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Wart Immune Therapy

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181. Pleuropulmonary Blastoma, Childhood

trials for children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer are generally designed to compare potentially better therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. Most of the progress made in identifying curative therapy for childhood cancers has been achieved through clinical trials. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the . Dramatic improvements in survival have been achieved for children and adolescents with cancer. Between 1975 and 2010, childhood cancer mortality (...) decreased by more than 50%.[ ] Childhood and adolescent cancer survivors require close monitoring because cancer therapy side effects may persist or develop months or years after treatment. (Refer to the PDQ summary on for specific information about the incidence, type, and monitoring of late effects in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors.) Childhood cancer is a rare disease, with about 15,000 cases diagnosed annually in the United States in individuals younger than 20 years.[ ] The U.S. defines

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

182. Pancreatic Cancer, Childhood

for children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer are generally designed to compare potentially better therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. Most of the progress made in identifying curative therapy for childhood cancers has been achieved through clinical trials. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the . Dramatic improvements in survival have been achieved for children and adolescents with cancer. Between 1975 and 2010, childhood cancer mortality decreased (...) by more than 50%.[ ] Childhood and adolescent cancer survivors require close monitoring because cancer therapy side effects may persist or develop months or years after treatment. (Refer to the PDQ summary on for specific information about the incidence, type, and monitoring of late effects in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors.) Childhood cancer is a rare disease, with about 15,000 cases diagnosed annually in the United States in individuals younger than 20 years.[ ] The U.S. defines a rare

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

183. Oral Cancer, Childhood

for children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer are generally designed to compare potentially better therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. Most of the progress made in identifying curative therapy for childhood cancers has been achieved through clinical trials. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the . Dramatic improvements in survival have been achieved for children and adolescents with cancer. Between 1975 and 2010, childhood cancer mortality decreased (...) by more than 50%.[ ] Childhood and adolescent cancer survivors require close monitoring because cancer therapy side effects may persist or develop months or years after treatment. (Refer to the PDQ summary on for specific information about the incidence, type, and monitoring of late effects in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors.) Childhood cancer is a rare disease, with about 15,000 cases diagnosed annually in the United States in individuals younger than 20 years.[ ] The U.S. defines a rare

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

184. Vaginal Cancer

% fluorouracil cream. This option may be useful in the setting of multifocal lesions.[ , ] Intracavitary radiation therapy.[ , ] Because of its attendant toxicity and inherent carcinogenicity, this treatment is primarily used in the setting of multifocal or recurrent disease, or when the risk of surgery is high.[ ] The entire vaginal mucosa is usually treated.[ ] Imiquimod cream 5%, an immune stimulant used to treat genital warts, is an additional topical therapy that has a reported complete clinical (...) curable with local modality therapies, but there is no standard treatment of proven efficacy for metastatic disease. A large proportion (30%–50%) of women with vaginal carcinomas have had a previous hysterectomy for benign, pre-malignant, or malignant disease.[ , ] The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system indicates that tumors in the vagina that involve the cervix of women with an intact uterus are classified as cervical cancers.[ ] Therefore, tumors that may have actually

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

185. Bladder Cancer, Childhood

for children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer are generally designed to compare potentially better therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. Most of the progress made in identifying curative therapy for childhood cancers has been achieved through clinical trials. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the . Dramatic improvements in survival have been achieved for children and adolescents with cancer. Between 1975 and 2010, childhood cancer mortality decreased (...) by more than 50%.[ ] Childhood and adolescent cancer survivors require close monitoring because cancer therapy side effects may persist or develop months or years after treatment. (Refer to the PDQ summary on for specific information about the incidence, type, and monitoring of late effects in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors.) Childhood cancer is a rare disease, with about 15,000 cases diagnosed annually in the United States in individuals younger than 20 years.[ ] The U.S. defines a rare

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

186. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Skin Cancer), Childhood

. Clinical trials for children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer are generally designed to compare potentially better therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. Most of the progress made in identifying curative therapy for childhood cancers has been achieved through clinical trials. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the . Dramatic improvements in survival have been achieved for children and adolescents with cancer. Between 1975 and 2010, childhood cancer (...) mortality decreased by more than 50%.[ ] Childhood and adolescent cancer survivors require close monitoring because cancer therapy side effects may persist or develop months or years after treatment. (Refer to the PDQ summary on for specific information about the incidence, type, and monitoring of late effects in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors.) Childhood cancer is a rare disease, with about 15,000 cases diagnosed annually in the United States in individuals younger than 20 years.[ ] The U.S

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

187. Adrenocortical Carcinoma, Childhood

trials for children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer are generally designed to compare potentially better therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. Most of the progress made in identifying curative therapy for childhood cancers has been achieved through clinical trials. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the . Dramatic improvements in survival have been achieved for children and adolescents with cancer. Between 1975 and 2010, childhood cancer mortality (...) decreased by more than 50%.[ ] Childhood and adolescent cancer survivors require close monitoring because cancer therapy side effects may persist or develop months or years after treatment. (Refer to the PDQ summary on for specific information about the incidence, type, and monitoring of late effects in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors.) Childhood cancer is a rare disease, with about 15,000 cases diagnosed annually in the United States in individuals younger than 20 years.[ ] The U.S. defines

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

188. Ovarian Cancer, Childhood

for children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer are generally designed to compare potentially better therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. Most of the progress made in identifying curative therapy for childhood cancers has been achieved through clinical trials. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the . Dramatic improvements in survival have been achieved for children and adolescents with cancer. Between 1975 and 2010, childhood cancer mortality decreased (...) by more than 50%.[ ] Childhood and adolescent cancer survivors require close monitoring because cancer therapy side effects may persist or develop months or years after treatment. (Refer to the PDQ summary on for specific information about the incidence, type, and monitoring of late effects in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors.) Childhood cancer is a rare disease, with about 15,000 cases diagnosed annually in the United States in individuals younger than 20 years.[ ] The U.S. defines a rare

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

189. Molluscum contagiosum

therapy). Chemical destructive (e.g.Trichloroacetic acid). Chemical non-destructive (e.g. cantharidin, potassium hydroxide 10%, benzoyl peroxide 10%, and retinoids). Immune modulating agents (podophyllin, and imiquimod 5%). Antiviral agents (e.g. Cidofovir). Basis for recommendation Basis for recommendation These recommendations are based on expert opinion [ ; ] and what CKS considers to be good clinical practice in the UK. A specialist may offer diagnostic investigations (e.g. skin biopsy (...) anywhere on the body (except the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet). In children, lesions are commonly seen on the trunk and in flexures, but anogenital lesions may also occur. In adults, sexual contact may lead to lesions developing on the genitalia, pubis, thighs, and lower abdomen. Rarely, lesions can occur on the oral mucosa and on the eyelids. The differential diagnoses include warts, milia, lichen planus, syringomata, and cutaneous cryptococcosis. Molluscum contagiosum is a self

2012 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

190. Nonneoplastic Epithelial Disorders of the Vulva (Overview)

-scratch-itch cycle. The initial stimulus to itch may be underlying seborrheic dermatitis, intertrigo, tinea, or psoriasis; however, in most cases, the underlying cause is not evident and may have been transient vulvitis or vaginal discharge. [ ] Any itching disease of the vulva may become secondarily lichenified. Primary irritant dermatitis In the absence of any immune reactivity, this condition is a common cause of vulvar burning and pruritus due to irritation. Chemical agents that remove surface (...) eczema, or dry skin and is related to a cutaneous hypersensitivity associated with defective cell-mediated immunity and immunoglobulin E overproduction. [ ] Although airborne and food allergens may generally play a role, because of their skin hypersensitivity, atopic individuals sometimes show vulvar symptoms as a result of irritation by personal hygiene products (eg, soaps, cleansers, lotions, perfumes, sanitary napkins). Seborrheic dermatitis The cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. Seborrhea

2014 eMedicine.com

191. Nonlaser Hair Removal Techniques (Overview)

. . Shaker DS, Sloat BR, Le UM, Löhr CV, Yanasarn N, Fischer KA, et al. Immunization by application of DNA vaccine onto a skin area wherein the hair follicles have been induced into anagen-onset stage. Mol Ther . 2007 Nov. 15 (11):2037-43. . Wu S, Bhandari R, Burkhart CN. Thread epilation: a less traumatic technique for patients undergoing isotretinoin therapy. Pediatr Dermatol . 2015 Jan-Feb. 32 (1):158-9. . Olsen EA. Methods of hair removal. J Am Acad Dermatol . 1999 Feb. 40 (2 Pt 1):143-55; quiz 156-7 (...) not be performed on moles, warts, or irritated, sunburned, or broken skin. Pay special attention to the temperature of wax to avoid burning skin. Adverse effects from waxing include pain, hyperpigmentation, scarring, folliculitis, and ingrown hair pseudofolliculitis. A life-threatening Streptococcus pyogenes and herpes simplexvirus infection of the external genitalia occurred in a 20-year-old diabetic woman following a routine perineal "Brazilian" bikini wax. [ ] Additionally, while the pathogenesis

2014 eMedicine.com

192. Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis (Overview)

CIB1-EVER1-EVER2 complex governs keratinocyte-intrinsic immunity to β-papillomaviruses. J Exp Med . 2018 Sep 3. 215 (9):2289-2310. . Jacobelli S, Laude H, Carlotti A, Rozenberg F, Deleuze J, Morini JP, et al. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a marker of human papillomavirus-related disorders not affected by antiretroviral therapy. Arch Dermatol . 2011 May. 147(5):590-6. . Imahorn E, Yüksel Z, Spoerri I, Gürel G, Imhof C, Saraçoğlu ZN, et al. Novel (...) verruciformis lesions. Some EV-HPVs are detected in up to 20% of the non–epidermodysplasia verruciformis population, but they are only pathogenic in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. HPV-5 and HPV-8 have been isolated in more than 90% of epidermodysplasia verruciformis–associated squamous cell carcinomas. In 2017, Merkel cell polyomaviruses also were isolated from lesions. [ ] Next: Pathophysiology The pathophysiology of epidermodysplasia verruciformis is linked to defective cell-mediated immunity

2014 eMedicine.com

193. Ankylosing Spondylitis (Follow-up)

Ankylosing Spondylitis (Follow-up) Carbon Dioxide Laser Surgery in Gynecology Treatment & Management: Surgical Therapy, Preoperative Details, Intraoperative Details Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) =aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjcyMzgyLXRyZWF0bWVudA== processing > Carbon Dioxide Laser Surgery in Gynecology Treatment & Management Updated: Sep 20, 2018 Author: Janice L Bacon, MD; Chief Editor: Christine Isaacs, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Carbon Dioxide Laser Surgery in Gynecology Treatment Surgical Therapy Anesthesia for CO 2 laser treatment of the cervix or external genitalia may be provided by local injection of lidocaine with or without epinephrine. [ , ] Prior to injecting local anesthetic, a topical

2014 eMedicine.com

194. Benign Vulvar Lesions (Follow-up)

-scratch-itch cycle. The initial stimulus to itch may be underlying seborrheic dermatitis, intertrigo, tinea, or psoriasis; however, in most cases, the underlying cause is not evident and may have been transient vulvitis or vaginal discharge. [ ] Any itching disease of the vulva may become secondarily lichenified. Primary irritant dermatitis In the absence of any immune reactivity, this condition is a common cause of vulvar burning and pruritus due to irritation. Chemical agents that remove surface (...) eczema, or dry skin and is related to a cutaneous hypersensitivity associated with defective cell-mediated immunity and immunoglobulin E overproduction. [ ] Although airborne and food allergens may generally play a role, because of their skin hypersensitivity, atopic individuals sometimes show vulvar symptoms as a result of irritation by personal hygiene products (eg, soaps, cleansers, lotions, perfumes, sanitary napkins). Seborrheic dermatitis The cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. Seborrhea

2014 eMedicine.com

195. Benign Cervical Lesions (Follow-up)

intraepithelial neoplasia grades 1, 2, and 3; vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3; vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3). The immunization series should be administered to girls and young women aged 9-26 years. It is administered as a series of 3 doses, typically at 0, 2, and 6 months; however, it is equally effective if all doses are given within 1 year. [ ] In October 2009, the Gardasil vaccine received FDA approval for the prevention of genital warts in men and boys. [ ] Cervarix (...) chloride and potassium are responsible for ferning. The degree of ferning reflects estrogen levels. [ ] After ovulation and under influence of progesterone, the cervical mucus is thick, scant, and acidic and contains numerous leukocytes. In pregnancy, the cervical mucus is even thicker and more tenacious. It is rich in leukocytes and forms a mucous plug that obliterates the cervical canal. [ ] During pregnancy, during the postpartum state, and in women who are on progestin therapy, microglandular

2014 eMedicine.com

196. Pyogenic Granuloma (Follow-up)

> Pediatric Pyogenic Granuloma Treatment & Management Updated: Apr 03, 2018 Author: Brian Keene, DO; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Pediatric Pyogenic Granuloma Treatment Medical Care Topical beta-blocker therapy remains a first-line treatment for pediatric pyogenic granuloma (PG) because of good efficacy and minimal adverse effects. [ , ] Previous successful treatments have been topical timolol over 12-24 weeks; [ , ] since then, case reports have (...) the Euphorbia plant that has been successfully used in the treatment in actinic keratoses. [ ] One case from 2017 reported complete resolution after 6 days of once-daily application; there was no evidence of recurrence at 5 months of follow-up. [ ] Imiquimod is a synthetic imidazoquinoline heterocyclic amine that enhances, through cytokine induction, both the innate and acquired immune pathways, resulting in immunomodulating, antiviral, and antitumor effects. [ , , ] Definitive data on its efficacy

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

197. Filariasis (Diagnosis)

Onchocerciasis The clinical triad of infection in onchocerciasis is as follows: Dermatitis - Skin lesions include edema, pruritus, erythema, papules, scablike eruptions, altered pigmentation, and lichenification Skin nodules (ie, onchocercomas) - Tend to be common over bony prominences, with anatomic location depending on geographic region of transmission Ocular lesions - Usually related to the duration and severity of infection and are caused by an abnormal host immune response to microfilariae; loss (...) to infective insect bites [ ] The number of secondary bacterial and fungal infections [ ] The degree of host immune response [ ] Filarial infection generates significant inflammatory immune responses that participate in the development of symptomatic lymphatic obstruction. Increased levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) secondary to antigenic (from dead worms) stimulation of Th2-type immune response have been demonstrated. [ ] Studies indicate that there is a familial tendency

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

198. Condyloma Acuminatum (Follow-up)

squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs). Treatment is reserved for patients with visible warts. The general treatment strategy is to eliminate as many of the visible lesions as possible until the host immune system can control viral replication. Treatment is not recommended for subclinical anogenital or mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the absence of coexistent dysplasia. No evidence demonstrates that treatment eliminates HPV infection or that it decreases infectivity. In fact, warts may (...) recur after treatment because of activation of latent virus present in healthy skin adjacent to the lesion. Although standard therapies for genital warts can remove most warts, the superiority of any single treatment modality has not been demonstrated, nor is any individual modality ideal for all types of warts. [ ] Factors that influence treatment of HPV disease include the size, morphology, number, and anatomic site of lesions, as well as cost, adverse effects, patient characteristics

2014 eMedicine.com

199. Molluscum Contagiosum (Diagnosis)

. [ , ] More than 1 treatment session is frequently required. Providing this information at the first clinical visit is particularly important when treating benign lesions, such as those of molluscum contagiosum and common warts. A few extra minutes of explanation at this stage can prevent or mitigate numerous problems and questions during later visits. [ ] When lesions fail to respond to initial therapy, a temptation to be overzealous in treatment may occur. Patients and families are more understanding (...) ). The prognosis and therapy are different for each of these groups. Molluscum contagiosum is most common in children who become infected through direct skin-to-skin contact or indirect skin contact with fomites, such as bath towels, sponges, and gymnasium equipment. Lesions typically occur on the chest, arms, trunk, legs, and face. Hundreds of lesions may develop in intertriginous areas, such as the axillae and intercrural region (see the image below). Lesions may rarely occur on the mucous membranes

2014 eMedicine.com

200. Molluscum Contagiosum (Diagnosis)

. [ , ] More than 1 treatment session is frequently required. Providing this information at the first clinical visit is particularly important when treating benign lesions, such as those of molluscum contagiosum and common warts. A few extra minutes of explanation at this stage can prevent or mitigate numerous problems and questions during later visits. [ ] When lesions fail to respond to initial therapy, a temptation to be overzealous in treatment may occur. Patients and families are more understanding (...) ). The prognosis and therapy are different for each of these groups. Molluscum contagiosum is most common in children who become infected through direct skin-to-skin contact or indirect skin contact with fomites, such as bath towels, sponges, and gymnasium equipment. Lesions typically occur on the chest, arms, trunk, legs, and face. Hundreds of lesions may develop in intertriginous areas, such as the axillae and intercrural region (see the image below). Lesions may rarely occur on the mucous membranes

2014 eMedicine.com

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