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Wechsler Intelligence Scale

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1581. A prospective study of childhood neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenic patients and their siblings. (PubMed)

A prospective study of childhood neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenic patients and their siblings. This study evaluated childhood cognitive functioning in individuals who later developed schizophrenia and in their unaffected siblings.Through the National Collaborative Perinatal Project, seven subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children were administered at age 7 to 32 individuals who developed schizophrenia in adulthood, 25 of their nonschizophrenic siblings, and 201

2003 American Journal of Psychiatry

1582. Neuropsychological prediction of conversion to Alzheimer disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment. (PubMed)

for the 148 patients was 46.6 +/- 24.6 months. In 3 years, 32 (50.0%) of 64 amnestic-"plus" and 2 (10.0%) of 20 "pure" amnestic patients converted to AD (P = .001). In 148 patients, of 5 a priori predictors, the percent savings from immediate to delayed recall on the Selective Reminding Test and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Digit Symbol Test were the strongest predictors of time to conversion. From the entire neuropsychological test battery, a stepwise selection procedure retained 2

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2006 Archives of General Psychiatry

1583. Abnormal cognitive function in treated congenital hypopituitarism. (PubMed)

Abnormal cognitive function in treated congenital hypopituitarism. To assess cognitive function in school age children with congenital pituitary hormone deficiency (PHD).Ten children with PHD (aged 6.0-15.6 years, mean 11.5 years) and sibling controls (aged 8.7-14.9 years, mean 12.1 years) were assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III UK).The patients' full scale IQ scores were all below average (mean 75, 95% CI 70-80), but were not significantly different to those

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2004 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1584. Return to school after brain injury. (PubMed)

performance, the Children's Memory Scale (CMS), the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-third edition UK (WISC-III) and the Weschler Objective Reading Dimensions (WORD).One third of teachers were unaware of the TBI. On return to school, special arrangements were made for 18 children (27%). Special educational needs were identified for 16 (24%), but only six children (9%) received specialist help. Two thirds of children with TBI had difficulties with school work, half had attention/concentration (...) problems and 26 (39%) had memory problems. Compared to other pupils in the class, one third of children with TBI were performing below average. On the CMS, one third of the severe group were impaired/borderline for immediate and delayed recall of verbal material, and over one quarter were impaired/borderline for general memory. Children in the severe group had a mean full-scale IQ significantly lower than controls. Half the TBI group had a reading age > or =1 year below their chronological age, one

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2004 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1585. Olfaction and social drive in schizophrenia. (PubMed)

examined whether SIDs in schizophrenia were related broadly to negative symptoms, as are a number of other neuropsychological measures, or whether they might show a more specific relationship with social drive.Smell Identification Test scores, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised IQ, symptomatology assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the deficit syndrome were determined in 70 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia.The SIDs were related to negative symptoms and the deficit (...) syndrome, but the association of SIDs with diminished social drive explained both relationships. Smell identification was also related to Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised IQ, but intelligence was independent of the relationship of SID and social drive. The worse Smell Identification Test scores in male patients were attributable to a greater preponderance of men with the deficit syndrome.These analyses demonstrated independent relationships of Smell Identification Test scores to social drive

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2003 Archives of General Psychiatry

1586. Frontal cognitive dysfunction in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. (PubMed)

administered tests to assess frontal functions (the Word Fluency Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST]). All participants had a normal intelligence level based on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and did not take medications other than antiepileptics (AEDs) or have a psychiatric history.Patients with JME had severe impairment in all administered tasks, similar to that of patients with FLE; TLE patients and controls followed in order. Multiple regression analysis did not disclose any

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2007 Epilepsia

1587. Weight faltering in infancy and IQ levels at 8 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. (PubMed)

defined as those infants with a conditional weight gain below the 5th centile who were compared with the rest of the cohort as the control group. At the age of 8 years, 5771 infants born at term with no major congenital abnormalities had IQ measured by using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Revision.Mean (SD) IQ scores were 104.7 (16.3) (total), 107.6 (16.5) (verbal), and 100.2 (16.9) (performance). Children whose weight faltered from birth to 9 months had a total IQ

2007 Pediatrics

1588. Deficiency of theory of mind in patients with remitted mood disorder. (PubMed)

Deficiency of theory of mind in patients with remitted mood disorder. Recent researches on theory of mind (ToM) in patients with mood disorders have revealed deficits of ToM ability during episodes. In this study, we aimed to test ToM ability among patients with unipolar or bipolar depression currently in remission.ToM ability and IQ obtained by Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) were evaluated in 50 patients with remitted depression, who met the criteria of mood disorders

2004 Journal of Affective Disorders

1589. The Heritability of Abstract Reasoning in Caribbean Latinos with Familial Alzheimer Disease. (PubMed)

subtest scores from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. We computed h(2), then performed analysis of variance to examine the effect of APOE-epsilon 4.Abstract reasoning was highly heritable (h(2)(unadjusted) = 79.9%). After adjusting for covariates, the h(2) was reduced to 32.6%, with education accounting for 40.8% of the variance. The APOE-epsilon 4 allele had no effect.Abstract reasoning was strongly influenced by genetic factors and education. Genes other than APOE contribute to the inheritance

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2007 Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

1590. Cognitive functions in children at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia treated prenatally with dexamethasone. (PubMed)

neuropsychological tests (A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment and Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children) and child-completed questionnaires measuring self-perceived scholastic competence (Self-Perception Profile for Children). A parent-completed questionnaire (Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 School Scale) was used to evaluate whether the treatment had any impact on the children's school performance. In addition, a child-completed questionnaire measuring social anxiety (The Social Anxiety Scale (...) for Children-Revised) was completed by the prenatally treated children aged 8 to 17 yr (n = 21) and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 26).Of 40 DEX-treated children, 26 (median age, 11 yr) participated in the study. Thirty-five sex- and age-matched healthy children were controls. There were no between-group differences concerning psychometric intelligence, measures of cerebral lateralization, memory encoding, and long-term memory. Short-term treated, CAH-unaffected children performed poorer than

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2007 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

1591. Influence of an early-onset age of type 1 diabetes on cerebral structure and cognitive function. (PubMed)

had previous neuropsychological pathology.In EOD participants (n = 26), current intellectual ability (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised performance IQ; P = 0.03) and information processing ability (Choice Reaction Time; P = 0.006) were comparatively poorer than was observed in those with later- onset diabetes (n = 45). Furthermore, lateral ventricular volumes were 37% greater (P = 0.002) and ventricular atrophy was more prevalent (61 vs. 20%; P = 0.01) in the EOD group than in those who

2005 Diabetes Care

1592. Impaired cognitive function in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (PubMed)

recruited through the Danish Civil Registration System and matched on age and education.An abbreviated form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was used, i.e. full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ; five of 11 subtests), which included three of six verbal IQ subtests and two of five performance IQ subtests.A significantly lower IQ was found in CAH patients compared with controls with respect to mean full-scale IQ (84.5 vs. 99.1; P < 0.001), mean verbal IQ (86.6 vs. 97.3; P < 0.001), and mean

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2006 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

1593. Blood pressure-related cognitive decline: does age make a difference? (PubMed)

). Cognitive performance was measured over multiple examinations with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale from which 4 scores were derived by factor analysis. A 2-stage growth curve method of analysis was used to model cognitive change. Results indicated that higher levels of baseline systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and blood pressure categories as defined by the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure

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2004 Hypertension

1594. Adult age and digit symbol substitution performance: a meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Adult age and digit symbol substitution performance: a meta-analysis. This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of the effects of age, education, and estimated year of measurement on scores from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Analysis of effect sizes for age reported in 141 studies published between 1986 and 2002 indicated a mean standardized difference of -2.07. Age accounted for 86

2004 Psychology and aging

1595. Aging and vocabulary scores: a meta-analysis. (PubMed)

disappeared in multiple-choice tests as soon as education was taken into account. In addition, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised Vocabulary subtest (D. Wechsler, 1981) was also found to be sensitive to the Flynn effect (J. R. Flynn, 1987; i.e., increasing test scores with advancing birth year). The results question the approach of using age-group equality in vocabulary scores as a check on sample equivalence.

2003 Psychology and aging

1596. Association between intellectual functioning and age in children and young adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: further results from a meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Association between intellectual functioning and age in children and young adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: further results from a meta-analysis. This study used meta-analytical techniques to explore the association between intelligence and age in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The sample comprised 1224 children and young adults with DMD (mean age 12 y 3 mo, SD 4 y; range 2 y to 27 y). Standardized measures including the Wechsler Intelligence Scales (WIS (...) ) and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales were used to estimate intelligence. No age-related difference was noted for Full-scale and Performance intelligence quotients (IQ). However, Verbal IQ increased significantly with age. Age-related increases were noted for the WIS Information, Similarities, Arithmetic, Comprehension, Digit Span, Picture Arrangement, Block Design, and Coding subscales. These results support the notion that younger children with DMD have deficits in verbal reasoning and verbal processing

2005 Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology

1597. Distinguishing between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease by means of the WAIS: a meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Distinguishing between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease by means of the WAIS: a meta-analysis. This study was intended to, meta-analytically, review whether the subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale are useful in differentiating between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. We expected the Alzheimer's disease group to outperform the vascular dementia group on those subtests that require executive functions, whereas inferior performance of the Alzheimer's disease (...) patients was expected on memory tests. Two steps in the analysis were undertaken in an attempt to clarify this issue. The first step consisted of including all studies examining Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale subtest performance in vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease patients. Secondly, a subcortical vascular dementia subgroup was distinguished and performance of this subgroup was compared to that of the Alzheimer's disease group.Overall, the analyses showed that both the vascular dementia

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2006 Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology

1598. Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults (PubMed)

on demographic variables, including education, occupation, and residence history. Mercury exposure was determined by analysis of hair using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The neurocognitive screening battery included tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Concentrated Attention Test of the Toulouse-Pierron Factorial Battery, the Manual Ability Subtests of the Tests of Mechanical Ability, and the Profile of Mood States.Mercury exposures

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2003 Environmental Health

1599. Working memory deficits in adults with ADHD: is there evidence for subtype differences? (PubMed)

deficits in adults with ADHD and how they vary according to subtype, however, remains to be more fully documented.This study assessed differences in working memory functioning between Normal Control (NC) adults (N = 18); patients with ADHD, Combined (ADHD-CT) Type ADHD (N = 17); and ADHD, Inattentive (ADHD-IA) Type (N = 16) using subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Wechsler Memory Scale-III and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT).The ADHD groups displayed significant (...) weaknesses in contrast to the NC group on working memory tests requiring rapid processing and active stimulus manipulation. This included the Letter-Number-Sequencing test of the Wechsler scales, PASAT omission errors and the longest sequence of consecutive correct answers on the PASAT. No overall ADHD group subtype differences emerged; however differences between the ADHD groups and the NC group varied depending on the measure and the gender of the participants. Gender differences in performance were

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2006 Behavioral and Brain Functions

1600. Mood and neuropsychological changes in women with midlife depression treated with escitalopram. (PubMed)

was evaluated with the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) at baseline and at weekly follow-ups for 12 weeks. Cognition was assessed at baseline and 3 months after treatment using a neuropsychological test battery, which included an abbreviated measure of Full Scale Intelligence Quotient, measures of attention and processing speed, verbal and nonverbal memory, executive functioning, and verbal fluency. Self-report data were collected on current menopause status and current hormone therapy use (...) in the postmenopausal women. Paired sample t tests were used to analyze the change in total HAM-D scores and neuropsychological variables.Statistically significant improvements were found in total HAM-D score, Wechsler Memory Scale III Logical Memory 1st Recall, I, and II scores, Wechsler Memory Scale III Visual Reproduction I scores, and Trail Making Test Part B scores. There was a statistically significant decrease in Controlled Oral Word Association Test FAS scores.Treatment of depression with escitalopram

2006 Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology

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