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Wechsler Intelligence Scale

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1641. The effect of a single aerobic training session on cognitive flexibility in late middle-aged adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

reserve) exercise, and movie-watching control groups after a maximal exercise test. Prior to and following the exercise or control sessions participants performed two cognitive tasks: the Alternate Uses assessing cognitive flexibility and the Digit Span Forward subtest from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised assessing attention span. Results indicated significant improvement in Alternate Uses in the exercise groups but not in the control group. No group differences were indicated

2007 International Journal of Sports Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1642. Methylphenidate as a treatment for depression in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: an n-of-1 trial. (Abstract)

of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, Trail-Making Tests A and B, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT).HAM-D scores improved during the methylphenidate phase (initial = 33; A = 23, 25; B = 15, 10; C = 28, 27), as did the subjective mood assessment ratings. Digit span backward scores improved with the drug (initial = 4; A = 4, 3; B = 6, 8; C = 5, 4), as did Trail-Making Test B scores (initial = 125 seconds; A = 133, 103 seconds; B = 86, 82 seconds; C = 88, 96 seconds). Digit span forward (...) for depression in an outpatient with mild HIV dementia.The patient received either placebo or drug in a double-blinded fashion in increasing doses in each of three 2-week phases (A = placebo, B = methylphenidate, C = placebo). Blinded outcomes of depression and cognition were measured initially and twice in each phase. Depression was measured using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and a mood self-assessment scale. Cognition was measured using the digit span (forward and backward subtest

1992 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

1643. Effects of deliberate hypotension induced by labetalol with isoflurane on neuropsychological function. (Abstract)

+/- 0.3 kPa) before hypotension and 50 +/- 0 mmHg (6.7 +/- 0.0 kPa) during hypotension in the hypotensive group, and 86 +/- 2 mmHg (11.5 +/- 0.3 kPa) during anaesthesia in the control group. The following psychological tests were performed: four subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (similarities, digit span, vocabulary and digit symbol), Trail-Making tests A and B, Zung tests (self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale) and two-part memory test battery with immediate

1993 Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1644. The TOM test: a new instrument for assessing theory of mind in normal children and children with pervasive developmental disorders. (Abstract)

. Study 3 demonstrated for a sample of children with PDDs (n = 10) that the interrater reliability of the TOM test is good. Study 4 found that children with PDDs (n = 20) had significantly lower TOM test scores than children with other psychiatric disorders (e.g., children with Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; n = 32), a finding that underlines the discriminant validity of the TOM test. Furthermore, Study 4 showed that intelligence as indexed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children

1999 Journal of autism and developmental disorders

1645. Use of estrogen in young girls with Turner syndrome: effects on memory. (Abstract)

) or placebo for 1 to 3 years (mean, 2.1+/-0.9 years) in a randomized, double-blind study. Memory and language tasks administered included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Digit Span (forward and backward), the Children's Word List, the Denman Paragraph, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Boston Naming, immediate and delayed Recall of the Rey Complex Figure, Nonword Reading, Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised reading subtest, Verbal fluency, and the Token Test.The estrogen-treated

2000 Neurology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1646. [Steady car engine noise does not affect the cognitive abilities of sleep apnea syndrome patients]. (Abstract)

(digit span), the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (digit symbol), and Lezack's Trail Making tests A and B. The SAS patients were slightly younger than the control group (mean 50 [7] vs 57 [11] years, respectively; P=.05). The patients showed a lower level of vigilance than the controls both in basal and engine noise conditions (P<.05). No differences between groups were found for the other variables studied. Exposure to steady car engine noise had no effect on the tests of either group. In conclusion (...) designed a prospective randomized controlled trial. Eighteen SAS patients (apnea-hypopnea index [SEM] 62 [6] h1) and 18 healthy controls were studied. All the participants were evaluated in random order both in basal conditions and after exposure to the steady noise of a car engine recorded on a compact disc. Their level of vigilance was evaluated (Steer-Clear) as well as their reaction time (PVT 192). Attention, coordination, and memory were measured using the following tests: Wechsler Memory Scale

2003 Archivos de bronconeumologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1647. Sustained effects of high participation in an early intervention for low-birth-weight premature infants. (Abstract)

methodology that found a matched comparison group within the follow-up group for those with high participation rates; these estimates were compared with traditional intention-to-treat (ITT) estimates. At age 8, effects on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Full and Verbal scales for children who attended > 400 days ranged from 7 to 10 points. For the heavier LBW infants (2,001-2,500 g), the effects were about 14 points for > 400 days; for the lighter LBW infants (< or = 2,000 g), the effects

2003 Developmental psychology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1648. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: neuropsychological findings. Full Text available with Trip Pro

on the following standardized neuropsychological measures: Selective Reminding Test (SRT), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Block Design (WAIS-III BD) and Digit Symbol-Coding (WAIS-III DS) subtests, and the Wechsler Memory Scale-III Faces I (WMS-III FI) and Faces II (WMS-III FII) subtests. A subjective Follow-up Self-report Questionnaire was also administered to participants just prior to termination of the treatment phase. Analyses of covariance indicated that cognitively intact participants who received (...) A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: neuropsychological findings. There appears to be an absence of large-scaled clinical trials that have examined the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract on the neuropsychological functioning of cognitively intact older adults. The importance of such clinical research appears paramount in light of the plethora of products containing Ginkgo biloba that are currently

2002 Human psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1649. Efficacy of L-carnitine in reducing hyperammonaemia and improving neuropsychological test performance in patients with hepatic cirrhosis : results of a randomised trial. (Abstract)

and/or hepatitis B, alcohol abuse and other causes. Patients randomised to active treatment, received oral L-carnitine 6 g/day in two divided doses for 4 weeks. Diagnosis of SHE was based on psychometric tests (subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery) carried out at beginning and end of study. Serum ammonia levels were measured before treatment and weekly thereafter.A total of 27 patients completed the study. Sixteen patients received L

2002 Clinical drug investigation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1650. Donepezil versus vitamin E in Alzheimer's disease: Part 2: mild versus moderate-severe Alzheimer's disease. (Abstract)

and neuropsychologic examinations (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognition and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) during the 6-month follow-up. Patients were divided into four groups of 15 patients each: Group I DPZ (10 mg/day) and Group I Vitamin E (2000 IU/day) with "mild" AD; Group II DPZ and Group II Vitamin E with "moderate-severe" AD and same drug dosages. In patients treated with Vitamin E, we observed P3 latency increments (delta) by 11.8 +/- 1.8 ms in Group I and by 12.8 +/- 2.8 ms in Group II at 6 (...) months; neuropsychologic test scores significantly worsened at 6 months (p < 0.001) in Group II patients. Donepezil induced significant P3 latency reductions (11.2 +/- 2.4 ms) in nine patients of Group I and all patients of Group II (16.1 +/- 4.0 ms), reaching a maximum at 3 months (23.2 +/- 2.7 ms). Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognition and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores improved during the same period, and the difference between Vitamin E and DPZ treated patients was highly

2002 Clinical neuropharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1651. Effects of phenobarbital and multiple-dose corticosteroids on developmental outcome at age 7 years. (Abstract)

Effects of phenobarbital and multiple-dose corticosteroids on developmental outcome at age 7 years. To determine the effects of phenobarbital and repeated antenatal steroid use on the primary outcome (intelligence and achievement) and secondary outcomes (behavior and head circumference) at age 7 years.This study was a secondary analysis of a double-blind clinical trial (phenobarbital-vitamin K versus placebo). Intelligence (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third edition), achievement (...) followed up at age 7 years. Comparing mean (+/- standard deviation [SD]) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children scores in the placebo versus treatment groups, there were no differences (P >.4) in Full Scale IQ (100.3 +/- 14.2 versus 100.6 +/- 14.2), Performance IQ (100.3 +/- 14.6 versus 101.5 +/- 15.6), and Verbal IQ (100.2 +/- 14.9 versus 99.6 +/- 13.7). Comparing mean (+/- SD) Wide Range Achievement Test standardized scores in the placebo versus treatment groups, there were no differences (P >.4

2003 Obstetrics and Gynecology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1652. Variability of blood-brain ratios of phenylalanine in typical patients with phenylketonuria. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-brain ratios were comparable for subgroups of patients with genotypes classified as severe, moderate, or mild and for patients on different types of diets. Brain Phe concentrations showed a strong linear correlation with blood Phe values (r = 0.93, P < 0.001). There were no saturation effects for blood Phe values up to 1.8 mmol/L, and a local regression analysis did not confirm increasing BBR for increasing blood Phe values. The intellectual outcome (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) was correlated (...) with long-term dietary control (r = -0.65, P < 0.05), fluctuation of blood Phe values during treatment (r = -0.60, P < 0.05), and concurrent blood and brain Phe concentration. The severity of white matter changes visible on magnetic resonance images (MRI) was increased with high blood and brain Phe concentrations but failed to reach statistical significance. No correlation was found between BBR values, intelligence quotient, and MRI grade. Based on the assumption that BBR show intraindividual stability

2001 Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1653. Donepezil, rivastigmine, and vitamin E in Alzheimer disease: a combined P300 event-related potentials/neuropsychologic evaluation over 6 months. (Abstract)

increments (7.4 +/- 3.5 msec) correlated with worsening neuropsychologic test scores. In patients treated with DPZ and Riv, we found significant P300 latency reductions (15.3 +/- 3.2 msec and 22.0 +/- 3.3 msec). Shorter P300 latencies were associated with higher Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores and with lower AD Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) scores (R = 0.72). Correlations between ADAS-cog changes and P300 changes significantly separated patients treated with DPZ and Riv from

2001 Clinical neuropharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1654. Efficacy of lactulose in cirrhotic patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. (Abstract)

Efficacy of lactulose in cirrhotic patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. To investigate the role of lactulose in the treatment of cirrhotic patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy (SHE), 40 cirrhotic patients, 33 males and 7 females, were included in the study. The diagnosis of SHE was made by quantitative psychometric tests including the number connection test (NCT), figure connection test (FCT) parts A and B, and two performance subtests of Wechsler adult intelligence (...) scale, ie, picture completion (PC) and block design (BD) tests. SHE was diagnosed in 26 (65%) of 40 patients. Of these 26 patients, 14 patients were randomized to treatment group (lactulose 30-60 ml/day for three months, SHE-L) and 12 patients to no treatment group (no lactulose, SHE-NL). Psychometric tests were repeated in all patients in both groups and in six patients with no SHE (group NSHE, N = 14) after three months. The mean scores and number of the abnormal psychometric tests at entry were

2000 Digestive diseases and sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1655. Efficacy of modafinil compared to dextroamphetamine for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. (Abstract)

, and dextroamphetamine for the treatment of ADHD. The twice-daily study medications were titrated to doses of optimum efficacy over 4-7 days and then held constant during the rest of each 2-week treatment phase. Measures of improvement included the DSM-IV ADHD Behavior Checklist for Adults, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT, using the letters C, F, and L version), Stroop, and Digit Span (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale version). For the 21 (96%) completers, the mean (+/- SD) optimum doses

2000 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1656. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on memory subtypes: a controlled study. (Abstract)

-subject repeated measures design was used. There were five rTMS conditions: baseline without stimulation, high frequency (HF) rTMS over right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and over right cerebellum, and low frequency (LF) parameters over left DLPFC. Digits forwards and backwards and letter-number sequencing of the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS) were used to assess immediate and working verbal memory, and logical memory of the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test was used

2003 Neuropsychologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1657. Psychological test performance during experimental challenge to toluene and n-butyl acetate in cases of solvent-induced toxic encephalopathy. (Abstract)

) at 48 ppm (at 180 or 228 mg/m3).For both substances the TE groups showed a slight increase (deterioration) in the simple reaction-time task during chemical exposure, but not in the complex reaction-time task or in the digit symbol test of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Contrary to reference subjects, the TE subjects did not show any improvement or learning effect in the digit symbol test over the chamber phases. n-Butyl acetate tended to affect cognitive functioning more obviously than

2000 Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1658. Outcome of children in the indomethacin intraventricular hemorrhage prevention trial. (Abstract)

with an increase in the incidence of neurodevelopmental handicap at 4.5 years of age in our study children.To test this hypothesis, we provided neurodevelopmental follow-up for the 384 very low birth weight survivors of the Multicenter Randomized Indomethacin IVH Prevention Trial. Three hundred thirty-seven children (88%) were evaluated at 54 months' corrected age, and underwent neurodevelopmental examinations, including the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R), the Peabody (...) for the children who received indomethacin than for those who received placebo. In addition, although there were no differences in the WPPSI-R or the PPVT-R scores between the 2 groups, analysis of the WPPSI-R full-scale IQ by function range demonstrated significantly less mental retardation among those children randomized to early low-dose indomethacin (for the indomethacin study children, 9% had an IQ <70, 12% had an IQ of 70-80, and 79% had an IQ >80, compared with the placebo group, for whom 17% had an IQ

2000 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1659. The effect of Ginkgo biloba on memory in healthy male volunteers. (Abstract)

, all subjects were given the Sternberg Memory Scanning Test [Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 27 (1975) 1.], a reaction time control test, the vocabulary and digit span subtests of the WAIS-R [Wechsler D. Manual for the Wechsler adult intelligence scale - revised. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1981.], a reading span test [J. Verbal Learn. Verbal Behav. 19 (1980) 450.] and a prose recall test [Discourse Proc. 13 (1990) 387.]. Blood pressure, heart rate and side effects were also monitored throughout

2001 Physiology & behavior Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1660. Neuropsychological effects of one-week continuous positive airway pressure treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a placebo-controlled study. (Abstract)

treatment to CPAP or placebo (CPAP at 2 cm H2O with holes in mask). Participants completed Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Digit Symbol and Digit Span, Trailmaking A/B, Digit Vigilance, Stroop Color-Word, Digit Ordering, and Word Fluency tests pre- and posttreatment. These produced 22 scores per participant, which were analyzed by use of repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a rank-sum test.In ANOVA, only 1 of the 22 scores showed significant changes specific to CPAP treatment

2001 Psychosomatic Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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