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Wechsler Intelligence Scale

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1521. Arterial switch with full-flow cardiopulmonary bypass and limited circulatory arrest: neurodevelopmental outcome. (PubMed)

of Intelligence and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition) were higher in control subjects (101.9 [SD = 13] vs 108.6 [SD = 12], P =.0007), with both groups having scores greater than the population-based test means. Full-scale IQ scores related most significantly to years of paternal education (beta = 1.51, P =.0078) but were also influenced by perioperative neurologic abnormalities, birth weight, and circulatory arrest time. Patients had higher motor impairment scores (Movement Assessment (...) abnormalities was 20%. Patients who had a neurologic event were (as a group) older at the time of operation and had a lower arterial blood pH before the operation. Selected perioperative factors (not related directly to cardiopulmonary bypass variables) predicted early (before discharge) neurologic outcome in a multivariate model. At late assessment, patients were more likely than control subjects to have a mild neurologic abnormality (P = 0.002). Full-scale IQ scores (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale

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2004 Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

1522. Neuropsychological and psychosocial function in children with a history of snoring or behavioral sleep problems. (PubMed)

of children were categorized into groups: Snorers (n = 11), BSP (n = 13), Snorers+BSP (n = 9), and controls (n = 31). Children underwent psychological (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Children's Memory Scale; Test of Everyday Attention and Auditory Continuous Performance Test) and psychosocial assessment (Child Behavior Checklist).With analysis of variance, it was revealed that, compared with children in the BSP and control groups, those in the Snorers+BSP and Snorers groups showed reduced (...) Neuropsychological and psychosocial function in children with a history of snoring or behavioral sleep problems. To compare neuropsychological and psychosocial function in children with a history of snoring, children with a history of behavioral sleep problems (BSP), children with both a history of snoring and BSP, and a group of control subjects.Families awaiting consultation for "sick" visits in 5 general practice clinics completed the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children. A subset

2005 Journal of Pediatrics

1523. Sleep-disordered breathing in Prader-Willi syndrome and its association with neurobehavioral abnormalities. (PubMed)

of behavior and cognition (Development Behavior Checklist [DBC], Auditory Continuous Performance Test [ACPT], and Wechsler Intelligence Scale appropriate for age).Nine of 13 (69%) subjects had > 10 apneas and hypopneas per hour of sleep. Apart from a 2-year-old subject with normal body weight who demonstrated severe central hypopnea in rapid eye movement sleep, the sleep-breathing disturbance was due to upper airway obstruction. Age-adjusted body mass index was associated with more severe hypoxemia during

2005 Journal of Pediatrics

1524. Neonatal hydrocortisone treatment: neurodevelopmental outcome and MRI at school age in preterm-born children. (PubMed)

Neonatal hydrocortisone treatment: neurodevelopmental outcome and MRI at school age in preterm-born children. To investigate neurodevelopment at school age in preterm infants treated with hydrocortisone for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in the neonatal period.Preterm infants (n = 226; gestational age < or = 32 weeks and/or body weight < or = 1500 grams) performed subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, the Visual Motor Integration test, a 15-Word Memory Test (...) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children at school age. Conventional MRI of the brain was obtained. Sixty-two children who received hydrocortisone for BPD (starting dose, 5 mg/kg/day; median duration, 27.5 days) were compared with 164 nontreated neonates.Hydrocortisone-treated infants were younger, lighter, and sicker than their non-steroid-treated counterparts. Adjustments for gestational age, body weight, sex, mechanical ventilation, and small for gestational age were made. Adjusted mean Intelligence

2007 Journal of Pediatrics

1525. Impact of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene on maternal phenylketonuria outcome. (PubMed)

, which predicts the metabolic phenotype (severe PKU, mild PKU, and mild hyperphenylalaninemia [MHP]). IQ was determined in both the mothers (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised at >18 years) and their children (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised at > or = 6-7 years of age).According to PAH genotypes, 62% of the women exhibited severe PKU, 19% exhibited mild PKU, and 19% exhibited MHP. Maternal IQ increased, and the assigned phenylalanine (Phe) levels decreased with decreasing

2003 Pediatrics

1526. Structural and functional brain development after hydrocortisone treatment for neonatal chronic lung disease. (PubMed)

on structural and functional brain development using three-dimensional MRI with advanced image-processing and neurocognitive assessments.Sixty children born preterm, including 25 children treated with hydrocortisone and 35 children not treated with hydrocortisone, and 21 children born at term were evaluated, at a mean age of 8 years, with quantitative MRI and neurocognitive assessments (Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Revised [WISC-R]). Automatic image segmentation was used to determine the tissue (...) volumes of cerebral gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. In addition, the volume of the hippocampus was determined manually. WISC-R scores were recorded as mean intelligence scores at evaluation. Neonatal hydrocortisone treatment for chronic lung disease consisted of a starting dose of 5 mg/kg per day tapered over a minimum of 3 weeks.Cerebral gray matter volume was reduced among preterm children (regardless of hydrocortisone treatment), compared with children born at term (preterm: 649

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2005 Pediatrics

1527. Increased cerebral blood flow velocity in children with mild sleep-disordered breathing: a possible association with abnormal neuropsychological function. (PubMed)

), Neuropsychological Test Battery for Children (NEPSY) visual attention and visuomotor integration, and IQ assessment (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Version III). Transcranial Doppler was performed using a TL2-64b 2-MHz pulsed Doppler device between 2 pm and 7 pm in all of the patients and the majority of controls while awake. Time-averaged mean of the maximal cerebral blood flow velocities was measured in the left and right middle cerebral artery and the higher used for analysis.Twenty-one

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2006 Pediatrics

1528. The clinical spectrum of developmental language impairment in school-aged children: language, cognitive, and motor findings. (PubMed)

of Language Fundamentals-4, Peabody Picture Vocabulary-3, Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation-2), nonverbal cognitive assessment (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV), and motor assessment (Movement Assessment Battery for Children). Exclusion criteria were nonverbal IQ below the 5th percentile or an acquired language, hearing, autistic spectrum, or neurologic disorder.Eleven children with developmental language impairment (7:4 boys/girls; mean age: 10.1 +/- 0.8 years) and 12 controls (5:7 boys (...) Intelligence Scale for Children-IV--developmental language impairment: 99.5 +/- 15.5; controls: 113.5 +/- 11.9), and motor measures (Movement Assessment Battery for Children percentile--developmental language impairment: 12.7 +/- 16.7; controls: 66.1 +/- 30.6) and greater discrepancies between cognitive and language scores (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV/Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4--developmental language impairment: 17.8 +/- 17.8; controls: 1.2 +/- 12.7). Motor impairment

2006 Pediatrics

1529. Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials: a new treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (PubMed)

Intelligence Scale for Children and with a computerized test battery that measures several components of attention. All changes proved to be stable at 6 months' follow-up after the end of training. Clinical outcome was predicted by the ability to produce negative potential shifts in transfer sessions without feedback.According to the guidelines of the efficacy of treatments, the evidence of the efficacy of slow cortical potential feedback found in this study reaches level 2: "possibly efficacious (...) are reported. Measurement before and after the trials showed that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder learn to regulate negative slow cortical potentials. After training, significant improvement in behavior, attention, and IQ score was observed. The behavior ratings included Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, number of problems, and social behavior at school and were conducted by parents and teachers. The cognitive variables were assessed with the Wechsler

2006 Pediatrics

1530. A United Kingdom population-based study of intellectual capacities in children with and without soiling, daytime wetting, and bed-wetting. (PubMed)

and Children. Data on wetting and soiling were obtained from a questionnaire completed by parents. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition was administered at a research clinic.Bed-wetting was associated with lower Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition IQ scores compared with control subjects, particularly performance IQ. This difference remained after exclusion of children with an IQ of <70 and adjustment for gender, stressful life events, and sociodemographic

2007 Pediatrics

1531. Psychosocial and academic characteristics of extremely low birth weight (< or =800 g) adolescents who are free of major impairment compared with term-born control subjects. (PubMed)

in British Columbia, 98 (39%) of whom survived to late adolescence. Teens with major sensorimotor handicaps and/or IQ <70 were excluded (n = 19). Of the 79 eligible ELBW teens, 53 (67%) were assessed at 17.3 (16.3-19.7) years (birth weight: 720 [520-800 g]; gestation: 26 [23-29] weeks). The test battery screened the following areas: cognitive (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults Third Edition, 3 subtests), academic (Wide Range Achievement Test-3), attention (Connors' Continuous Performance Task), self

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2004 Pediatrics

1532. Children with congenital hypothyroidism and their siblings: do they really differ? (PubMed)

and their 42 siblings, all of whom were tested with the McCarthy or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) intelligence tests. Nineteen pairs of children were evaluated at 6 years with the McCarthy, and 30 pairs of children were evaluated at 7 or 9 years with the WISC-R. Recorded for children with CH were disease etiology, bone age and thyroxine levels at diagnosis, age at onset of treatment, and starting dosage of levothyroxine.Paired t tests revealed that the CH group scored lower than

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2005 Pediatrics

1533. International collaborative study of intracytoplasmic sperm injection-conceived, in vitro fertilization-conceived, and naturally conceived 5-year-old child outcomes: cognitive and motor assessments. (PubMed)

-conceived children.A total of 511 ICSI-conceived children were compared with 424 IVF-conceived children and 488 NC controls. Children were recruited in 5 European countries, ie, Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Participation rates ranged from 45% to 96% in the ICSI and IVF groups and from 34% to 78% in the NC group. Cognitive and motor development was assessed with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) and McCarthy Scales of Children's (...) Abilities (MSCA) Motor Scale, respectively. The WPPSI-R consists of 2 major scales, ie, Verbal and Performance, each including 6 subtests. The 6 Performance Scale subtests are object assembly, geometric design, block design, mazes, picture completion, and animal pegs. The 6 Verbal Scale subtests are information, comprehension, arithmetic, vocabulary, similarities, and sentences. Scores on the Performance and Verbal Scale subtests are summed to yield the performance IQ (PIQ) and verbal IQ (VIQ

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2005 Pediatrics

1534. Impact of visual impairment on measures of cognitive function for children with congenital toxoplasmosis: implications for compensatory intervention strategies. (PubMed)

as part of a longitudinal study to determine outcome of congenital toxoplasmosis. Children were evaluated at 3.5 or 5 (37 children) or both 3.5 and 5 (27 children) years of age. Cognitive function was measured using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised scale scores were compared for children grouped as those children who had normal visual acuity in their best eye (group 1), and those who had impaired vision (...) from the last analysis are reported here.There were 48 children with normal visual acuity in their best eye (group 1) and 16 children with impaired vision because of macular involvement in their best eye (group 2). Ethnicity and socioeconomic scores were similar. There was a significantly greater proportion of males in group 2 compared with group 1 (81% vs 46%). There was no significant diminution in Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised test scores between 3.5 and 5 years

2006 Pediatrics

1535. Neuropsychological performance in school-aged children with surgically corrected congenital heart disease. (PubMed)

with an abbreviated intelligence scale (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-3rd edition, Dutch version) and a developmental neuropsychological assessment battery (NEPSY [a developmental NEuroPSYchological assessment]).We identified significantly lower scores for the CHD group on Estimated Full Scale IQ (P < .01). Neuropsychological assessment revealed lower scores for the CHD group on the cognitive domains of Sensorimotor Functioning (P < .001), Language (P < .001), Attention and Executive Functioning (P

2007 Journal of Pediatrics

1536. Predictors of long-term outcome in very preterm infants: gestational age versus neonatal cranial ultrasound. (PubMed)

, admitted to a single tertiary referral center between 1983 and 1988, underwent serial neonatal cranial ultrasound. At 8 years of age neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed by structured neurologic examination, psychometric tests (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children), tests of visuomotor integration (Beery) and motor impairment (Henderson-Stott). Infants were subdivided into a group born at <28 weeks and a group born at between 28 and 32 weeks. Neurodevelopmental outcome was analyzed for each

2003 Pediatrics

1537. Cognitive and academic consequences of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and very low birth weight: 8-year-old outcomes. (PubMed)

: intelligence, achievement, gross motor, and attentional skills. Measures included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III, the Woodcock Johnson Test of Achievement-Revised, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, the Tactual Performance Test (spatial memory), and the Continuous Performance Test (attention). School outcomes were assessed by parent and teacher report, as well as from school records. Groups were comparable on socioeconomic status, sex, and race. The total sample of BPD (...) of their treatment with BPD children who had not.The BPD group demonstrated deficits compared with VLBW and term children in intelligence; reading, mathematics, and gross motor skills; and special education services. VLBW children differed from term children in all of the above areas, except reading recognition, comprehension, and occupational therapy. Attentional differences were obtained between BPD and term children only. The BPD group (54%) was more likely to be enrolled in special education classes than

2003 Pediatrics

1538. Early childhood computer experience and cognitive and motor development. (PubMed)

, Third Edition Preschool; the Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition; and a short form of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence-Revised. Information pertaining to family characteristics and children's early computer experience was collected from parents. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association between early computer experience and cognitive and motor development.Of the participating children, 53% had a computer at home. Among families

2004 Pediatrics

1539. A behavioral and cognitive profile of clinically stable HIV-infected children. (PubMed)

investigated.The most common behavioral problems, as measured by the Conners' Parent Rating Scale, were psychosomatic (28%), learning (25%), hyperactivity (20%), impulsive-hyperactive (19%), conduct (16%), and anxiety (8%) problems. Mean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III scores were less than established population norms; the mean verbal IQ was 85, the mean performance IQ was 90, and the mean full-scale score was 86. Hyperactivity was more frequent in children with a Wechsler Intelligence Scale

2006 Pediatrics

1540. Neurodevelopmental outcome at 5 years of age of a national cohort of extremely low birth weight infants who were born in 1996-1997. (PubMed)

ELBW infant cohort.Of all live-born ELBW infants (n = 351) who were delivered in the 2-year period 1996-1997 in Finland, 206 (59%) survived until the age of 5 years. Of these, 103 were born at < 27 gestational weeks (GW). A total of 172 children were assessed with neurocognitive tests (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised and a Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment [NEPSY]). Nine children with cognitive impairment and inability to cooperate in testing were not assessed (...) . Motor development was assessed with a modified Touwen test.The rate of cognitive impairment in the ELBW survivors was 9%. The rate of cerebral palsy was 14% (19% of ELBW infants who were born at < 27 GW). The mean full-scale IQ of the assessed children was 96 +/- 19 and in children of GW < 27 was 94 +/- 19. Attention, language, sensorimotor, visuospatial, and verbal memory values of NEPSY assessment were significantly poorer compared with normal population means. Four percent needed a hearing aid

2005 Pediatrics

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