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Vulvar Anatomy

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81. LUXSOL(TM) Topical Cream for the Treatment of Symptomatic Bacterial Vaginosis; A Proof of Concept Study

cause of vulvovaginitis Subject has another vaginal or vulvar condition that would confound the determination of study endpoints. Subject has received antifungal or antimicrobial therapy (systemic or intravaginal) within the last 14 days prior to enrollment. Subject is under treatment for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia or cervical carcinoma Subject is known to be HIV positive Subject has a positive pregnancy test Subject has any abnormal anatomy or pathology of the vagina Subject has untreated

2014 Clinical Trials

82. A Volume, Motion, and Anatomically Adaptive Approach to Photon and Proton Beam Radiotherapy

: Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania Information provided by (Responsible Party): Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This pilot study will determine changes over time in tumor volume/motion & patient anatomy, as well as dose distributions to normal organs. The study will inform medical decision-making about need for (and timing of) re-calibration of radiation dosimetry plans. Weekly CT and/or serial MR scans (...) research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Layout table for eligibility information Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult) Sexes Eligible for Study: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Criteria Inclusion Criteria: Aged 18 and above. Biopsy proven diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer, small cell lung cancer, head and neck, esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, anal, hepatic, biliary, colorectal, cervical, endometrial, vaginal, vulvar, ovarian cancer

2014 Clinical Trials

83. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction. (PubMed)

muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management (...) Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction. The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated

2014 Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology

84. Cervical Cancer

live in regions with inadequate screening protocols. Incidence and Mortality Estimated new cases and deaths from cervical (uterine cervix) cancer in the United States in 2019:[ ] New cases: 13,170. Deaths: 4,250. Anatomy The uterine cervix is contiguous with the uterine body, and it acts as the opening to the body of the uterus. The uterine cervix is a cylindrical, fibrous organ that is an average of 3 to 4 cm in length. The portio of the cervix is the part of the cervix that is visible on vaginal

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

85. Lymphedema

for cancer patients because of its relatively high frequency and significant functional and quality of life implications for patients. Lymphedema is an independent predictor of decreased quality of life, even when other predictive factors such as socioeconomic status, decreased range of motion, age, and obesity are taken into account.[ ] This summary will review issues related to anatomy and pathophysiology of lymphedema related to cancer, its clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. Primary (...) (congenital) lymphedema and non–cancer-related lymphedema (e.g., recurrent cellulitis, connective tissue disease, and infection) will not be reviewed here. In this summary, unless otherwise stated, evidence and practice issues as they relate to adults are discussed. The evidence and application to practice related to children may differ significantly from information related to adults. When specific information about the care of children is available, it is summarized under its own heading. Anatomy

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

86. Nephrolithiasis (Overview)

Nephrolithiasis (Overview) Nephrolithiasis: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvNDM3MDk2LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Nephrolithiasis Updated: Jun 21, 2018 Author (...) in nephrolithiasis include the following: Stones obstructing ureteropelvic junction: Mild to severe deep flank pain without radiation to the groin; irritative voiding symptoms (eg, frequency, dysuria); suprapubic pain, urinary frequency/urgency, dysuria, stranguria, bowel symptoms Stones within ureter: Abrupt, severe, colicky pain in the flank and ipsilateral lower abdomen; radiation to testicles or vulvar area; intense nausea with or without vomiting Upper ureteral stones: Radiate to flank or lumbar areas

2014 eMedicine.com

87. Nephrolithiasis: Acute Renal Colic (Overview)

Nephrolithiasis: Acute Renal Colic (Overview) Nephrolithiasis: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvNDM3MDk2LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Nephrolithiasis Updated: Jun (...) and characteristics of pain in nephrolithiasis include the following: Stones obstructing ureteropelvic junction: Mild to severe deep flank pain without radiation to the groin; irritative voiding symptoms (eg, frequency, dysuria); suprapubic pain, urinary frequency/urgency, dysuria, stranguria, bowel symptoms Stones within ureter: Abrupt, severe, colicky pain in the flank and ipsilateral lower abdomen; radiation to testicles or vulvar area; intense nausea with or without vomiting Upper ureteral stones: Radiate

2014 eMedicine.com

88. Nonneoplastic Epithelial Disorders of the Vulva (Overview)

Nonneoplastic Epithelial Disorders of the Vulva (Overview) Benign Vulvar Lesions: Overview, Etiology and Pathophysiology, Clinical History and Physical Findings Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) =aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjY0NjQ4LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Benign Vulvar Lesions Updated: Apr 05, 2019 Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Michel E Rivlin, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Benign Vulvar Lesions Overview Overview In the last few years, interest in vulvar disease has greatly increased. However, the relevant material has been scattered throughout the literature of various specialties, including dermatology, genitourinary medicine, gynecology, and pathology. The spectrum of involved

2014 eMedicine.com

89. Normal and Abnormal Puerperium (Overview)

to the nonpregnant state. An overview of the relevant anatomy and physiology in the postpartum period follows. Uterus The pregnant term uterus (not including baby, placenta, fluids, etc) weighs approximately 1000 g. In the 6 weeks following delivery, the uterus recedes to a weight of 50-100 g. Immediately postpartum, the uterine fundus is palpable at or near the level of the maternal umbilicus. Thereafter, most of the reduction in size and weight occurs in the first 2 weeks, at which time the uterus has shrunk (...) sphincter complex as well as the anal epithelium. Any deep perineal laceration noted after a delivery warrants a thorough evaluation including a digital rectal exam to improve the diagnosis of OASIS. Approximately 4% of women have a clinically recognized OASIS immediately after time of vaginal delivery . [ ] Other tears after childbirth include periclitoral, periurethral, and labial lacerations; these should only be repaired to achieve hemostasis or to correct distorted anatomy. Additionally

2014 eMedicine.com

90. Ankylosing Spondylitis (Follow-up)

is positioned. Damp towels should be placed around the areas for laser therapy and around the vaginal introitus for cervical, vaginal or vulvar ablations to minimize damage from stray laser beams. Genital condylomata are ablated to the level of the skin surface and then to surgical plane 1 (see Table below). If fat is seen, the depth of ablation is too deep and destruction of skin structures or bleeding may result. Char should be removed via wiping with a damp gauze using sterile saline or acetic acid (...) of length and configuration. Dyspareunia may result and foreshortening may limit adequate future evaluation. Laser therapy of the vulva, perineum, or perirectal areas generally results in minimal scarring or loss of architecture, but excess depths of laser therapy increase the chance of alteration of anatomy due to scarring, dyspareunia, pain with defecation, or labial adhesions. Intra-abdominal laser therapy may result in a failure to eradicate adhesions or endometriosis, new adhesion formation

2014 eMedicine.com

91. Benign Cervical Lesions (Follow-up)

Benign Cervical Lesions (Follow-up) Benign Cervical Lesions: Embryology, Anatomy, Physiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjY0OTY2LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Benign Cervical Lesions Updated: Oct 08 (...) , sinovaginal bulb). Through a process of squamous metaplasia, the vagina and a variable portion of the ectocervix become covered with squamous epithelium. This process is complete by the fifth month of pregnancy. Next: Anatomy The cervix (Latin for neck) is the inferior part of the uterus protruding into the vagina. Gross anatomy The cervix measures 2.5-3 cm in diameter and 3-5 cm in length. The normal anatomic position of the cervix is angulated slightly downward and backward. Inferiorly, the cervix

2014 eMedicine.com

92. Skin, Benign Skin Lesions

specific exterior findings. Understanding of histiologic terms requires knowledge of the anatomical layout of skin and the associated cells and extracellular matrix content that populate each layer. (For more information, see . Also see the illustration below of skin anatomy). Anatomy of the skin. To facilitate accurate communication of the description of skin lesions between medical personnel, a multitude of descriptive terms have been developed. The terminology can largely be categorized as gross (...) on this topic. Bowen disease and Bowenoid papulosis Bowen disease is considered a synonym for squamous cell carcinoma in situ . In contrast, bowenoid papulosis is a term used when histologic changes of squamous cell carcinoma are found within genital warts. The term bowenoid papulosis, and not Bowen disease or squamous cell in situ, for these cases is generally preferred since the papules typically follow a benign course. In bowenoid papulosis, itching is a common symptom. With vulvar involvement, the labia

2014 eMedicine Surgery

93. Skin Malignancies, Merkel Cell Carcinoma and Rare Appendageal Tumors

that complete excision significantly improved overall survival. [ ] In addition, tumor size and location greatly impacted the outcome of surgical excision; a worse prognosis has been associated with primary tumors larger than 2 cm and located in the perianal and vulvar regions. The high rate of local recurrence even after surgical excision (~50%) argues strongly for regional lymphadenectomy. [ ] In a limited number of cases, Smith and colleagues demonstrated that patients with local and regional control (...) on individual patients, but they have not been studied rigorously in clinical trials. [ , ] Radiotherapy for liposarcoma of the vulva was reported effective by Yokouchi in 2000. [ ] Randomized trials need to be performed to define the role of radiation. Previous Next: Adnexal Tumors Anatomy Although often classified together as sweat glands, the apocrine and eccrine glands are 2 distinctive types of glands, differing in embryological origin and function. Apocrine glands are derived from the pilosebaceous

2014 eMedicine Surgery

94. Perineal Reconstruction

and pelvic defect. [ ] In 1976, McCraw et al described the original reconstruction with the gracilis myocutaneous flap. [ ] Previous Next: Relevant Anatomy The major blood supply to the gracilis myocutaneous or gracilis muscle flap is derived from the medial femoral circumflex artery. This artery enters the muscle approximately 8-10 cm below the inguinal ligament. Additional minor perforators originate proximally from the obturator artery and may supply a short gracilis flap. Occasionally one or two (...) of a pedicled deep inferior epigastric perforator flap for burn scar contracture of the groin: case report. J Reconstr Microsurg . 2005 Oct. 21(7):447-50; discussion 451-2. . Muneuchi G, Ohno M, Shiota A, et al. Deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap for vulvar reconstruction after radical vulvectomy: a less invasive and simple procedure utilizing an abdominal incision wound. Ann Plast Surg . 2005 Oct. 55(4):427-9. . Blondeel PN, Van Landuyt K, Hamdi M, Monstrey SJ. Soft tissue reconstruction

2014 eMedicine Surgery

95. The Role of Sentinel Node Biopsy in Skin Cancer (Diagnosis)

, vulvar carcinoma, penile cancer, pediatric soft tissue sarcoma, and clear cell sarcoma (melanoma of the soft parts). Previous Next: Relevant Anatomy The concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy is that a primary or sentinel lymph node (or nodes) exists through which tumor cells from a primary tumor in a particular location first must travel, via afferent lymphatics, to spread to a particular regional lymph node basin. The technique is well suited for application to cutaneous malignancies because (...) . Diagnosis and treatment of interval sentinel lymph nodes in patients with cutaneous melanoma. Plast Reconstr Surg . 2007 Mar. 119(3):907-13. . Thompson JF, Uren RF, Shaw HM, et al. Location of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with cutaneous melanoma: new insights into lymphatic anatomy. J Am Coll Surg . 1999 Aug. 189(2):195-204. . Scarsbrook AF, Ganeshan A, Bradley KM. Pearls and pitfalls of radionuclide imaging of the lymphatic system. Part 1: sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy in malignant melanoma. Br

2014 eMedicine.com

96. Dermatologic Diseases of the Male Genitalia: Nonmalignant (Diagnosis)

Dermatologic Diseases of the Male Genitalia: Nonmalignant (Diagnosis) Nonmalignant Dermatologic Diseases of the Male Genitalia: Introduction, Definition of Terms, and Anatomy, Trichomycosis and Folliculitis, Balanoposthitis, Balanitis, and Candidiasis Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do (...) ?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvNDU1MDIxLW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Nonmalignant Dermatologic Diseases of the Male Genitalia Updated: Feb 11, 2017 Author: Douglas C Parker, MD, DDS; Chief Editor: Edward David Kim, MD, FACS Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Nonmalignant Dermatologic Diseases of the Male Genitalia Introduction, Definition of Terms, and Anatomy Nonmalignant lesions account for most dermatologic disorders seen

2014 eMedicine.com

97. Benign Cervical Lesions (Diagnosis)

Benign Cervical Lesions (Diagnosis) Benign Cervical Lesions: Embryology, Anatomy, Physiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjY0OTY2LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Benign Cervical Lesions Updated: Oct 08 (...) , sinovaginal bulb). Through a process of squamous metaplasia, the vagina and a variable portion of the ectocervix become covered with squamous epithelium. This process is complete by the fifth month of pregnancy. Next: Anatomy The cervix (Latin for neck) is the inferior part of the uterus protruding into the vagina. Gross anatomy The cervix measures 2.5-3 cm in diameter and 3-5 cm in length. The normal anatomic position of the cervix is angulated slightly downward and backward. Inferiorly, the cervix

2014 eMedicine.com

98. Vulvovaginitis (Diagnosis)

Vulvovaginitis (Diagnosis) Vulvovaginitis: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjE4ODkzMS1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Vulvovaginitis Updated: Jan 19, 2018 Author (...) : Jill M Krapf, MD, FACOG; Chief Editor: Christine Isaacs, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Vulvovaginitis Overview Practice Essentials Vulvovaginitis is a general term referring to many types of vaginal infection, although this article focuses on the following disorders, which affect the vulvar region: Vulvovaginal candidiasis Atrophic vaginitis Vulvar vestibulitis Contact dermatitis Signs and symptoms Acute vulvovaginal candidiasis Vulvar pruritus and burning - Primary symptoms

2014 eMedicine.com

99. Uterine Prolapse (Diagnosis)

are available. When planning the appropriate approach, the surgeon must consider operative risk, coital activity, and vaginal canal anatomy. The following list illustrates variables that must be considered. Important considerations for nonsurgical or surgical decision making See the list below: Medical condition and age Severity of symptoms Patient's choice (ie, surgery or no surgery) Patient's suitability for surgery Presence of other pelvic conditions requiring simultaneous treatment, including urinary (...) or fecal incontinence Presence or absence of urethral hypermobility Presence or absence of pelvic floor neuropathy History of previous pelvic surgery Previous Next: Relevant Anatomy Knowledge of the anatomy of the pelvis is essential to understanding prolapse. Teleologic reasoning aids in the understanding of POP. The pelvic floor evolved in primates, particularly humans, who as bipeds, spend most of their waking hours in the upright position. As the name suggests, the floor of the pelvis is the lowest

2014 eMedicine.com

100. Fournier Gangrene (Diagnosis)

Fournier Gangrene (Diagnosis) Fournier Gangrene: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjAyODg5OS1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Fournier Gangrene Updated: Jan 10 (...) his married lover), placement of foreign bodies such as beans within the urethra, and excessive intercourse in diabetic and alcoholic persons. He calls upon physicians to be steadfast in obtaining confession from patients of “obscene practices.” Previous Next: Anatomy The complex anatomy of the male external genitalia influences the initiation and progression of Fournier gangrene. This infectious process involves the superficial and deep fascial planes of the genitalia. As the microorganisms

2014 eMedicine.com

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