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Wechsler Intelligence Scale

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1521. Structural and functional brain development after hydrocortisone treatment for neonatal chronic lung disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

on structural and functional brain development using three-dimensional MRI with advanced image-processing and neurocognitive assessments.Sixty children born preterm, including 25 children treated with hydrocortisone and 35 children not treated with hydrocortisone, and 21 children born at term were evaluated, at a mean age of 8 years, with quantitative MRI and neurocognitive assessments (Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Revised [WISC-R]). Automatic image segmentation was used to determine the tissue (...) volumes of cerebral gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. In addition, the volume of the hippocampus was determined manually. WISC-R scores were recorded as mean intelligence scores at evaluation. Neonatal hydrocortisone treatment for chronic lung disease consisted of a starting dose of 5 mg/kg per day tapered over a minimum of 3 weeks.Cerebral gray matter volume was reduced among preterm children (regardless of hydrocortisone treatment), compared with children born at term (preterm: 649

2005 Pediatrics

1522. Psychosocial and academic characteristics of extremely low birth weight (< or =800 g) adolescents who are free of major impairment compared with term-born control subjects. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in British Columbia, 98 (39%) of whom survived to late adolescence. Teens with major sensorimotor handicaps and/or IQ <70 were excluded (n = 19). Of the 79 eligible ELBW teens, 53 (67%) were assessed at 17.3 (16.3-19.7) years (birth weight: 720 [520-800 g]; gestation: 26 [23-29] weeks). The test battery screened the following areas: cognitive (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults Third Edition, 3 subtests), academic (Wide Range Achievement Test-3), attention (Connors' Continuous Performance Task), self

2004 Pediatrics

1523. Children with congenital hypothyroidism and their siblings: do they really differ? Full Text available with Trip Pro

and their 42 siblings, all of whom were tested with the McCarthy or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) intelligence tests. Nineteen pairs of children were evaluated at 6 years with the McCarthy, and 30 pairs of children were evaluated at 7 or 9 years with the WISC-R. Recorded for children with CH were disease etiology, bone age and thyroxine levels at diagnosis, age at onset of treatment, and starting dosage of levothyroxine.Paired t tests revealed that the CH group scored lower than

2005 Pediatrics

1524. A United Kingdom population-based study of intellectual capacities in children with and without soiling, daytime wetting, and bed-wetting. (Abstract)

and Children. Data on wetting and soiling were obtained from a questionnaire completed by parents. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition was administered at a research clinic.Bed-wetting was associated with lower Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition IQ scores compared with control subjects, particularly performance IQ. This difference remained after exclusion of children with an IQ of <70 and adjustment for gender, stressful life events, and sociodemographic

2007 Pediatrics

1525. Impairment of executive cognitive functioning in males with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. (Abstract)

cognitive functioning (ECF) is especially affected. In this study, a brief neuropsychological exam was administered to 33 men with FXTAS and 27 healthy controls. Compared with controls, individuals with FXTAS showed statistically significant impairments on measures from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, third edition (WAIS-III; verbal IQ, performance [nonverbal] IQ, verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, and processing speed). FXTAS subjects scored significantly lower on three of four

2007 Movement Disorders

1526. Central nervous system abnormalities in asymptomatic young patients with Sbeta-thalassemia. (Abstract)

Central nervous system abnormalities in asymptomatic young patients with Sbeta-thalassemia. Twenty-one children and young adults with sickle/beta-thalassemia without overt stroke were examined with magnetic resonance imaging and angiography (MRA), transcranial Doppler (TCD), visual (VEP) and median nerve somatosensory (SEP)-evoked potential recordings, and neuropsychological testing (Wechsler Intelligence Scale [WISC-III]). Eight (38%) had silent infarction in the parietooccipital cortex, deep

2004 Annals of Neurology

1527. Critical periods of brain growth and cognitive function in children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

- and postnatal life and cognitive function in 221 9-year-old children whose mothers had taken part in a study of nutrition in pregnancy and whose head circumference had been measured at 18 weeks gestation, birth and 9 months of age. Cognitive function of the children and their mothers was assessed with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Full-scale IQ at age 9 years rose by 1.98 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 3.62] for each SD increase in head circumference at 9 months and by 2.87

2004 Brain

1528. Cognitive differences in dementia patients with autopsy-verified AD, Lewy body pathology, or both. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or Dementia Rating Scale (DRS). AD patients performed worse than the LBP patients on memory measures (Fuld Object Memory Evaluation Delayed Recall, Wechsler Memory Scale Logical Memory Immediate and Delayed Recall; p < 0.05) and a naming task (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Naming; p < 0.05). LBP patients were more impaired than AD patients on executive function (Trail Making Test Part B; p < 0.05) and attention tasks (Wechsler Adult (...) Intelligence Scale-Revised Digit Span; p < 0.05). Decline in MMSE and DRS scores over time were greatest in the patients with AD/LBP.In a community-based sample of older, medically complicated patients with dementia, there are neuropsychological differences between dementia subtypes at the time of diagnosis. In particular, patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) alone and AD/Lewy body pathology (LBP) had more severe memory impairment than patients with LBP. LBP alone was associated with more severe executive

2005 Neurology

1529. Preservation of cognitive function in dystonia treated by pallidal stimulation. (Abstract)

focused on executive functions. The authors considered the patients' severe disability and selected the following tests: Raven Progressive Matrices 38, Similarities and Arithmetic subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-R, Grober and Buschke, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), verbal fluency, Trail Making Test, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Median age at surgery was 30 years (range = 14 to 54 years), median duration of disease was 18.5 years (range = 4 to 37 years).Before surgery

2006 Neurology

1530. Brain morphometry, T2-weighted hyperintensities, and IQ in children with neurofibromatosis type 1. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and parietal regions and in children with NF1 with hyperintensities, and (3) GM volume is inversely related to IQ in children with NF1.Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition IQ testing and measurement of cerebral volumes and hyperintensities in brain magnetic resonance images were performed on 36 children with NF1 and on 36 matched relatives who served as control subjects.Gray matter and white matter volumes were significantly larger in children with NF1. The greatest difference

2005 Archives of Neurology

1531. Eye-closure-triggered paroxysmal activity and cognitive impairment: a case report. (Abstract)

both at 12 years of age (T0) and at 26 years of age. At T0 and T1, neuropsychological tests (digits and words span, graphoestesia, reactions time to auditory stimuli, sentences repetition, words repetition, digital gnosis, backward counting [i.e.,100-0]) were performed during video-EEG monitoring either with eyes closed or with eyes open, to evaluate possible transitory effects related to ongoing epileptic activity. Moreover, at T0 the patient underwent Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (...) -Revised, and at T1 to Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised.EEG recordings showed continuous epileptic activity triggered by eye closure, disappearing only with eyes opening, both at T0 and T1 (in this latter case, anteriorly predominant). The results of neuropsychological assessment during eyes closed as compared to performances with eyes open did not show significant differences, at T0 as well as at T1. Wechsler Intelligence scales showed a deterioration of performances at T1 with respect to T0

2006 Epilepsia

1532. Neuropsychological function in nondemented carriers of presenilin-1 mutations. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Function/Working Memory, Language, and Visuospatial Function were created, and these scores compared between MCs and NCs.MCs performed worse than NCs on the Mini-Mental State Examination, Trails Making Tests A and B, Delayed Recall of a 10-Word List, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS Block Design. In multiple linear regression analyses, BDI score, gender, and number of APOE epsilon4 alleles did not consistently affect test scores. The differences seen between MCs and NCs were due

2005 Neurology

1533. Longitudinal cognitive changes in traumatic brain injury: a 30-year follow-up study. (Abstract)

of the follow-up assessment were also compared with an age- and education-matched control group. During each examination, patients were assessed with five subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, three tests for episodic memory, and the general cognitive decline was determined.The general pattern of slight cognitive decline during a 30-year follow-up contrasted with improvement in semantic memory. Women maintained their cognitive level, but men showed a decline during the follow-up, especially

2006 Neurology

1534. Hippocampal and entorhinal atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: prediction of Alzheimer disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

obtained in a Cox model that also included Selective Reminding Test (SRT) delayed recall and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Digit Symbol as predictors. Based on logistic regression models in the 3-year follow-up sample, for a fixed specificity of 80%, the sensitivities for MCI conversion to AD were as follows: age 43.3%, MMSE 43.3%, age + MMSE 63.7%, age + MMSE + SRT delayed recall + WAIS-R Digit Symbol 80.6% (79.6% correctly classified), hippocampus + entorhinal cortex 66.7%, age

2007 Neurology

1535. Cognitive reserve-mediated modulation of positron emission tomographic activations during memory tasks in Alzheimer disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

the encoding and recognition phases. A CR factor score that summarized years of education, National Adult Reading Test estimated IQ, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised vocabulary subtest score (explaining 71% of the total variance) was used as an index of CR. Voxel-wise, multiple regression analyses were performed with the "activation" difference (titrated demand-low demand) as the dependent variables and the CR factor score as the independent one. Brain regions where regression slopes differed

2004 Archives of Neurology

1536. Neuropsychological effects associated with temporal lobectomy and amygdalohippocampectomy depending on Wada test failure. Full Text available with Trip Pro

is associated with higher verbal memory deficits than AH (p = 0.07). Of those TL patients who failed the Wada test, the contralateral Wada score correlated with change scores in verbal intelligence quotient (p<0.01), and there was a strong trend towards a correlation with the logical memory immediate recall version subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale (p = 0.06).No profound changes in intelligence quotient or memory scores were found after TL or AH. Nevertheless, patients who underwent TL and failed

2004 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

1537. Two-year survival, mental, and motor outcomes after cardiac extracorporeal life support at less than five years of age. Full Text available with Trip Pro

70 on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II or Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Predictor variables for mortality (at 2 years' follow-up) and delay were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses.Indications for extracorporeal life support were progressive low cardiac output in 14 (36%), failed weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass in 13 (33%), cardiac arrest in 9 (23%), and hypoxia in 3 (8%). Cardiac anatomy was single ventricle in 16 (41%), biventricular in 21 (54

2008 Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

1538. Early Postnatal Weight Gain, Intellectual Performance, and Body Mass Index at 7 Years of Age in Term Infants with Intrauterine Growth Restriction. (Abstract)

or growth. Wechsler Scale of Children's Intelligence (WISC) scores at age 7 years and data on postnatal growth at 16 weeks were available for 463 infants with IUGR. Linear regression relating postnatal growth and WISC score, adjusting for potential confounders, was performed for these infants. BMI at 7 years also was examined.Weight gain at 16 postnatal weeks ranged from 1059 to 5119 g in the infants with IUGR, with lower achieved cognitive testing scores apparent at both extremes (ie, an inverted J (...) -shape; P < .001). Infants gaining 1200 and 5000 g scored 15.5 and 2.4 fewer points, respectively, on the full scale compared with infants with score-maximizing growth. In contrast, BMI at 7 years was linearly related to postnatal weight gain (P < .001).Growth in the first 4 postnatal months is an independent risk factor for cognitive outcome at age 7 years, with both extremes associated with negative effects.

2008 Journal of Pediatrics

1539. Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism: Long-term Intellectual Outcome after Early High-Dose Treatment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism: Long-term Intellectual Outcome after Early High-Dose Treatment. We aim to determine long-term intellectual outcome of adolescents with early high-dose treated congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Sixty-three prospectively followed children with CH were assessed at age of 14 y with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and compared with 175 healthy controls. Median age at onset of treatment was 9 d (range 5-18 d) and median starting dose (...) of levothyroxine (L-T4) was 14.7 microg/kg/d (range 9.9-23.6 microg/kg/d). Full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was significantly lower than in controls after adjustment for socioeconomic status (SES) and gender (101.7 versus 111.4; p < 0.0001). Children with athyreosis had a lower performance IQ than those with dysgenesis (adjusted difference 7.6 IQ scores, p < 0.05). Lower initial thyroxine (T4) levels correlated with poorer IQ (r = 0.27, p = 0.04). Lower SES was associated with poorer IQ, in particular

2008 Pediatric Research

1540. IQ and non-clinical psychotic symptoms in 12-year-olds: results from the ALSPAC birth cohort. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and frequency of psychosis-like symptoms in 12-year-old children and study their relationship with IQ.Longitudinal study using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. A total of 6455 children completed screening questions for 12 psychotic symptoms followed by a semi-structured clinical assessment. IQ was assessed at 8 years of age using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (3rd UK edition).The 6-month period prevalence for one or more symptoms was 13.7% (95% CI

2008 British Journal of Psychiatry

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