth during different periods of development and later IQ.When the influence of head growth was distinguished for different periods, only prenatal growth and growth during (...) The influence of head growth in fetal life, infancy, and childhood on intelligence at the ages of 4 and 8 years. We investigated the effects of head growth prenatally, during infancy, and during later periods of development on cognitive function at the ages of 4 and 8 years.We studied 633 term-born children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort whose head circumference was measured at birth and at regular intervals thereafter. Their cognitive function was assessed

2006 Pediatrics

1696. Association of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 with intelligence quotient among 8- to 9-year-old children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. (PubMed)

, members of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, with IGF-I and IGFBP-3 measurements (obtained at a mean age of 8.0 years) and IQ measured with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (at a mean age of 8.7 years). We also investigated associations with measures of speech and language based on the Wechsler Objective Reading Dimensions test (measured at an age of 7.5 years) and the Wechsler Objective Language Dimensions test (listening comprehension subtest only, measured at an age (...) levels measured at age 5 and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children scores (n = 407) were similar to those for IGF-I levels measured at age 7 to 8. For every 100 ng/mL increase in IGF-I levels at 5 years of age, IQ increased by 2.3 points (95% CI: -0.21 to 4.89 points).This study provides some preliminary evidence that IGF-I is associated with brain development in childhood. Additional longitudinal research is required to clarify the role of IGF-I in neurodevelopment. Because IGF-I levels

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2005 Pediatrics

1697. Intelligence and brain size in 100 postmortem brains: sex, lateralization and age factors. (PubMed)

. The study of intelligence in relation to postmortem cerebral volume is not available to date. We report the results of such a study on 100 cases (58 women and 42 men) having prospectively obtained Full Scale Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores. Ability correlated with cerebral volume, but the relationship depended on the realm of intelligence studied, as well as the sex and hemispheric functional lateralization of the subject. General verbal ability was positively correlated with cerebral volume (...) Intelligence and brain size in 100 postmortem brains: sex, lateralization and age factors. The neural basis of variation in human intelligence is not well delineated. Numerous studies relating measures of brain size such as brain weight, head circumference, CT or MRI brain volume to different intelligence test measures, with variously defined samples of subjects have yielded inconsistent findings with correlations from approximately 0 to 0.6, with most correlations approximately 0.3 or 0.4

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2006 Brain

1698. The correlation between striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability and verbal intelligence quotient in healthy volunteers. (PubMed)

availability of 64 healthy subjects was determined with the [123I]iodobenzamide ([123I]IBZM) ligand. Intelligence quotients (IQs) of the subjects were measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS-R).In addition to age, left striatal D2/D3 receptor availability correlated positively with VIQ. In females, left striatal D2/D3 receptor availability was the only variable that correlated significantly with the similarities subtest of VIQ.There is a relationship between left striatal D2/D3 (...) The correlation between striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability and verbal intelligence quotient in healthy volunteers. Although a correlation between the central dopaminergic system and intelligence may exist, the results from imaging studies remain inconclusive. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability and verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).Striatal D2/D3 receptor

2006 Psychological Medicine

1699. Decline in intelligence is associated with progression in white matter hyperintensity volume. (PubMed)

Decline in intelligence is associated with progression in white matter hyperintensity volume. To quantify the time course of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and assess the association between progression and cognitive decline in non-demented octogenarians.From a Danish cohort of 698 people born in 1914, 26 participated in neuropsychological assessment (Wechsler adult intelligence scale) initiated at age 50, including cognitive testing and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging at the 80 and 85

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2005 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

1700. Normal intelligence in children with prenatal exposure to carbamazepine. (PubMed)

Normal intelligence in children with prenatal exposure to carbamazepine. To investigate the effect of antiepileptic drugs, especially carbamazepine and valproate, on intelligence in prenatally exposed children of mothers with epilepsy.Intelligence of 182 children of mothers with epilepsy (study group) and 141 control children was tested in a blinded setting at preschool or school age using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (...) to valproate (mean, 82; 95% CI, 78-87) and to polytherapy (mean, 85; 95% CI, 80-90) compared with the other study group children and control subjects.Carbamazepine monotherapy with maternal serum levels within the reference range does not impair intelligence in prenatally exposed offspring. Exposures to polytherapy and to valproate during pregnancy were associated with significantly reduced verbal intelligence. The independent effects of valproate remain unconfirmed because the results were confounded

2004 Neurology

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