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Vulvar Anatomy

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161. Urinary Incontinence (Overview)

Urinary Incontinence (Overview) Urinary Incontinence: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvNDUyMjg5LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Urinary Incontinence Updated: Mar 19 (...) in these disorders. In the last decade, funding opportunities for incontinence research have increased vastly. Subspecialty professional organizations and journals are now active. Important contributions to the understanding of the structure and functioning of the lower urinary tract include an improved understanding of the anatomy and dynamic functioning of the pelvic floor and its contribution to continence. In addition, much study has been conducted to bolster the understanding of the neurophysiology

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

162. Arterial Vascular Malformations Including Hemangiomas and Lymphangiomas (Diagnosis)

Arterial Vascular Malformations Including Hemangiomas and Lymphangiomas (Diagnosis) Arterial Vascular Malformations Including Hemangiomas and Lymphangiomas: Background, Anatomy, Pathophysiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) : posterior fossa brain malformations, arterial cerebrovascular anomalies, cardiovascular anomalies, eye anomalies, and ventral developmental defects, specifically sternal defects, or supraumbilical raphe. In a prospective cohort study of 1096 children with hemangiomas, 25 children met the criteria for PHACE, representing 20% of infants with segmental facial hemangiomas. [ ] Next: Anatomy Vascular tumors Hemangiomas located on the trunk or face may be psychologically damaging when children approach school

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

163. Child Abuse and Neglect: Sexual Abuse (Follow-up)

, Chadwick D. Medical diagnosis of the sexually abused child. Child Abuse Negl . 1993 Jan-Feb. 17(1):91-110. . Bays J, Jenny C. Genital and anal conditions confused with child sexual abuse trauma. Am J Dis Child . 1990 Dec. 144(12):1319-22. . Berenson AB. Normal anogenital anatomy. Child Abuse Negl . 1998 Jun. 22(6):589-96; discussion 597-603. . Berkowitz CD. Medical consequences of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse Negl . 1998 Jun. 22(6):541-50; discussion 551-4. . Briere JN, Elliott DM. Immediate (...) of Carol D. Berkowitz, MD. Infant girl with significant bruising that involved labia minora and labia majora, hymenal trauma with disruption of hymen, and fresh blood. Courtesy of Carol D. Berkowitz, MD. Genital examination 10 days after infant girl presented with significant bruising that involved labia minora and labia majora, hymenal trauma with disruption of hymen, and fresh blood. Bruising on vulvar structure is nearly resolved. Hymen is healing and no blood is observed. Courtesy of Carol D

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

164. Bartholin Gland Diseases (Diagnosis)

to the hymen. Their function is to maintain the moisture of the vaginal mucosa's vestibular surface. This article focuses on the most common Bartholin gland diseases, cysts and abscesses (see the image below). Although rare, carcinoma of the gland should be considered in women with an atypical presentation. Primary carcinoma of the Bartholin gland accounts for approximately 5% of vulvar carcinomas. [ , , , , ] Patients typically have an exquisitely tender, fluctuant labial mass with surrounding erythema (...) obstructed, leading to distention of the gland or duct with fluid. Obstruction is usually secondary to nonspecific inflammation or trauma. The cyst is usually 1-3 cm in diameter and often asymptomatic, although larger cysts may be associated with pain and dyspareunia. [ , , , ] Bartholin abscesses result from either primary gland infection or infected cyst. Patients with abscesses complain of acute, rapidly progressive vulvar pain. Studies have shown that these abscesses are usually polymicrobial

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

165. Fournier Gangrene (Diagnosis)

Fournier Gangrene (Diagnosis) Fournier Gangrene: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjAyODg5OS1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Fournier Gangrene Updated: Jan 10 (...) his married lover), placement of foreign bodies such as beans within the urethra, and excessive intercourse in diabetic and alcoholic persons. He calls upon physicians to be steadfast in obtaining confession from patients of “obscene practices.” Previous Next: Anatomy The complex anatomy of the male external genitalia influences the initiation and progression of Fournier gangrene. This infectious process involves the superficial and deep fascial planes of the genitalia. As the microorganisms

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

166. Drainage, Bartholin Abscess (Diagnosis)

of the vulvar soft tissue are very uncommon. When localized in the Bartholin gland area, these tumors can be mistaken for benign lesions, leading to a delayed diagnosis. [ ] This rare form of carcinoma has an approximate incidence of 0.1 cases per 100,000 women. Women older than 40 years should be referred to a gynecologist for diagnosis and treatment. [ ] Progressive infection and sepsis Patients with compromised immune systems may exhibit rare complications of progressive infection and sepsis. Treat all (...) of Bartholin gland abscesses. Obstet Gynecol . 2013 Oct. 122(4):794-9. . Reif P, Ulrich D, Bjelic-Radisic V, Hausler M, Schnedl-Lamprecht E, Tamussino K. Management of Bartholin's cyst and abscess using the Word catheter: implementation, recurrence rates and costs. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol . 2015 Jul. 190:81-4. . Mayeaux EJ Jr, Cooper D. Vulvar procedures: biopsy, Bartholin abscess treatment, and condyloma treatment. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am . 2013 Dec. 40 (4):759-72. . Marzano DA, Haefner HK

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

167. Fournier Gangrene (Overview)

Fournier Gangrene (Overview) Fournier Gangrene: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjAyODg5OS1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Fournier Gangrene Updated: Jan 10, 2018 (...) lover), placement of foreign bodies such as beans within the urethra, and excessive intercourse in diabetic and alcoholic persons. He calls upon physicians to be steadfast in obtaining confession from patients of “obscene practices.” Previous Next: Anatomy The complex anatomy of the male external genitalia influences the initiation and progression of Fournier gangrene. This infectious process involves the superficial and deep fascial planes of the genitalia. As the microorganisms responsible

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

168. Drainage, Bartholin Abscess

recurrences with previous treatments should be referred to a gynecologist for definitive treatment (complete excision). Previous Next: Complications Bleeding Excessive bleeding is a potential complication for any surgical procedure. Recurrence Recurrence is the most common complication after incision and drainage (~30%). Premature dislodgement of the Word catheter results in incision closure and high rates of recurrence. Missed diagnosis of Bartholin duct carcinoma Malignant tumors of the vulvar soft (...) of Bartholin gland abscesses. Obstet Gynecol . 2013 Oct. 122(4):794-9. . Reif P, Ulrich D, Bjelic-Radisic V, Hausler M, Schnedl-Lamprecht E, Tamussino K. Management of Bartholin's cyst and abscess using the Word catheter: implementation, recurrence rates and costs. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol . 2015 Jul. 190:81-4. . Mayeaux EJ Jr, Cooper D. Vulvar procedures: biopsy, Bartholin abscess treatment, and condyloma treatment. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am . 2013 Dec. 40 (4):759-72. . Marzano DA, Haefner HK

2014 eMedicine.com

169. Renal Calculi (Overview)

Renal Calculi (Overview) Nephrolithiasis: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvNDM3MDk2LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Nephrolithiasis Updated: Jun 21, 2018 Author (...) in nephrolithiasis include the following: Stones obstructing ureteropelvic junction: Mild to severe deep flank pain without radiation to the groin; irritative voiding symptoms (eg, frequency, dysuria); suprapubic pain, urinary frequency/urgency, dysuria, stranguria, bowel symptoms Stones within ureter: Abrupt, severe, colicky pain in the flank and ipsilateral lower abdomen; radiation to testicles or vulvar area; intense nausea with or without vomiting Upper ureteral stones: Radiate to flank or lumbar areas

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

170. In Vivo Drug Interaction Pharmacokinetic Study of Tenofovir 1% Gel and Three Commonly Used Vaginal Products

, and until the sixth day following sample collection At low risk for pregnancy due to surgical sterilization of participant and/or her sexual partner, use of copper IUD or male condom, abstinence, or same sex relationship Vaginal and cervical anatomy that, in the opinion of the investigator, lends itself to easy genital tract sample collection History of Pap smears and follow-up consistent with ACOG practice guidelines Negative urine pregnancy test Willing to give voluntary consent, sign an informed (...) for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) Known bleeding disorder that could lead to prolonged or continuous bleeding with biopsy Chronic or acute vulvar or vaginal symptoms Known current drug or alcohol abuse which could impact study compliance Grade 2 or higher laboratory abnormality, per the August 2009 update of the DAIDS Table for Grading the Severity of Adverse Events Systemic use in the last 2 weeks or anticipated use during the study of any of the following: corticosteroids, antibiotics

2013 Clinical Trials

171. Adaptive Pet Study

/treatment Phase Head and Neck Cancers Lung and Esophagus Cancers Anal, Cervix, Vulvar, Vaginal, and Endometrium Cancers Other: PET-CT Not Applicable Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Actual Enrollment : 271 participants Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment Masking: None (Open Label) Primary Purpose: Other Official Title: F Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) for the Delivery of Adaptive Radiation Therapy Study (...) that look at anatomy or body form, PET studies metabolic activity or body function. Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : The number of subjects with benefit from an intra-treatment PET-CT [ Time Frame: 3 years ] This benefit lies in the potential to adapt the treatment plan based on an intratreatment PET-CT. This may also be of significant prognostic utility, at an early enough time point to potentially alter treatment accordingly. Secondary Outcome Measures : Locoregional control. [ Time

2013 Clinical Trials

172. Medial Thighplasty: Horizontal and Vertical Procedures after Massive Weight Loss (PubMed)

Medial Thighplasty: Horizontal and Vertical Procedures after Massive Weight Loss The 'medial thigh lift' was first described by Lewis in 1957, but did not receive the widespread acceptance because of the various postoperative complications, such as scar migration with vulvar deformities and early recurrence of ptosis. For this reason, Lockwood developed a technique of anchoring the dermis to the Colles' fascia, to make the surgical outcome more stable over time and to prevent scar migration (...) necrosis was observed.The medial thigh lift surgery is remarkably simple and free of major complications, if the basic anatomy of this region is understood, in order to preserve important structures such as the great saphenous vein and femoral vessels. The only complication is the presence of extensive and visible scars along the thigh, in the case of vertical procedure, and along the inguinal canal, with a possible distortion of the labia major, in the case of horizontal procedure.

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2012 Journal of cutaneous and aesthetic surgery

173. Lichen Sclerosus

resorbed Later or foreskin in thin, wrinkled and hypopigmented (like celophane) may be present Last or foreskin and contiguous anatomy distorted May obscure surrounding antomy Clitoris and labia minora may appear buried in women may occur in men (may result in obstructive uropathy) V. Labs: Biopsy Biopsy especially indicated if squamous cell hyperplasia present Risk of developing of the vulva or foreskin is 5% in Lichen Sclerosus Also biopsy vulvar or foreskin lesions that fail to heal with management (...) browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Ontology: Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus (C0023652) Definition (MSH) A chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease usually affecting the female genitalia (VULVAR LICHEN SCLEROSUS) and BALANITIS XEROTICA OBLITERANS in males. It is also called white spot disease and Csillag's disease. Definition (NCI) A chronic inflammatory process affecting the skin. It is characterized by the presence of white, indurated plaques, epidermal atrophy, and fibrosis

2015 FP Notebook

174. Penile Lichen Sclerosus

Sclerosus Aka: Penile Lichen Sclerosus , Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans From Related Chapters II. Definition Idiopathic (possibly autoimmune), chronic inflammatory condition of peri-mucosal skin Typically vulvar involvement in women is more common III. Epidemiology Average age of onset 42 years : One in 300 males IV. Symptoms Asymptomatic in one third of patients Pruritic foreskin May bleed May be severe enough to interfere with sleep Urinary obstruction (long-standing cases) Painful s Painful (if s (...) present) V. Signs Initial Glans and foreskin is thick and white Contiguous edema may be present Later Foreskin in thin, wrinkled and hypopigmented (like cellophane) may be present Last Foreskin and contiguous anatomy distorted May obscure surrounding antomy may occur in men (may result in obstructive uropathy) VI. Labs: Biopsy Biopsy especially indicated if squamous cell hyperplasia present Risk of developing of the foreskin is 4-6% in Biopsy foreskin lesions that fail to heal with management (see

2015 FP Notebook

175. Safety, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Disintegration Time of Vaginal Tablets Containing Tenofovir and/or Emtricitabine

, and douches starting 48 hours before Visit 2 until the sixth day after Visit 6 (tampons may be used, but for menses only) Vaginal and cervical anatomy that, in the opinion of the investigator, lends itself to easy colposcopy and genital tract sample collection Negative urine pregnancy test Willing to give voluntary consent, sign an informed consent form and comply with study procedures as required by the protocol Exclusion Criteria: History of hysterectomy Currently pregnant or within two calendar months (...) or 2 Symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis or symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) Positive test for Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhea or Chlamydia trachomatis Deep epithelial genital findings such as abrasions, ulcerations, and lacerations, or vesicles suspicious for an STI Positive test for HIV Positive test for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) Known bleeding disorder that could lead to prolonged or continuous bleeding with biopsy Chronic or acute vulvar or vaginal symptoms (pain

2012 Clinical Trials

176. A Rationale for Procedure Selection to Repair Female Urethral Stricture Associated with Urethrovaginal Fistulas. (PubMed)

flap urethroplasty in 24 patients, vulvar flap urethroplasty in 3, anterior vaginal flap urethroplasty in 11, end-to-end anastomosis in 4 and bladder flap urethroplasty in 2. Supplementary procedures were performed in some patients during urethroplasty, including bladder neck reshaping for incontinence in 5, intestinal-vaginal fistula repair in 3, colpoplasty for island vulvar skin flaps in 3, middle vaginal stricture vaginoplasty in 2 and enlargement of the vaginal introitus in 1.Average (...) with urethrovaginal fistulas should be based on fistula location, stricture length and vaginal anatomy. A transvaginal approach might be optimal if the vagina is wide and easily dilated. Pedicle labial flap urethroplasty was a reliable technique for complex strictures.Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2012 Journal of Urology

177. Contraception and Menstrual Cycle Effect on Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Safety in Tenofovir Vaginal Gel Use

infection or risks for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) In a mutually monogamous same-sex relationship for at least the last 4 months with a partner who is at least 18 years of age and has no known HIV infection or risks for STIs Vaginal and cervical anatomy that, in the opinion of the investigator, lends itself to easy genital tract sample collection Negative urine pregnancy test Willing to give voluntary consent, sign an informed consent form and comply with study procedures, as required (...) Chronic or acute vulvar or vaginal symptoms (e.g., pain, irritation, or spotting) Contraindications to the chosen contraceptive method Known current drug or alcohol abuse which could impact study compliance Grade 1 or higher laboratory abnormality, per the August 2009 update of the DAIDS Table for Grading the Severity of Adverse Events Participation in any other investigational trial (device, drug, or vaginal trial) in the last 30 days or planned participation in any other investigational trial during

2011 Clinical Trials

178. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Study of Tenofovir 1% Gel

is at low risk for breakthrough bleeding; Vaginal and cervical anatomy that, in the opinion of the investigator, lends itself to easy genital tract sample collection; Negative urine pregnancy test; and Willing to give voluntary consent, sign an informed consent form and comply with study procedures as required by the protocol. Exclusion Criteria: History of hysterectomy; Currently pregnant or within two calendar months from the last pregnancy outcome. Note: If recently pregnant must have had at least (...) for a sexually transmitted infection; Positive test for HIV; Positive test for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg); Known bleeding disorder that could lead to prolonged or continuous bleeding with biopsy; Chronic or acute vulvar or vaginal symptoms (pain, irritation, spotting, etc.); Known current drug or alcohol abuse which could impact study compliance; Grade 1 or higher laboratory abnormality, per the August 2009 update of the DAIDS Table for Grading the Severity of Adverse Events; Systemic use

2011 Clinical Trials

179. Hunterian Lecture: Hunterian Lecture delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 13th February, 1948 (PubMed)

Hunterian Lecture: Hunterian Lecture delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 13th February, 1948 18889533 2008 10 16 2018 12 01 0035-8843 3 4 1948 Oct Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England Ann R Coll Surg Engl The anatomy of the lymphatic drainage of the vulva and its influence on the radical operation for carcinoma. 187-209 WAY S S eng Journal Article England Ann R Coll Surg Engl 7506860 0035-8843 OM Carcinoma Drainage Female Humans Vulvar Neoplasms 4815:1433k

Full Text available with Trip Pro

1948 Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England

180. Lichen Sclerosus

of hyperpigmentation), and, in severe cases, fibrosis of anogenital skin with distortion of normal anatomy. This photo shows atrophy and hypopigmentation in the vulvar and perianal areas. This photo shows scarring, atrophy, and distorted anatomy in the perianal area. This photo shows porcelain white patches and areas of purpura in the labia minora, as well as early labial fusion. Diagnosis Clinical evaluation Sometimes biopsy Diagnosis of lichen sclerosus can usually be based on appearance, especially in advanced

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

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