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Wechsler Intelligence Scale

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1661. Efficacy of lactulose in cirrhotic patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. (Abstract)

Efficacy of lactulose in cirrhotic patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. To investigate the role of lactulose in the treatment of cirrhotic patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy (SHE), 40 cirrhotic patients, 33 males and 7 females, were included in the study. The diagnosis of SHE was made by quantitative psychometric tests including the number connection test (NCT), figure connection test (FCT) parts A and B, and two performance subtests of Wechsler adult intelligence (...) scale, ie, picture completion (PC) and block design (BD) tests. SHE was diagnosed in 26 (65%) of 40 patients. Of these 26 patients, 14 patients were randomized to treatment group (lactulose 30-60 ml/day for three months, SHE-L) and 12 patients to no treatment group (no lactulose, SHE-NL). Psychometric tests were repeated in all patients in both groups and in six patients with no SHE (group NSHE, N = 14) after three months. The mean scores and number of the abnormal psychometric tests at entry were

2000 Digestive diseases and sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1662. Efficacy of modafinil compared to dextroamphetamine for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. (Abstract)

, and dextroamphetamine for the treatment of ADHD. The twice-daily study medications were titrated to doses of optimum efficacy over 4-7 days and then held constant during the rest of each 2-week treatment phase. Measures of improvement included the DSM-IV ADHD Behavior Checklist for Adults, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT, using the letters C, F, and L version), Stroop, and Digit Span (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale version). For the 21 (96%) completers, the mean (+/- SD) optimum doses

2000 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1663. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on memory subtypes: a controlled study. (Abstract)

-subject repeated measures design was used. There were five rTMS conditions: baseline without stimulation, high frequency (HF) rTMS over right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and over right cerebellum, and low frequency (LF) parameters over left DLPFC. Digits forwards and backwards and letter-number sequencing of the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS) were used to assess immediate and working verbal memory, and logical memory of the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test was used

2003 Neuropsychologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1664. Psychological test performance during experimental challenge to toluene and n-butyl acetate in cases of solvent-induced toxic encephalopathy. (Abstract)

) at 48 ppm (at 180 or 228 mg/m3).For both substances the TE groups showed a slight increase (deterioration) in the simple reaction-time task during chemical exposure, but not in the complex reaction-time task or in the digit symbol test of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Contrary to reference subjects, the TE subjects did not show any improvement or learning effect in the digit symbol test over the chamber phases. n-Butyl acetate tended to affect cognitive functioning more obviously than

2000 Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1665. Outcome of children in the indomethacin intraventricular hemorrhage prevention trial. (Abstract)

with an increase in the incidence of neurodevelopmental handicap at 4.5 years of age in our study children.To test this hypothesis, we provided neurodevelopmental follow-up for the 384 very low birth weight survivors of the Multicenter Randomized Indomethacin IVH Prevention Trial. Three hundred thirty-seven children (88%) were evaluated at 54 months' corrected age, and underwent neurodevelopmental examinations, including the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R), the Peabody (...) for the children who received indomethacin than for those who received placebo. In addition, although there were no differences in the WPPSI-R or the PPVT-R scores between the 2 groups, analysis of the WPPSI-R full-scale IQ by function range demonstrated significantly less mental retardation among those children randomized to early low-dose indomethacin (for the indomethacin study children, 9% had an IQ <70, 12% had an IQ of 70-80, and 79% had an IQ >80, compared with the placebo group, for whom 17% had an IQ

2000 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1666. The effect of Ginkgo biloba on memory in healthy male volunteers. (Abstract)

, all subjects were given the Sternberg Memory Scanning Test [Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 27 (1975) 1.], a reaction time control test, the vocabulary and digit span subtests of the WAIS-R [Wechsler D. Manual for the Wechsler adult intelligence scale - revised. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1981.], a reading span test [J. Verbal Learn. Verbal Behav. 19 (1980) 450.] and a prose recall test [Discourse Proc. 13 (1990) 387.]. Blood pressure, heart rate and side effects were also monitored throughout

2001 Physiology & behavior Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1667. Neuropsychological effects of one-week continuous positive airway pressure treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a placebo-controlled study. (Abstract)

treatment to CPAP or placebo (CPAP at 2 cm H2O with holes in mask). Participants completed Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Digit Symbol and Digit Span, Trailmaking A/B, Digit Vigilance, Stroop Color-Word, Digit Ordering, and Word Fluency tests pre- and posttreatment. These produced 22 scores per participant, which were analyzed by use of repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a rank-sum test.In ANOVA, only 1 of the 22 scores showed significant changes specific to CPAP treatment

2001 Psychosomatic Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1668. Neurobehavioral function and tibial and chelatable lead levels in 543 former organolead workers. (Abstract)

predictor of performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised vocabulary subtest (p = 0.02), serial digit learning test (p = 0.04), Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (immediate recall and recognition, p = 0.03 for each), Trail Making Test B (p = 0.03), finger tapping (dominant hand [p = 0.02] and nondominant hand [p < 0.01]), Purdue pegboard (dominant hand, nondominant hand, both hands, and assembly, p < 0.01 for each), and Stroop Test (p < 0.01). Moreover, with one exception, average (...) neurobehavioral test scores were poorer at higher peak tibial lead levels. DMSA-chelatable lead was only significantly associated with choice reaction time (p = 0.01).Peak tibial lead was consistently associated with poorer neurobehavioral test scores, particularly in the domains of manual dexterity, executive ability, verbal intelligence, and verbal memory.

1999 Neurology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1669. Effects of mothers' autoimmune disease during pregnancy on learning disabilities and hand preference in their children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

study with subjects matched by age and sex.We studied 58 children whose mothers had SLE during pregnancy and 58 children of healthy mothers. Measures Data collected included maternal disease variables in women with SLE during their pregnancies. All children took a standardized intelligence test (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III) and completed a modified version of the Edinburgh Hand Preference Questionnaire. They also took standardized tests of reading, arithmetic, and writing (...) achievement. Learning disability was defined as having an academic achievement score of at least 1.5 SDs below the Full-Scale IQ.Sons of women with SLE were significantly more likely to have LD than daughters of women with SLE or children of either sex in the control group. Maternal SLE was not associated with non-right-handedness in sons or daughters. The presence of anti-Ro/La antibodies and disease activity (flare) in mothers during pregnancy were significantly related to higher prevalence of LD

2003 Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine

1670. Apolipoprotein-e influences aspects of intellectual ability in type 1 diabetes. (Abstract)

was assessed by neuropsychological testing. Cognitive abilities were compared using multivariate general linear modeling (multiple analysis of covariance, MANCOVA) in those with (n = 21) and without (n = 75) the APOE epsilon4 allele. APOE epsilon4 selectively influenced cognitive ability in a sex-specific manner (F = 2.3, P = 0.044, Eta(2) = 0.15); women with APOE epsilon4 performed less well on tests of current, nonverbal intellectual ability (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised performance test

2003 Diabetes

1671. 31P-spectroscopy of frontal lobe in schizophrenia: alterations in phospholipid and high-energy phosphate metabolism. (Abstract)

-MRS. Psychopathological evaluation was done with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Negative Symptoms Rating Scale (NSRS). Neuropsychological evaluation was performed with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Test and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Drug-nai;ve patients showed reduced PDE in the left frontal lobe compared to controls and to previously medicated patients (p<0.05). No differences among the three groups were found regarding the other spectroscopy

2002 Schizophrenia Research

1672. Episodic memory in schizophrenic patients and their relatives. (Abstract)

retention were investigated using the Logical Memory and Visual Reproduction tests of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). A third subtest of the WMS, the Associate Learning and a visual analogue of it, the Abstract Paired Associates, were used to measure verbal and visual learning. Current general intellectual function was assessed using a five-subtest short-form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale-Revised (WAIS-R).Schizophrenic patients performed significantly worse than controls on nearly all

2003 Schizophrenia Research

1673. The Maudsley Bipolar Disorder Project: the effect of medication, family history, and duration of illness on IQ and memory in bipolar I disorder. (Abstract)

of illness, and age at onset was collected, in addition to demographic data. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the National Adult Reading Test, and the Wechsler Memory Test III.Forty-three patients with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder were enrolled into the Maudsley Bipolar Disorder Project. Patients on treatment with antipsychotic drugs had a lower current full scale IQ, lower general memory scores, and lower working memory scores. A family history (...) of affective disorders was associated with a higher full scale IQ, but not with either general or working memory measures. Duration of illness was negatively associated with general memory scores, but had no effect on either IQ or working memory measures.Current antipsychotic medication, duration of illness, and family history of affective disorder were the most significant predictors of IQ and memory function in bipolar I disorder patients.

2003 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

1674. A prospective study of childhood neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenic patients and their siblings. (Abstract)

A prospective study of childhood neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenic patients and their siblings. This study evaluated childhood cognitive functioning in individuals who later developed schizophrenia and in their unaffected siblings.Through the National Collaborative Perinatal Project, seven subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children were administered at age 7 to 32 individuals who developed schizophrenia in adulthood, 25 of their nonschizophrenic siblings, and 201

2003 American Journal of Psychiatry

1675. Neurocognitive, behavioural and neurodevelopmental correlates of schizotypy clusters in adolescents from the general population. (Abstract)

schizotypy', and 'normal scorers'. Comparisons with ANOVAs showed that 'high schizotypes' performed poorly on neurocognition (Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and Verbal Fluency (FAS)) and obtained the highest teacher ratings (TRF) of behavioural problems. 'Negative schizotypes' had the worst WCST results and more dermatoglyphic abnormalities. Both clusters had more neurological soft signs than 'normal scorers' and 'positive schizotypes'.Our results with community adolescents (...) on schizotypy dimensions and compare them on neurocognitive, behavioural, and neurodevelopmental markers.Two hundred seventy normal adolescents from the general population (mean age 13.4, SD=0.72) attending obligatory education were evaluated.A K-means iterative cluster analysis was performed with the Perceptual Aberration, Revised Social Anhedonia and Physical Anhedonia Scales. A forced four-cluster model yielded the following clusters: 'negative schizotypy', 'high or mixed schizotypy', 'positive

2003 Schizophrenia Research

1676. Olfaction and social drive in schizophrenia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

examined whether SIDs in schizophrenia were related broadly to negative symptoms, as are a number of other neuropsychological measures, or whether they might show a more specific relationship with social drive.Smell Identification Test scores, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised IQ, symptomatology assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the deficit syndrome were determined in 70 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia.The SIDs were related to negative symptoms and the deficit (...) syndrome, but the association of SIDs with diminished social drive explained both relationships. Smell identification was also related to Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised IQ, but intelligence was independent of the relationship of SID and social drive. The worse Smell Identification Test scores in male patients were attributable to a greater preponderance of men with the deficit syndrome.These analyses demonstrated independent relationships of Smell Identification Test scores to social drive

2003 Archives of General Psychiatry

1677. Impaired cognition and schooling in adults with end stage renal disease since childhood. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impaired cognition and schooling in adults with end stage renal disease since childhood. To determine cognitive and educational attainment in adults with end stage renal disease (ESRD) since childhood.All Dutch patients with onset of ESRD at age 0-14 years between 1972 and 1992, who were born before 1979, were asked to perform the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) test. Educational attainment was assessed by a questionnaire. Determinants of cognitive performance were measured (...) by reviewing medical charts in 37 hospitals. Data on cognition were compared to those of age matched controls who cooperated in the revision of the Dutch WAIS. National Dutch Statistics data were used to compare educational attainment.Data on intelligence and schooling were acquired in 126 of 187 patients (67%) and data on determinants of outcome in all patients. Clinical characteristics of participants and non-participants were comparable. Educational attainment of patients was low compared to the Dutch

2002 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1678. Children conceived using ICSI do not have an increased risk of delayed mental development at 5 years of age. (Abstract)

accurate measure of long-term cognitive ability could be obtained.The mental development of 97 ICSI, 80 IVF and 110 naturally conceived (NC) children at 5 years of age was assessed using intelligence quotients (IQ) obtained from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence.The mean full-scale IQ was 110 +/- 18 for ICSI, 111 +/- 13 for IVF and 114 +/- 13 for NC children (P = 0.21, non-significant). ICSI children were not at increased risk for delayed (full-scale IQ <85) cognitive (...) development (ICSI 5.2%, IVF 2.5%, NC 0.9%; P = 0.18, non-significant). The only significant independent predictor of below-average full-scale IQ on multivariate analysis was lower maternal education level.These findings suggest that the genetic influence of parental cognitive ability is more important than the mode of conception in determining the long-term intellectual ability of children conceived using ICSI.

2003 Human Reproduction

1679. A prospective longitudinal study of the physical, psychomotor, and intellectual development of singleton children up to 5 years who were conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection compared with children conceived spontaneously and by in vitro fertiliza (Abstract)

, Belgium.Sixty-six ICSI-conceived children prospectively compared with 52 IVF-conceived and 59 spontaneously conceived children. All children were full-term singletons.Home visits by a trained psychologist. Standardized interviews. Assessments using the revised Brunet-Lézine scale and the revised Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence.Physical growth and general health. Formal developmental and intellectual assessments.Children conceived by ICSI were healthy: no significant differences appeared (...) in the incidence of combined congenital malformations (11.3%), health problems (44.1%), surgical interventions (18.6%), and hospitalizations (6.8%), nor for the developmental assessments (mean developmental quotient at 9 months: 93.9; at 18 months: 102.0). For the intellectual assessments, the between-group differences disappeared when adjusted for levels of parental education (mean intelligence quotient at 3 years: 97.0; at 5 years: 103.3).This pilot study shows that throughout the preschool period, ICSI

2003 Fertility and Sterility

1680. Visual memory predicts Alzheimer's disease more than a decade before diagnosis. (Abstract)

Visual memory predicts Alzheimer's disease more than a decade before diagnosis. Recent studies have suggested that AD may reflect a chronic process that begins many years before the clinical expression of dementia. The current study examines premorbid Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-vocabulary (WAIS-voc) test scores in order to determine whether long-term deficits in these tests can predict the development of AD decades later in the Baltimore

2003 Neurology

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