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61. Plantar wart

USP) is a new wart treatment which may trigger a host immune response to the wart virus, resulting in wart resolution. It is now recommended as a second-line therapy. Surgery [ ] A ~7 mm plantar wart surgically removed from the sole of a person's foot after other treatments failed — This, and similar methods, is a common surgical treatment which acts by freezing the external cell structure of the warts, destroying the live tissue. and surgical excision, which may produce scarring (...) information: First-line therapy Over the counter Second-line therapy , intralesional , or pulsed dye laser therapy Third-line therapy , surgical excision Cryotherapy being applied to a plantar wart with a A number of treatments have been found to be effective. A 2012 review of different treatments for skin warts in otherwise healthy people concluded modest benefit from salicylic acid and cryotherapy appears similar to salicylic acid. Medications [ ] Salicylic acid — the involves the peeling away of dead

2012 Wikipedia

62. Typing of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) From Female Genital Warts

% of lesions also contain co-infection with high-risk HPV types.6,7 Although genital warts are not life-threatening, they cause significant psychosocial morbidities resulting in low self-esteem, negative self-perception, embarrassment and anxiety.8,9 Genital warts also represent not only a health problem for the individual, but also an economic burden for society as they carry a high and immediate financial burden and health care cost due to their generally recalcitrant response to conventional therapies.9 (...) With this in mind, immunization with HPV 6/11/16/18 recombinant vaccine holds promise for reducing overall burden on clinical HPV-related diseases. Genital warts are a common cause for referral to the Colposcopy Clinic of Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town which is a tertiary hospital serving the wider Cape Town area and the Western Cape Province. With an increasing number of cases seen requiring multiple clinical visits for treatment and a high number of recurrent and persistent cases, we undertook this study

2010 Clinical Trials

63. Multicenter Trial Evaluating the Immunogenicity of HPV Vaccination in Girls on Immunosuppressive Therapy.

Multicenter Trial Evaluating the Immunogenicity of HPV Vaccination in Girls on Immunosuppressive Therapy. Multicenter Trial Evaluating the Immunogenicity of HPV Vaccination in Girls on Immunosuppressive Therapy. - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100 (...) ). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Multicenter Trial Evaluating the Immunogenicity of HPV Vaccination in Girls on Immunosuppressive Therapy. (PRIMAVERA) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01687192 Recruitment Status : Unknown Verified July 2015 by University Hospital

2012 Clinical Trials

64. Guidelines for topical photodynamic therapy

, Sterenborg HJ, Neumann HA, Robinson DJ. Response of Bowen disease to ALA-PDT using a single and a 2-fold illumi- nation scheme. Arch Dermatol 2007; 143:264–5. 25 Castano A, Mroz P, Hamblin MR. Photodynamic therapy and anti-tumour immunity. Nat Rev Cancer 2006; 6:535–45. 26 Choudry K, Brooke RC, Farrar W, Rhodes LE. The effect of an iron chelating agent on protoporphyrin IX levels and phototox- icity in topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy. Br J Dermatol 2003; 149:124–30. 27 Ziolkowski P (...) Guidelines for topical photodynamic therapy GUIDELINES BJD British Journal of Dermatology Guidelines for topical photodynamic therapy: update C.A. Morton, K.E. McKenna* and L.E. Rhodes on behalf of the British Association of Dermatologists Therapy Guidelines and Audit Subcommittee and the British Photodermatology Group Department of Dermatology, Stirling Royal In?rmary, Stirling FK2 8AU, U.K. *Department of Dermatology, Belfast City Hospital, Belfast BT9 7AB, U.K. Photobiology Unit

2008 British Association of Dermatologists

65. Pre-school vaccinations: guide to vaccinations from 2 to 5 years

at this age? The pre-school immunisations – often called pre-school boosters – will update or top up your child’s level of antibodies (which their bodies produce to fight off disease and infection) and help to keep them protected. Protection (immunity) against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough and polio from the immunisations given to babies can fade over time. Sometimes, complete immunity to measles, mumps or rubella does not develop after a single dose of the MMR vaccine – so this gives them a second (...) the body’s immune system to make antibodies. If your child comes into contact with the infection, the antibodies will recognise it and be ready to protect him or her. Because vaccines have been used so successfully in the UK, diseases such as polio have disappeared from this country.7 How do we know that vaccines are safe? Before a vaccine is allowed to be used, its safety and effectiveness have to be thoroughly tested. After they have been licensed, the safety of vaccines continues to be monitored. Any

2019 Public Health England

66. Overview of sexually transmitted infections

coalesce into larger plaques. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation. Wiley DJ, Douglas J, Beutner K, et al. External genital warts: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35(suppl 2):S210-S224. http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/Supplement_2/S210.full http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12353208?tool=bestpractice.com Caused by a retrovirus that infects and replicates in human lymphocytes and macrophages, eroding the integrity of the human immune system over a number (...) ulcer with fluctuant lymphadenitis (bubo formation). Chancroid is an important cofactor in HIV transmission, and HIV status must be assessed. Most cases resolve with antibiotic therapy, and recurrence is rare. An acute ascending polymicrobial infection of the female upper genital tract that is frequently associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis . Dayan L. Pelvic inflammatory disease. Aust Fam Physician. 2006 Nov;35(11):858-62. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17099803?tool

2018 BMJ Best Practice

67. Overview of sexually transmitted diseases

coalesce into larger plaques. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation. Wiley DJ, Douglas J, Beutner K, et al. External genital warts: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35(suppl 2):S210-S224. http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/Supplement_2/S210.full http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12353208?tool=bestpractice.com Caused by a retrovirus that infects and replicates in human lymphocytes and macrophages, eroding the integrity of the human immune system over a number (...) ulcer with fluctuant lymphadenitis (bubo formation). Chancroid is an important cofactor in HIV transmission, and HIV status must be assessed. Most cases resolve with antibiotic therapy, and recurrence is rare. An acute ascending polymicrobial infection of the female upper genital tract that is frequently associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis . Dayan L. Pelvic inflammatory disease. Aust Fam Physician. 2006 Nov;35(11):858-62. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17099803?tool

2018 BMJ Best Practice

68. Assessment of dermatological disorders in HIV

; past, present and future! Int J Dermatol. 2004;43:468-470. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15186235?tool=bestpractice.com Cutaneous manifestations often reflect immune status and may offer insight into long-term prognosis. Although morbidity from skin diseases, particularly from opportunistic infection, has decreased with the advent of antiretroviral treatment, there are still significant dermatological problems in the post-antiretroviral therapy era. Dermatological disorders in HIV may (...) be categorised as infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, drug reaction, and metabolic. Differentials Psoriasis Seborrhoeic dermatitis Atopic dermatitis Xerosis Perioral dermatitis Acne vulgaris Human papillomavirus (HPV) - warts or condylomata acuminata Herpes simplex virus (HSV) Varicella zoster virus (VZV) Folliculitis Syphilis (Treponema pallidum) Scabies Insect bite Candida Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) HIV-related lipodystrophy Nail lesions Gonorrhoea Chlamydia/LGV Aphthous ulcers Photodermatitis Prurigo

2018 BMJ Best Practice

69. Syphilis in pregnancy

of high infectivity is 12 months o Sexual transmission uncommon after two years of infection · Infectious cases become non-infectious seven days after one dose of benzathine penicillin, or when all symptoms have resolved, whichever is longer 31 · Immunity is not conferred by treatment or previous infection—re-infection can occur Reactive serology · Isolated reactive tests (a non-treponemal or a treponemal test) are not adequate for diagnosis of syphilis 27 · Serology results remain reactive after (...) %), papular (12%) or macular (10%) · In warm and moist areas of the body (e.g. anus, labia) flat, wart-like plaques develop as a result of the spread of the treponemes from the primary lesion 16 (condylomata lata) · May be associated with non-specific constitutional symptoms lasting two to six weeks (e.g. malaise, fever, lymphadenopathy, headaches, weight loss, muscle aches, patchy alopecia, sore throat) · Resolves spontaneously without treatment in 3–12 weeks · May reoccur in the first year and rarely

2019 Queensland Health

70. Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Cervical Screening and Cervical Cancer

to fight them off (by affecting the body’s immune response). • Smoking. • Not having the HPV vaccine. (Cancer Research UK, 2014a & Jo’s Cervical Cancer Trust, 2016) Key facts • HPV infection is a normal consequence of sex. In most women HPV will not cause long-term harm and will normally be eradicated by the immune system. • Genital warts do not cause cervical cancer. • There are no visible physical signs of high-risk HPV; it can only be diagnosed by undergoing specific tests. • Regular cervical (...) sexual intercourse. Herd immunity, (also called herd effect, community immunity, population immunity or social immunity) is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune. Laser therapy, a treatment that uses intense, narrow beams of light to cut and destroy tissue, such as cancer tissue. Lichen sclerosis, a long-term skin condition

2018 Royal College of Nursing

71. WHO consolidated guideline on self-care interventions for health: sexual and reproductive health and rights

, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), and the Children’s Investment Fund Foundation (CIFF). Acknowledgementsix ART antiretroviral therapy CESCR United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights CSE comprehensive sexuality education DMPA depot medroxyprogesterone acetate DMPA-IM DMPA in its intramuscular form DMPA-SC DMPA in its subcutaneous form DOI declaration of interest ERG External Review Group GDG Guideline Development Group GPS good practice statement GRADE (...) genital warts and cervical cancer; and preventing unintended pregnancy. Not specified REC 14: The correct and consistent use of condoms with condom- compatible lubricants is recommended for all key populations to prevent sexual transmission of HIV and STIs. Strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence Existing recommendations on the number of progestogen-only pill (POP) and combined oral contraceptive (COC) pill packs that should be provided at initial and return visits REC 15a: Provide up to one

2019 World Health Organisation Guidelines

72. Gynaecological Cancers: a Handbook for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Workers and Health Practitioners

Investigating symptoms 12 Chapter 3: If it’s cancer – what next? 17 Explaining test results 17 Overview of treatments for gynaecological cancers 18 Complementary therapies and bush medicine 19 Multidisciplinary care 21 Chapter 4: Cervical cancer 25 What causes cervical cancer? 25 Reducing the risk of cervical cancer 26 National HPV Vaccination Program 26 Cervical Screening Test 27 Why has the Cervical Screening Test changed? 27 Why does screening start at 25? 27 What does the Cervical Screening Test involve (...) , after sex, after menopause • unusual vaginal discharge • persistent pain, pressure or discomfort in the abdomen • swelling of the abdomen • change in bowel or bladder habits • pain during sex • itching, burning or soreness • lumps, sores or wart-like growths. Having one or more of these symptoms does not mean a woman has gynaecological cancer. However, if a woman notices these symptoms, she should see her doctor to have the symptoms checked. For more information about symptoms of cervical

2018 Cancer Australia

73. Guidelines for the Management of Genital, Anal and Throat HPV Infection in New Zealand

of the warts, the age of the patient and whether the patient is pregnant. • All treatments have significant failure and relapse rates. • People with a small number of low volume warts, irrespective of type can be treated with either ablative therapy or topical treatment. Podophyllotoxin for 4 weeks or imiquimod for 16 weeks are suitable home treatments for patients. The patient should be given a demonstration on lesion finding, treatment application and advice about discomfort and local skin reactions from (...) the treatment. • Soft, non-keratinised warts respond well to cryotherapy, imiquimod or podophyllotoxin. Dry, keratinised warts may be better treated with ablative methods such as cryotherapy, excision or electrocautery. Aggressive ablative therapy should be avoided over the clitoris, glans penis, urinary meatus, prepuce, in uncircumcised men. • If there is no significant response within 4–6 weeks, an alternative diagnosis, change of treatment modality, or onward referral should be considered. • Patients

2017 New Zealand Sexual Health Society

74. Sexually Transmitted Infections

%, oropharynx 26%). • Although genital warts and genital tract cancers are declining, HPV-associated head and neck cancers and anal cancers are increasing – especially in men. Does natural infection induce protective immunity? • Not always. Current evidence suggests that overall naturally acquired immunity is unlikely to be effective because of the ability of the virus to evade the immune system. Previous infection does not necessarily create long term immune memory so does not prevent future re-infection (...) to know which partner it came from or how long ago. Having HPV does not mean that a person or his/her partner is having sex outside the relationship. • There are treatments for genital warts and abnormal cells. • There is no treatment to eliminate HPV itself. HPV is usually dealt with by your body’s immune system. • HPV does not affect fertility. • HPV does not stop you having a normal sex life. • There is no HPV test to check HPV status. This means there is no test that can help answer the questions

2017 New Zealand Sexual Health Society

75. Guidelines for the Management of Genital Herpes in New Zealand

Neurotoxicity (lethargy, confusion, hallucinations and involuntary movements) has been reported in those with renal impairment. Topical antiviral therapy Topical aciclovir creams are less effective than oral aciclovir. 34 Hence, use of topical treatment is not recommended. Topical antiviral creams are available over the counter, but are no longer subsidised on the pharmaceutical schedule. Newer topical agents such as immune modulators are currently in clinical trials. Other therapies Evidence for other (...) . Sexually Transmitted Infections – Summary of Guidelines 2017 Patient information pamphlets 1. Some Questions and Answers about HPV and Genital Warts 2. Cervical Smears and Human Papillomavirus Infection (HPV) 3. Preventing HPV Cancers by Vaccination: What Everyone Should Know 4. HPV and Men 5. HPV and Throat Cancer: Common Questions and Answers HERPES Tollfree 0508 11 12 13 www.herpes.org.nz Health professionals’ resources 1. Guidelines for the Management of Genital Herpes in New Zealand – 12th Edition

2017 New Zealand Sexual Health Society

76. A Guide to Utilization of the Microbiology Laboratory for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: 2018 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Society for Microbiology (Full text)

for successful examination. The time from collection to transport listed will optimize results; longer times may compromise results. At an elementary level, the physician needs answers to 3 very basic questions from the laboratory: Is my patient’s illness caused by a microbe? If so, what is it? What is the susceptibility profile of the organism so therapy can be targeted? To meet those needs, the laboratory requires a specimen that has been appropriately selected, collected, and transported to the laboratory (...) that the laboratory report “everything that grows.” This can provide irrelevant information that could result in inaccurate diagnosis and inappropriate therapy. “Background noise” of commensal microbiota must be avoided where possible. Many body sites have normal, commensal microbiota that can easily contaminate the inappropriately collected specimen and complicate interpretation. Therefore, specimens from sites such as lower respiratory tract (sputum), nasal sinuses, superficial wounds, fistulae, and others

2018 Infectious Diseases Society of America PubMed

77. HTA of extending the HPV vaccination to boys

and Quality Authority Page 3 of 450 Table of Contents Table of Contents 3 About the Health Information and Quality Authority 7 Foreword 9 Acknowledgements 10 List of abbreviations used in this report 12 Advice to the Minister for Health 15 Executive summary 22 Plain English summary 37 1 Introduction 39 1.1 Background to the request 39 1.2 Terms of reference 40 1.3 Overall approach 41 2 Description of technology 43 2.1 Introduction 43 2.2 Pathogen 43 2.3 Disease 44 2.4 Immune response after HPV infection (...) and precancerous lesions 88 3.7 Invasive penile cancer and precancerous penile lesions 93 3.8 Head and neck cancer 98 3.9 Anogenital warts (condyloma acuminatae) 110 3.10 Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis 113 3.11 Discussion 114 Key points 118 4 Clinical efficacy and immunogenicity of HPV vaccines 122 4.1 Search strategy and methodology 125 4.2 Results 132 4.3 Evidence synthesis and summaries of results 142 4.4 Discussion 207 Key points 213 5 Population-level effectiveness of HPV immunisation programmes 216

2018 Health Information and Quality Authority

78. WHO guideline on syphilis screening and treatment for pregnant women

acquired immune deficiency syndrome AMR antimicrobial resistance CI confidence interval DOI declaration of interests FTA-ABS fluorescent treponemal antibody absorbed GDG Guideline Development Group GRADE Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation GUD genital ulcer disease HIV human immunodeficiency virus HPV human papillomavirus HSV herpes simplex virus HSV-2 herpes simplex virus type 2 MSH Management Sciences for Health MSM men who have sex with men PICO population, intervention (...) (such as chancroid) approach elimination in many countries (17, 18). As recommended during the STI expert consultation, treatment guidelines for genital ulcer disease (GUD) should be updated to include HSV-2 treatment and a longer treatment duration for HSV-2 should be explored. In addition, suppressive therapy for HSV-2 should be considered in areas with high HIV prevalence (17). The chronic, lifelong nature of viral infections also requires that renewed attention be paid to developing effective prevention

2017 World Health Organisation Guidelines

79. Responding to children and adolescents who have been sexually abused

from the United States Govern- ment’s President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR); and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)/United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)/United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP).vi Acronyms and abbreviations ARV antiretroviral drug CBT cognitive behavioural therapy CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women CDC (...) , gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex LMIC low- and middle- income country LNG levonorgestrel mHealth mobile health mhGAP WHO Mental Health Gap Action Programme NAAT nucleic acid amplification test PEP post-exposure prophylaxis (for HIV) PICO population, intervention, comparator, outcome PTSD post-traumatic stress disorder SIT stress inoculation training STI sexually transmitted infection TF-CBT trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy UK United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

2017 World Health Organisation Guidelines

80. Communication strategies for the prevention of HIV, STI and hepatitis among MSM in Europe

support 24 Table 17: Prevention messages about stigma, discrimination, and the law 25 Table 18: Comparison of common communication channels and methods 40 TECHNICAL DOCUMENT Communication strategies for the prevention of HIV, STI and hepatitis among MSM in Europe v Abbreviations AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome ART Anti-retroviral therapy ECDC European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control EEA European Economic Area EMIS European MSM Internet Survey EU European Union GLBTIQ Gay, lesbian

2016 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Technical Guidance

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