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Waterborne Illness

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1. Modeling household transmission dynamics: Application to waterborne diarrheal disease in Central Africa. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Modeling household transmission dynamics: Application to waterborne diarrheal disease in Central Africa. We describe a method for analyzing the within-household network dynamics of a disease transmission. We apply it to analyze the occurrences of endemic diarrheal disease in Cameroon, Central Africa based on observational, cross-sectional data available from household health surveys.To analyze the data, we apply formalism of the dynamic SID (susceptible-infected-diseased) process that describes (...) the disease steady-state while adjusting for the household age-structure and environment contamination, such as water contamination. The SID transmission rates are estimated via MCMC method with the help of the so-called synthetic likelihood approach.The SID model is fitted to a dataset on diarrhea occurrence from 63 households in Cameroon. We show that the model allows for quantification of the effects of drinking water contamination on both transmission and recovery rates for household diarrheal disease

2018 PLoS ONE

2. Expert Opinion on the introduction of next-generation typing methods for food- and waterborne diseases in the EU and EEA

Expert Opinion on the introduction of next-generation typing methods for food- and waterborne diseases in the EU and EEA SCIENTIFIC ADVICE www.ecdc.europa.eu Expert Opinion on the introduction of next-generation typing methods for food- and waterborne diseases in the EU and EEA ECDC SCIENTIFIC ADVICE Expert Opinion on the introduction of next-generation typing methods for food- and waterborne diseases in the EU and EEA ii This report of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (...) (ECDC) was coordinated by Ivo Van Walle and produced by the FWD-NEXT Expert Group (ECDC expert group on introduction of next-generation typing methods for surveillance of food- and waterborne diseases). Contributing authors and members of the expert group Ariane Pietzka, Eva Møller Nielsen, Kristoffer Kiel, Ivelina Damjanova, Valeria Michelacci, Joël Mossong, Eelco Franz, Wilfrid van Pelt, Tomasz Wolkowicz, Vítor Borges, Cecilia Jernberg, Chris Lane, Ian Fisher, Tansy Peters, Joakim Ågren, Valentina

2015 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Expert Opinion

3. Spatiotemporal Error in Rainfall Data: Consequences for Epidemiologic Analysis of Waterborne Diseases. (Abstract)

Spatiotemporal Error in Rainfall Data: Consequences for Epidemiologic Analysis of Waterborne Diseases. The relationship between rainfall, especially extreme rainfall, and increases in waterborne infectious diseases is widely reported in the literature. Most of this research, however, has not formally considered the impact of exposure measurement error contributed by the limited spatiotemporal fidelity of precipitation data. Here, we evaluate bias in effect estimates associated with exposure (...) conditions (accumulated totals) downwards by 35%-45%. Similar biases were evident in the Ecuadorian case study analysis, where spatial incompatibility between exposed populations and rain gauges resulted in the association between extreme rainfall and diarrheal disease incidence being approximately halved. These findings suggest that investigators should pay greater attention to limitations in using spatially heterogeneous environmental datasets to assign exposures in epidemiologic research.

2019 American Journal of Epidemiology

4. Factors Influencing Mitigation of Risk of Waterborne Disease in Vietnam Among Small Scale Integrated Livestock Farmers Full Text available with Trip Pro

Factors Influencing Mitigation of Risk of Waterborne Disease in Vietnam Among Small Scale Integrated Livestock Farmers The integrated livestock, crops, and fish (VAC) model of integrated small scale agriculture has been important to economic and ecological sustainability in Vietnam for many centuries. Recently, emerging waterborne diseases including avian influenza as well as the potential for zoonotic disease arising from small scale farms have jeopardized the VAC model. In order to promote (...) mitigation of the risk of waterborne and other diseases in the VAC system, there needs to be recognition of the significant predictors of such behavior, particularly with respect to water sources including well and rain water. We report primarily quantitative results of research generated from 300 farms in each of North and South Vietnam that indicate the small scale farmers who are more likely to engage in mitigation of waterborne disease are those who raise pigs, perceive themselves to be more at risk

2018 Frontiers in veterinary science

5. Waterborne Disease Outbreak Detection: A Simulation-Based Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Waterborne Disease Outbreak Detection: A Simulation-Based Study Waterborne disease outbreaks (WBDOs) remain a public health issue in developed countries, but to date the surveillance of WBDOs in France, mainly based on the voluntary reporting of clusters of acute gastrointestinal infections (AGIs) by general practitioners to health authorities, is characterized by low sensitivity. In this context, a detection algorithm using health insurance data and based on a space⁻time method was developed

2018 International journal of environmental research and public health

6. Estimate of incidence and cost of recreational waterborne illness on United States surface waters Full Text available with Trip Pro

incidence and severity were estimated using data from prospective cohort studies of water recreation, reports of recreational waterborne disease outbreaks, and national water recreation statistics. Costs associated with medication use, healthcare provider visits, emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, lost productivity, long-term sequelae, and mortality were aggregated.An estimated 4 billion surface water recreation events occur annually, resulting in an estimated 90 million illnesses (...) Estimate of incidence and cost of recreational waterborne illness on United States surface waters Activities such as swimming, paddling, motor-boating, and fishing are relatively common on US surface waters. Water recreators have a higher rate of acute gastrointestinal illness, along with other illnesses including respiratory, ear, eye, and skin symptoms, compared to non-water recreators. The quantity and costs of such illnesses are unknown on a national scale.Recreational waterborne illness

2018 Environmental Health

7. The efficacy of syndromic surveillance for the early detection of waterborne outbreaks and gastrointestinal illnesses: protocol for a systematic review

The efficacy of syndromic surveillance for the early detection of waterborne outbreaks and gastrointestinal illnesses: protocol for a systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content (...) ); sex (stratified per sex); duration of index ischemia (linear); stem cell dose (linear); blinding of outcome assessment reported (stratified yes vs no). For stratified analyses, a minimum number of 8 studies per subgroup is required. ">Subgroup analyses A sensitivity analysis is conducted to assess the impact of decisions taken in the review process on the meta-analysis outcome. These decisions may have been made in various stages of the review, e.g. the decision to exclude certain disease models

2019 PROSPERO

8. Burden of Disease Attributed to Waterborne Transmission of Selected Enteric Pathogens, Australia, 2010. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Burden of Disease Attributed to Waterborne Transmission of Selected Enteric Pathogens, Australia, 2010. AbstractUniversal access to safe drinking water is a global priority. To estimate the annual disease burden of campylobacteriosis, nontyphoidal salmonellosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and norovirus attributable to waterborne transmission in Australia, we multiplied regional World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of the proportion of cases attributable to waterborne transmission (...) by estimates of all-source disease burden for each study pathogen. Norovirus was attributed as causing the most waterborne disease cases (479,632; 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 0-1,111,874) followed by giardiasis and campylobacteriosis. The estimated waterborne disability-adjusted life year (DALY) burden for campylobacteriosis (2,004; 95% UI: 0-5,831) was 7-fold greater than other study pathogens and exceeded the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality (1 × 10-6 DALY per person per year) by 90-fold

2017 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

9. Metagenomic Sequencing for Surveillance of Food- and Waterborne Viral Diseases Full Text available with Trip Pro

Metagenomic Sequencing for Surveillance of Food- and Waterborne Viral Diseases A plethora of viruses can be transmitted by the food- and waterborne route. However, their recognition is challenging because of the variety of viruses, heterogeneity of symptoms, the lack of awareness of clinicians, and limited surveillance efforts. Classical food- and waterborne viral disease outbreaks are mainly caused by caliciviruses, but the source of the virus is often not known and the foodborne mode (...) of transmission is difficult to discriminate from human-to-human transmission. Atypical food- and waterborne viral disease can be caused by viruses such as hepatitis A and hepatitis E. In addition, a source of novel emerging viruses with a potential to spread via the food- and waterborne route is the repeated interaction of humans with wildlife. Wildlife-to-human adaptation may give rise to self- limiting outbreaks in some cases, but when fully adjusted to the human host can be devastating. Metagenomic

2017 Frontiers in microbiology

10. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water — United States, 2013–2014 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water — United States, 2013–2014 Provision of safe water in the United States is vital to protecting public health (1). Public health agencies in the U.S. states and territories* report information on waterborne disease outbreaks to CDC through the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) (https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/index.html). During 2013-2014, 42 drinking water-associated† outbreaks were reported (...) , accounting for at least 1,006 cases of illness, 124 hospitalizations, and 13 deaths. Legionella was associated with 57% of these outbreaks and all of the deaths. Sixty-nine percent of the reported illnesses occurred in four outbreaks in which the etiology was determined to be either a chemical or toxin or the parasite Cryptosporidium. Drinking water contamination events can cause disruptions in water service, large impacts on public health, and persistent community concern about drinking water quality

2017 MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report

11. Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated With Environmental and Undetermined Exposures to Water — United States, 2013–2014 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated With Environmental and Undetermined Exposures to Water — United States, 2013–2014 Waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States are associated with a wide variety of water exposures and are reported annually to CDC on a voluntary basis by state and territorial health departments through the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS). A majority of outbreaks arise from exposure to drinking water (1) or recreational water (2), whereas others (...) are caused by an environmental exposure to water or an undetermined exposure to water. During 2013-2014, 15 outbreaks associated with an environmental exposure to water and 12 outbreaks with an undetermined exposure to water were reported, resulting in at least 289 cases of illness, 108 hospitalizations, and 17 deaths. Legionella was responsible for 63% of the outbreaks, 94% of hospitalizations, and all deaths. Outbreaks were also caused by Cryptosporidium, Pseudomonas, and Giardia, including six

2017 MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report

12. Spatial Distribution and Trends of Waterborne Diseases in Tashkent Province Full Text available with Trip Pro

Spatial Distribution and Trends of Waterborne Diseases in Tashkent Province The cumulative effect of limited investment in public water systems, inadequate public health infrastructure, and gaps in infectious disease prevention increased the incidence of waterborne diseases in Uzbekistan. The objectives of this study were: (1) to spatially analyze the distribution of the diseases in Tashkent Province, (2) to identify the intensity of spatial trends in the province, (3) to identify urban-rural (...) characteristics of the disease distribution, and (4) to identify the differences in disease incidence between pediatric and adult populations of the province.Data on four major waterborne diseases and socio-demographics factors were collected in Tashkent Province from 2011 to 2014. Descriptive epidemiological methods and spatial-temporal methods were used to investigate the distribution and trends, and to identify waterborne diseases hotspots and vulnerable population groups in the province.Hepatitis

2017 Central Asian journal of global health

13. Foodborne and waterborne illness among Canadian Indigenous populations: A scoping review Full Text available with Trip Pro

Foodborne and waterborne illness among Canadian Indigenous populations: A scoping review Indigenous populations are often at higher risk for foodborne illness than the general Canadian population.To investigate the extent of the literature on the link between food safety and the occurrence of foodborne and waterborne illness in Canadian Indigenous populations.A scoping review was conducted using search strings in five databases and grey literature to identify all papers that studied a Canadian (...) Indigenous population and referred to any potential associations between food safety (including consumption and preparation of traditional foods and retail foods) or water safety practices and food or waterborne illness. Two authors screened papers based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Included documents were analyzed for emergent themes.From 1,718 unique records identified, 21 documents were selected. Foodborne illness was most common in children up to 14 years old. Walrus, seal, caribou and whale

2017 Canada Communicable Disease Report

14. High Rates of Exposures to Waterborne Pathogens in Indigenous Communities in the Amazon Region of Ecuador. (Abstract)

High Rates of Exposures to Waterborne Pathogens in Indigenous Communities in the Amazon Region of Ecuador. Waterborne pathogens, associated with poverty and poor sanitary conditions, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There are limited data on the epidemiology of waterborne pathogens in indigenous populations living in the Amazon region. We did a cross-sectional survey in two indigenous Shuar communities in the Amazon region of Ecuador in which we documented the presence (...) of pathogens representing different sources of environmental contamination of water. We detected protozoa and soil-transmitted helminths by microscopy of fecal samples and the presence of IgG antibodies to hepatitis A and Leptospira spp. in blood samples from individuals older than 2 years and collected data by questionnaire on sociodemographic factors and knowledge of infectious diseases. Seroprevalence for hepatitis A and Leptospira spp. were 98.1% (95% CI: 97.0-99.8) and 50.0% (95% CI: 43.3-56.6

2019 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

15. Prevention of Waterborne Illness

Prevention of Waterborne Illness Prevention of Waterborne Illness Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Prevention (...) of Waterborne Illness Prevention of Waterborne Illness Aka: Prevention of Waterborne Illness , Prevention of Water-borne Illness II. Prevention: Traveler's Diarrhea Do not drink tap water outside of countries with advanced filtration and chemical purification systems See for effective methods does not typically disinfect Freezing does not disinfect Keep a bottle of sterilized water (filtered, boiled, or chemically treated) near the sink Serves as a reminder to prevent contamination of es, dentures and other

2018 FP Notebook

16. Waterborne Illness

Waterborne Illness Waterborne Illness Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Waterborne Illness Waterborne Illness Aka (...) : Waterborne Illness , Recreational Waterborne Illness , Water-borne Diarrheal Infection , Water-borne Transmission , Swimming Related Illness From Related Chapters II. Risk Factors Travel to endemic areas of Waterborne Illness Hiking in wilderness areas (especially drinking from mountain streams) Public pools Hot Tubs Ingested water Untreated water Unpasteurized dairy products III. Precautions Chlorination does not completely eliminate the risk of waterborne infection can survive 10 days in water at CDC

2018 FP Notebook

17. Beaver Fever: Whole-Genome Characterization of Waterborne Outbreak and Sporadic Isolates To Study the Zoonotic Transmission of Giardiasis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Beaver Fever: Whole-Genome Characterization of Waterborne Outbreak and Sporadic Isolates To Study the Zoonotic Transmission of Giardiasis Giardia causes the diarrheal disease known as giardiasis; transmission through contaminated surface water is common. The protozoan parasite's genetic diversity has major implications for human health and epidemiology. To determine the extent of transmission from wildlife through surface water, we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to characterize 89 (...) that the beaver is a possible source of human infections from contaminated surface water, while acknowledging that theirs is only one role in the complex cycle of zoonotic spread. Mixes of parasite groups have been detected in waterborne outbreaks. More information on Giardia diversity and its evolution using genomics will further the understanding of the epidemiology of spread of this disease-causing protozoan.© Crown copyright 2018.

2018 mSphere

18. Rapid Identification of Seven Waterborne Exophiala Species by RCA DNA Padlock Probes Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rapid Identification of Seven Waterborne Exophiala Species by RCA DNA Padlock Probes The black yeast genus Exophiala includes numerous potential opportunistic species that potentially cause systematic and disseminated infections in immunocompetent individuals. Species causing systemic disease have ability to grow at 37-40 °C, while others consistently lack thermotolerance and are involved in diseases of cold-blooded, waterborne vertebrates and occasionally invertebrates. We explain a fast (...) and sensitive assay for recognition and identification of waterborne Exophiala species without sequencing. The ITS rDNA region of seven Exophiala species (E. equina, E. salmonis, E. opportunistica, E. pisciphila, E. aquamarina, E. angulospora and E. castellanii) along with the close relative Veronaea botryosa was sequenced and aligned for the design of specific padlock probes for the detection of characteristic single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The assay demonstrated to successfully amplify DNA of target

2018 Mycopathologia

19. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment and Opportunist Waterborne Infections–Are There Too Many Gaps to Fill? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment and Opportunist Waterborne Infections–Are There Too Many Gaps to Fill? Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a relatively new approach in identifying health risks associated with the ubiquitous presence of pathogens and opportunists in the human environment. The methodology builds on experimental and meta-analytical data to identify measurable factors that contribute to, and can quantify, the likely extent of disease given a particular (...) exposure. Early modelling was particularly focused on food-borne disease, and subsequently water-borne disease, with the emphasis focused on ingestion and its role in enteric disease. More recently, there has been a focus on translating these principles to opportunist waterborne infections (OWI) with primary focus on Legionella spp. Whereas dose and susceptibility are well documented via the ingestion route of exposure there is considerably less certainty regarding both factors when understanding

2018 International journal of environmental research and public health

20. Tap out: reducing waterborne Pseudomonas aeruginosa transmission in an intensive care unit. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tap out: reducing waterborne Pseudomonas aeruginosa transmission in an intensive care unit. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous and important opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised or critically ill patients. Nosocomial P. aeruginosa outbreaks have been associated with hospital water sources.To describe engineering interventions to minimize contamination of water outlets and the subsequent clinical impact.New tap outlets were fitted at selected outlets across the intensive care unit

2018 Journal of Hospital Infection

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