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81. Warts

an immune response to HPV. Such irritants include salicylic acid (SCA), trichloroacetic acid, 5- fluorouracil , podophyllum resin , tretinoin, and cantharidin . Topical imiquimod 5% cream induces skin cells to locally produce antiviral cytokines. Topical cidofovir and contact immunotherapy (eg, squaric acid dibutyl ester and Candida allergen) have been used to treat warts. Warts can first be soaked in hot water at 113° F for 30 min ≥ 3 times/wk. After soaking, the skin is more permeable to topical drugs (...) Warts Warts - Dermatologic Disorders - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Diagnostic Tests for Skin Disorders Which

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

82. Genital Warts

Genital Warts Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection - Infectious Diseases - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Smallpox (...) are highly effective unless applied repeatedly over weeks to months. Genital warts may resolve without treatment in immunocompetent patients but may persist and spread widely in patients with decreased cell-mediated immunity (eg, due to pregnancy or HIV infection). Vaccines are available to protect against many of the HPV strains that can cause genital warts and cancer. (See also .) HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD). HPV is so common that nearly all sexually active men and women

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

83. Phase 1 clinical trial of intralesional injection of Candida antigen for the treatment of warts. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Letter Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't United States Arch Dermatol 0372433 0003-987X 0 Antigens, Fungal AIM IM Adolescent Adult Antigens, Fungal administration & dosage Candida immunology Dermatitis drug therapy immunology Female Humans Immunity, Cellular Immunotherapy methods Injections, Intralesional Male Middle Aged Retrospective Studies Treatment Outcome Warts drug therapy immunology Young Adult 2010 12 22 6 0 2010 12 22 6 0 2011 3 16 6 0 ppublish 21173332 146/12/1431 (...) Phase 1 clinical trial of intralesional injection of Candida antigen for the treatment of warts. 21173332 2011 03 15 2010 12 21 1538-3652 146 12 2010 Dec Archives of dermatology Arch Dermatol Phase 1 clinical trial of intralesional injection of Candida antigen for the treatment of warts. 1431-3 10.1001/archdermatol.2010.350 Kim Kevin H KH Horn Thomas D TD Pharis Joni J Kincannon Jay J Jones Robert R O'Bryan Kevin K Myers Jennifer J Nakagawa Mayumi M eng Clinical Trial, Phase I Comparative Study

2011 Archives of Dermatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

84. Plantar wart

information: First-line therapy Over the counter Second-line therapy , intralesional , or pulsed dye laser therapy Third-line therapy , surgical excision Cryotherapy being applied to a plantar wart with a A number of treatments have been found to be effective. A 2012 review of different treatments for skin warts in otherwise healthy people concluded modest benefit from salicylic acid and cryotherapy appears similar to salicylic acid. Medications [ ] Salicylic acid — the involves the peeling away of dead (...) USP) is a new wart treatment which may trigger a host immune response to the wart virus, resulting in wart resolution. It is now recommended as a second-line therapy. Surgery [ ] A ~7 mm plantar wart surgically removed from the sole of a person's foot after other treatments failed — This, and similar methods, is a common surgical treatment which acts by freezing the external cell structure of the warts, destroying the live tissue. and surgical excision, which may produce scarring

2012 Wikipedia

85. Molluscum contagiosum

or pruritus. Diagnosis is usually clinical. Children are primarily managed conservatively. Adults should be treated with curettage, cryotherapy or cantharidin. However, available treatment options are the same for both adults and children. Complications relate to treatment; discomfort, secondary infection of the wound or scarring may occur. Definition This condition is caused by the molluscum contagiosum virus, a ubiquitous poxvirus that escapes immune destruction for months to years. Lesions (...) are cutaneous (less commonly mucosal). They appear as pearl-like, smooth papules, which are umbilicated. The histological equivalent of epidermal collections of molluscum bodies is referred to as Henderson-Patterson bodies; virally infected keratinocytes with a central orifice. Lesions are generally caused via skin-to-skin or fomite contact in children and by sexual transmission in adults. Silverberg NB. Warts and molluscum in children. Adv Dermatol. 2004;20:23-73. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed

2019 BMJ Best Practice

86. Pre-school vaccinations: guide to vaccinations from 2 to 5 years

be offered a suitable inactivated influenza vaccine to avoid a delay in protection ¦ have needed intensive care due to asthma egg allergic anaphylaxis ¦ have a condition that severely weakens their immune system. Children who are at high risk from flu due to some medical conditions or treatments and cannot have the nasal vaccine, will be offered a flu jab instead. In these circumstances the advice of a specialist should be sought. I believe the nasal vaccine contains products derived from pigs (porcine (...) at this age? The pre-school immunisations – often called pre-school boosters – will update or top up your child’s level of antibodies (which their bodies produce to fight off disease and infection) and help to keep them protected. Protection (immunity) against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough and polio from the immunisations given to babies can fade over time. Sometimes, complete immunity to measles, mumps or rubella does not develop after a single dose of the MMR vaccine – so this gives them a second

2019 Public Health England

87. Improving Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Vaccine Uptake

uptake specifically, school-based immunization clinics are effective at improving uptake among children and youth. Reminders, healthcare provider interventions and social marketing campaigns have mixed effects on HPV vaccine uptake among children and youth. For HPV infection and genital warts, countrywide provision of vaccines is effective at reducing the prevalence of these adverse health outcomes among youth. Recommendations 1. Continue to offer the HPV vaccine to eligible students at ROP – PH (...) continuing medical education training. Prevalence of HPV infection and genital warts Countrywide provision of vaccines is effective at reducing the prevalence of HPV infection and genital warts among youth. At a population level, the prevalence of HPV infection was reduced by 44 per cent (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.82, I 2 = 77%) (two studies) and the prevalence of genital warts was reduced by 34 per cent (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.84, I 2 = 75%) (three studies) among youth following countrywide provision

2020 Peel Health Library

88. Economic Analyses of Policies to Reduce Cervical Cancer

issues of our time, based on the best available research evidence and systematically elicited citizen values and stakeholder insights. We aim to strengthen health systems – locally, nationally, and internationally – and get the right programs, services and drugs to the people who need them. Authors Cristina A. Mattison, PhD, Scientific Lead, Stakeholder Engagement and Systems Analysis, McMaster Health Forum Michael G. Wilson, PhD, Assistant Director, McMaster Health Forum, and Associate Professor (...) at cervical cancer screening? Why the issue is important • Cervical cancer is the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in women globally, which is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). • Over the last few decades, cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates have declined in many countries, including Canada. • The improvements have been attributed, in part, to higher rates of cervical cancer screening and the implementation of population-level HPV vaccine strategies. • However, immunization does

2019 McMaster Health Forum

89. Covid-19: ASRM Recommendations For Reducing The Risk Of Viral Transmission During Fertility Treatment With The Use Of Autologous Gametes

of a pregnant female and in pregnancy. Because the drug is believed to cause new muta- tions, it is recommended that: two forms of contraception be used during therapy; pregnancy testing be performed monthly; and pregnancy be avoided for the ?rst six months after discontinuation of therapy in either partner. Although few women have been studied, there does not appear to be an increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes in HCV-infectedpregnantwomen.Theriskofverticaltransmis- sion correlates with maternal viral (...) burden. In HCV-positive women who decline therapy, or in those who fail to achieve a sustained virologic response to therapy, the risk of vertical transmission is greatest when maternal viral levels exceed 106 copies/mL. There is no vaccine available to treat infants born to HCV-infected women; breastfeeding is allowed. HepatitisAVirus HAV,asmallRNAvirus,isamajorcauseofacutehepatitisin the United States. Infection usually produces immunity that limits the duration of infection and prevents

2020 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

90. Assessment of rash in children

and rubella], morbilliform drug eruption). Papule: a raised area <1 cm in size (e.g., wart). Nodule: a larger papule, >1 cm in size (e.g., nodular prurigo). Plaque: a flat-topped raised area (a cross between a nodule and a patch; e.g., psoriasis). Vesicle: a small fluid-filled lesion (blister) <0.5 cm in size (e.g., varicella, eczema herpeticum). Bulla: a larger vesicle >0.5 cm (e.g., bullous impetigo). Pustule: a pus-filled lesion (e.g., folliculitis). Wheal: a transient raised papule or plaque caused (...) Immune thrombocytopenia Kawasaki disease Juvenile arthritis Henoch-Schonlein purpura Systemic lupus erythematosus Rheumatic fever Sarcoidosis Contributors Authors Professor Emeritus of Pediatrics and Dermatology Indiana University School of Medicine Riley Hospital for Children Indianapolis IN Disclosures PT declares that her spouse owns stocks in Eli Lilly and Company. Peer reviewers Clinical Professor of Dermatology Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons New York City NY Disclosures

2018 BMJ Best Practice

91. Assessment of dermatological disorders in HIV

; past, present and future! Int J Dermatol. 2004;43:468-470. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15186235?tool=bestpractice.com Cutaneous manifestations often reflect immune status and may offer insight into long-term prognosis. Although morbidity from skin diseases, particularly from opportunistic infection, has decreased with the advent of antiretroviral treatment, there are still significant dermatological problems in the post-antiretroviral therapy era. Dermatological disorders in HIV may (...) be categorised as infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, drug reaction, and metabolic. Differentials Psoriasis Seborrhoeic dermatitis Atopic dermatitis Xerosis Perioral dermatitis Acne vulgaris Human papillomavirus (HPV) - warts or condylomata acuminata Herpes simplex virus (HSV) Varicella zoster virus (VZV) Folliculitis Syphilis (Treponema pallidum) Scabies Insect bite Candida Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) HIV-related lipodystrophy Nail lesions Gonorrhoea Chlamydia/LGV Aphthous ulcers Photodermatitis Prurigo

2018 BMJ Best Practice

92. Overview of sexually transmitted diseases

coalesce into larger plaques. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation. Wiley DJ, Douglas J, Beutner K, et al. External genital warts: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35(suppl 2):S210-S224. http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/Supplement_2/S210.full http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12353208?tool=bestpractice.com Caused by a retrovirus that infects and replicates in human lymphocytes and macrophages, eroding the integrity of the human immune system over a number (...) carriers. Therapy for chronic infection includes nucleoside/nucleotide analogs, interferon-alfa, and pegylated interferon-alfa. Most common routes of transmission are through illicit injection drug use (sharing used needles) and transfusion of contaminated blood products. Most infections are asymptomatic; however, hepatic inflammation is often present and can lead to progressive hepatic fibrosis. The goal of treatment is to eradicate the virus and achieve a sustained virological response. Therapy has

2018 BMJ Best Practice

93. Molluscum contagiosum

or pruritus. Diagnosis is usually clinical. Children are primarily managed conservatively. Adults should be treated with curettage, cryotherapy or cantharidin. However, available treatment options are the same for both adults and children. Complications relate to treatment; discomfort, secondary infection of the wound or scarring may occur. Definition This condition is caused by the molluscum contagiosum virus, a ubiquitous poxvirus that escapes immune destruction for months to years. Lesions (...) are cutaneous (less commonly mucosal). They appear as pearl-like, smooth papules, which are umbilicated. The histological equivalent of epidermal collections of molluscum bodies is referred to as Henderson-Patterson bodies; virally infected keratinocytes with a central orifice. Lesions are generally caused via skin-to-skin or fomite contact in children and by sexual transmission in adults. Silverberg NB. Warts and molluscum in children. Adv Dermatol. 2004;20:23-73. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed

2018 BMJ Best Practice

94. Overview of sexually transmitted infections

coalesce into larger plaques. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation. Wiley DJ, Douglas J, Beutner K, et al. External genital warts: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35(suppl 2):S210-S224. http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/Supplement_2/S210.full http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12353208?tool=bestpractice.com Caused by a retrovirus that infects and replicates in human lymphocytes and macrophages, eroding the integrity of the human immune system over a number (...) carriers. Therapy for chronic infection includes nucleoside/nucleotide analogs, interferon-alfa, and pegylated interferon-alfa. Most common routes of transmission are through illicit injection drug use (sharing used needles) and transfusion of contaminated blood products. Most infections are asymptomatic; however, hepatic inflammation is often present and can lead to progressive hepatic fibrosis. The goal of treatment is to eradicate the virus and achieve a sustained virological response. Therapy has

2018 BMJ Best Practice

95. Assessment of rash in children

and rubella], morbilliform drug eruption). Papule: a raised area <1 cm in size (e.g., wart). Nodule: a larger papule, >1 cm in size (e.g., nodular prurigo). Plaque: a flat-topped raised area (a cross between a nodule and a patch; e.g., psoriasis). Vesicle: a small fluid-filled lesion (blister) <0.5 cm in size (e.g., varicella, eczema herpeticum). Bulla: a larger vesicle >0.5 cm (e.g., bullous impetigo). Pustule: a pus-filled lesion (e.g., folliculitis). Wheal: a transient raised papule or plaque caused (...) Immune thrombocytopenia Kawasaki disease Juvenile arthritis Henoch-Schonlein purpura Systemic lupus erythematosus Rheumatic fever Sarcoidosis Contributors Authors Professor Emeritus of Pediatrics and Dermatology Indiana University School of Medicine Riley Hospital for Children Indianapolis IN Disclosures PT declares that her spouse owns stocks in Eli Lilly and Company. Peer reviewers Clinical Professor of Dermatology Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons New York City NY Disclosures

2018 BMJ Best Practice

96. Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Cervical Screening and Cervical Cancer

to fight them off (by affecting the body’s immune response). • Smoking. • Not having the HPV vaccine. (Cancer Research UK, 2014a & Jo’s Cervical Cancer Trust, 2016) Key facts • HPV infection is a normal consequence of sex. In most women HPV will not cause long-term harm and will normally be eradicated by the immune system. • Genital warts do not cause cervical cancer. • There are no visible physical signs of high-risk HPV; it can only be diagnosed by undergoing specific tests. • Regular cervical (...) sexual intercourse. Herd immunity, (also called herd effect, community immunity, population immunity or social immunity) is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune. Laser therapy, a treatment that uses intense, narrow beams of light to cut and destroy tissue, such as cancer tissue. Lichen sclerosis, a long-term skin condition

2018 Royal College of Nursing

97. Cost-effectiveness analysis of HPV vaccination of boys in Belgium

HPV4 DEFINITION Anogenital warts Anal intra-epithelial neoplasia Agentschap Zorg en Gezondheid Cost-effectiveness analysis Confidence interval Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia Centra voor Leerlingen Begeleiding Consumer price index Complex regional pain syndrome Cost-utility analysis Direct medical costs European Medicine Agency European public assessment report Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles Guillain-barre syndrome General practitioner Genital warts Health care payer Haut Conseil de la Santé (...) of anal, oropharyngeal and penile cancers, and also causes anogenital warts. 6 Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HPV, resulting in higher rates of anal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers in this group. 7, 8 1.2 The HPV vaccines Three vaccines are currently authorised by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the prevention of a number of HPV-related diseases. These vaccines do not provide protection against all HPV-related cancers but against a number of specific

2019 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

98. WHO consolidated guideline on self-care interventions for health: sexual and reproductive health and rights

Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean), Rodolfo Gomez Ponce de Leon (Pan American Health Organization/WHO Regional Office for the Americas), Lianne Gonsalves (Department of RHR), Naoko Ishikawa (WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific), Garrett Mehl (Department of RHR), Léopold Ouedraogo (WHO Regional Office for Africa), Bharat Rewari (WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia), Tigest Tamrat (Department of RHR), Adriana Velazquez Berumen (Department of Essential Medicines, Devices (...) (Department of Health Systems, Governance and Financing [HGF]), Mario Festin (Department of RHR), Rustini Floranita (WHO Representative’s Office, Indonesia), Bela Ganatra (Department of RHR), (Geetha Krishnan Gopalakrishna Pillai (Department of SDS, Traditional, Complementary and Integrative Medicine [TCM]), John Grove (Department of Information, Evidence and Research [IER]), Suzanne Rose Hill (Department of Essential Medicines and Health Products [EMP]), Chandani Anoma Jayathilaka (WHO Regional Office

2019 World Health Organisation Guidelines

99. Review of information management practices in the HSE Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting (CIDR) system

radiation. ? Monitoring services — Monitoring the safety and quality of health services and children’s social services, and investigating as necessary serious concerns about the health and welfare of people who use these services. ? Health technology assessment — Evaluating the clinical and cost-effectiveness of health programmes, policies, medicines, medical equipment, diagnostic and surgical techniques, health promotion and protection activities, and providing advice to enable the best use (...) Performance Indicator NIAC National Immunisation Advisory Committee NIO National Immunisation Office NPHLG National Public Health Leadership Group NVRL National Virus Reference Laboratory OoCIO Office of Chief Information Officer PHMCDG Public Health Medicine Communicable Disease Group PIA Privacy Impact Assessment PII Personally Identifiable Information SMO Senior Medical Officer SMT Senior Management Team SOP Standard Operating Procedures SPHM Specialist in Public Health Medicine SP&T Strategic Planning

2019 HIQA Health Information

100. Syphilis in pregnancy

-up · Inform health care providers who may encounter women with syphilis in pregnancy (e.g. in emergency departments, general practitioners) about the referral pathways · Collaborate and coordinate with local clinical and community services (e.g. Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander medical services, community organisations and programs, mental health services, drug and alcohol programs, young parent programs, women’s groups, criminal justice systems 5,21 ) Model of care · Involve (...) for information purposes only. The information has been prepared using a multidisciplinary approach with reference to the best information and evidence available at the time of preparation. No assurance is given that the information is entirely complete, current, or accurate in every respect. The guideline is not a substitute for clinical judgement, knowledge and expertise, or medical advice. Variation from the guideline, taking into account individual circumstances, may be appropriate. This guideline does

2019 Queensland Health

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