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Comparison of antiepileptic drugs on cognitive function in newly diagnosed epileptic children: a psychometric and neurophysiological study. Using a randomized parallel group study design, we compared the cognit ive effects of carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), and valproate (VPA) in children with epilepsy. Seventy-three children with newly diagnosed epilepsy were tested with the WechslerIntelligenceScale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), Bender-Gestalt test, and auditory event-related
: 6.3-11.1 mths) under randomised conditions of hyperglycaemia (20-30 mmol/l) on one occasion and euglycaemia (5-10 mmol/l) on the other. Target glucose levels were achieved using a modified clamp technique with subjects and psychologist blinded to the glycaemic level. Cognitive tests chosen to assess performance skills were subtests from the WechslerIntelligenceScale for Children-3rd Edition (WISC-111).No significant learning effect was present. However, there was a reduction in performance IQ
were adapted from the Wechsler Adult IntelligenceScale and two from the Wechsler Memory Scale.No patients had major neurologic complications. Ninety-three patients completed the five Wechsler Adult IntelligenceScale tests, but only 70 went on to complete the Wechsler Memory Scale tests as well. In these, there was an effect of cardiopulmonary bypass temperature on the number of neuropsychologic tests in which there was a preoperative to postoperative deterioration (p = 0.021), the number (...) than just the Wechsler Adult IntelligenceScale scores. Further cooling to 28 degrees C conferred no additional benefit in terms of cognitive function. The importance of the deterioration is open to question.
of the Wechsler Adult IntelligenceScale-Revised, Trail-Making Tests A and B, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT).HAM-D scores improved during the methylphenidate phase (initial = 33; A = 23, 25; B = 15, 10; C = 28, 27), as did the subjective mood assessment ratings. Digit span backward scores improved with the drug (initial = 4; A = 4, 3; B = 6, 8; C = 5, 4), as did Trail-Making Test B scores (initial = 125 seconds; A = 133, 103 seconds; B = 86, 82 seconds; C = 88, 96 seconds). Digit span forward (...) for depression in an outpatient with mild HIV dementia.The patient received either placebo or drug in a double-blinded fashion in increasing doses in each of three 2-week phases (A = placebo, B = methylphenidate, C = placebo). Blinded outcomes of depression and cognition were measured initially and twice in each phase. Depression was measured using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and a mood self-assessment scale. Cognition was measured using the digit span (forward and backward subtest
group, and the TCM group had more beneficial effects to improve intelligence, enuresis and the black of orbits. The study showed that the Verbal Scale in WechslerIntelligenceScale for children is one of the indications of diagnosis and evaluating of the curative effect of MBD. (...) , Scutellaria baicalensis, Astragalus membranaceus, Codonopsis pilosula, Ligustrum lucidum, Lophatherum gracile and thread of ivory. The WM group (20 cases) were treated with retalin 5-15 mg twice daily. One course of treatment lasted one month, and effects were evaluated after 1-3 courses of treatment. The results were as follows: In the TCM group, 23 cases were cured (clinical symptom and sign disappeared, 10 IQ units were raised in their intelligence, abnormal electroencephalogram was recovered
estrogens (0.625 and 1.25 mg) on psychological function over 3 months in 36 asymptomatic women, aged 45-60. The tests included the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-168, the Profile of Adaptation to Life, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Memory was assessed directly by the Wechsler Adult IntelligenceScales, measuring both digit span and digit symbol. All women were well-adjusted psychologically. The income management scale of the Profile of Adaptation to Life improved (P less than .05 (...) ) with estrogen, as did the Beck Depression Inventory (P less than .05), but these results were not dose-related. Memory assessed prospectively by the Wechsler Adult IntelligenceScales was not affected significantly. These results suggest that estrogen use may improve the overall quality of life in postmenopausal women.
Long-term cognitive and social sequelae of general versus regional anesthesia during arthroplasty in the elderly. This study compared the effects of general and regional anesthesia on cognitive and psychosocial functioning in elderly persons. Sixty-four patients between 60 and 86 yr of age undergoing knee arthroplasty were randomly assigned to receive either general or regional anesthesia. A battery of psychometric tests, including the Satz-Mogel form of the Wechsler Adult IntelligenceScale (...) -Revised, the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and the Sickness Impact Profile, and various neuropsychological measures were administered by a blinded observer just before surgery and again 3 months later. Analyses of covariance revealed improvements in most measures that were equivalent between groups. The results indicated that there were no cognitive or psychosocial effects of general or regional anesthesia after 3 months in elderly persons undergoing knee arthroplasty. In this patient population
and Digit Span subtests from the Wechsler Adult IntelligenceScale, and Part B of the Reitan Trail Making Test. The 125 study patients were generally similar to the 133 patients who were eligible but did not participate, although study participants were significantly younger (P=.003). The 64 patients randomly assigned to angioplasty had baseline characteristics similar to those of 61 patients randomly assigned to surgery. Cognitive function scores were not significantly different between angioplasty (...) coronary surgery or initial angioplasty.Five centers in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation participated in this ancillary study. Patients with multivessel coronary disease randomized to angioplasty or surgery were eligible at the time of their 5-year clinic visit. A battery of five measures previously shown to be sensitive to perioperative changes in cognitive function was administered, including the Logical and Figural Memory Scales from the Wechsler Memory Scale, the Digit Symbol
psychometric tests used (number connection test, and symbol digit and block design tests of the Wechsler adult intelligencescale [revised]) were abnormal as compared with age-matched normal values. The mean number of abnormal psychometric test results and the prevalence of SHE were used for a quantitative evaluation of the efficacy of the lactulose treatment. Twenty-two of the SHE patients were treated with lactulose (45 mL/d) for 8 weeks, and the other 14 SHE patients did not receive lactulose
kg), height (168.2 vs. 167.7 cm) and head circumference (55.9 vs. 56.2 cm). The neurological examination, fine and gross motor development on Stott motor test, intellectual performance on the WechslerIntelligenceScale for Children verbal IQ (105 vs. 105), performance IQ (114 vs. 111) and full scale IQ (110 vs. 108). cognitive abilities on an neuropsychological test battery, including short and long term, auditory and visual memory, visuomotor tempo, computer reaction time, reading test
, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of amphetamine treatment. Treatment was not restricted to children with "pure" ADHD, ie, some had comorbid diagnoses. In the amphetamine group, children received active treatment for 15 months.Amphetamine was clearly superior to placebo in reducing inattention, hyperactivity, and other disruptive behavior problems and tended to lead to improved results on the WechslerIntelligenceScale for Children--Revised. Treatment failure rate was considerably lower
+/- 0.3 kPa) before hypotension and 50 +/- 0 mmHg (6.7 +/- 0.0 kPa) during hypotension in the hypotensive group, and 86 +/- 2 mmHg (11.5 +/- 0.3 kPa) during anaesthesia in the control group. The following psychological tests were performed: four subtests of the Wechsler Adult IntelligenceScale (similarities, digit span, vocabulary and digit symbol), Trail-Making tests A and B, Zung tests (self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale) and two-part memory test battery with immediate
imipramine. Psychiatric conditions and symptoms were rated at 0, 7, 14, 30, 45, and 60 days after the beginning of the trial by means of the Scale for the Assessment of Psychoorganic Syndromes, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Rome. Depression Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-X form, and the Clinical Global Impression Scale. Cognition was tested through the Benton visual retention test at days 0, 30, and 60 and the Digit Substitution Test of the Wechsler Adult (...) IntelligenceScale at days 0 and 60. Side effects were assessed through the Dosage Record Emergent Symptoms at days 0, 7, 14, 30, 45, and 60. The dropout rate was significantly greater in the moclobemide group. Both drugs induced an improvement in depressive and anxious symptomatology, with moclobemide showing a faster onset. Furthermore, moclobemide showed an enhancing effect on cognition, which was not shown by imipramine. Such results indicate that moclobemide could prove to be the drug of choice
) or placebo for 1 to 3 years (mean, 2.1+/-0.9 years) in a randomized, double-blind study. Memory and language tasks administered included the WechslerIntelligenceScale for Children-Revised, Digit Span (forward and backward), the Children's Word List, the Denman Paragraph, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Boston Naming, immediate and delayed Recall of the Rey Complex Figure, Nonword Reading, Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised reading subtest, Verbal fluency, and the Token Test.The estrogen-treated
. The goal of this study was to examine whether estrogen replacement therapy would reverse deficits in motor function and in nonverbal processing speed, a measure of the time required to perform certain disparate nonverbal tasks, in adolescent girls with TS. Children received either estrogen (ethinyl estradiol, 12.5-50 ng/kg.day), or placebo for durations of 1-7 yr (mean, 4.0 +/- 2.1 yr) in this randomized, double blind study. Cognitive and motor tasks administered included the WechslerIntelligence (...) Scale for Children-Revised; nonspatial, repetitive motor tasks (tapping and three tasks from the Paness); and spatially mediated motor tasks [nongrooved pegboard (Lafayette), pursuit rotor, visual-motor integration, and money street map]. Questionnaires administered included the Self-Concept Scale. The major result of this study was the positive estrogen treatment effect on nonverbal processing speed and speeded motor performance in 12-yr-old TS girls. That motor performance would be slower
Effect of warning on feigned malingering on the WAIS-R in college samples. Research indicates claimant malingering of cognitive deficits to be common in personal injury litigation. Efforts have been made to either detect such tendencies or deter efforts at malingering. The present study examined whether warning people that feigned malingering efforts would be detected results in more valid profiles on the Wechsler Adult IntelligenceScale-Revised. Undergraduates (N = 48) were randomly assigned (...) to one of three conditions: feigned malingerers without warning, feigned malingerers with warning, and controls. Analysis indicated both feigned malingerer groups performed significantly worse than the control group; however, feigned malingerers with warning did not perform significantly better than those without warning. Unlike previous research using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, results did not support effectiveness of warning in reducing feigned malingering scores.
with an increase in the incidence of neurodevelopmental handicap at 4.5 years of age in our study children.To test this hypothesis, we provided neurodevelopmental follow-up for the 384 very low birth weight survivors of the Multicenter Randomized Indomethacin IVH Prevention Trial. Three hundred thirty-seven children (88%) were evaluated at 54 months' corrected age, and underwent neurodevelopmental examinations, including the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R), the Peabody (...) for the children who received indomethacin than for those who received placebo. In addition, although there were no differences in the WPPSI-R or the PPVT-R scores between the 2 groups, analysis of the WPPSI-R full-scale IQ by function range demonstrated significantly less mental retardation among those children randomized to early low-dose indomethacin (for the indomethacin study children, 9% had an IQ <70, 12% had an IQ of 70-80, and 79% had an IQ >80, compared with the placebo group, for whom 17% had an IQ
, and dextroamphetamine for the treatment of ADHD. The twice-daily study medications were titrated to doses of optimum efficacy over 4-7 days and then held constant during the rest of each 2-week treatment phase. Measures of improvement included the DSM-IV ADHD Behavior Checklist for Adults, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT, using the letters C, F, and L version), Stroop, and Digit Span (Wechsler Adult IntelligenceScale version). For the 21 (96%) completers, the mean (+/- SD) optimum doses
Efficacy of lactulose in cirrhotic patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. To investigate the role of lactulose in the treatment of cirrhotic patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy (SHE), 40 cirrhotic patients, 33 males and 7 females, were included in the study. The diagnosis of SHE was made by quantitative psychometric tests including the number connection test (NCT), figure connection test (FCT) parts A and B, and two performance subtests of Wechsler adult intelligence (...) scale, ie, picture completion (PC) and block design (BD) tests. SHE was diagnosed in 26 (65%) of 40 patients. Of these 26 patients, 14 patients were randomized to treatment group (lactulose 30-60 ml/day for three months, SHE-L) and 12 patients to no treatment group (no lactulose, SHE-NL). Psychometric tests were repeated in all patients in both groups and in six patients with no SHE (group NSHE, N = 14) after three months. The mean scores and number of the abnormal psychometric tests at entry were
) at 48 ppm (at 180 or 228 mg/m3).For both substances the TE groups showed a slight increase (deterioration) in the simple reaction-time task during chemical exposure, but not in the complex reaction-time task or in the digit symbol test of the Wechsler Adult IntelligenceScale. Contrary to reference subjects, the TE subjects did not show any improvement or learning effect in the digit symbol test over the chamber phases. n-Butyl acetate tended to affect cognitive functioning more obviously than