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Vitamin B12 Supplementation

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23381. Alpha-tocopherol supplementation in healthy individuals reduces low-density lipoprotein oxidation but not atherosclerosis: the Vitamin E Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (VEAPS). (PubMed)

Alpha-tocopherol supplementation in healthy individuals reduces low-density lipoprotein oxidation but not atherosclerosis: the Vitamin E Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (VEAPS). Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between vitamin E intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In contrast, randomized controlled trials have reported conflicting results as to whether vitamin E supplementation reduces atherosclerosis progression and CVD events.The study population (...) determinations of IMT was used to test the hypothesis of treatment differences in IMT change rates. Compared with placebo, alpha-tocopherol supplementation significantly raised plasma vitamin E levels (P<0.0001), reduced circulating oxidized LDL (P=0.03), and reduced LDL oxidative susceptibility (P<0.01). However, vitamin E supplementation did not reduce the progression of IMT over a 3-year period compared with subjects randomized to placebo.The results are consistent with previous randomized controlled

2002 Circulation Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23382. Hyperhomocysteinemia and endothelial function in young subjects: effects of vitamin supplementation. (PubMed)

placebo. Hyperhomocysteinemic subjects had lower baseline serum levels of vitamin B12. Serum folate levels, antithrombotic function, in vitro LDL oxidation, and EDD were similar in all groups. After the vitamin supplementation, serum folic acid levels increased significantly both in normo- and hyperhomocysteinemic subjects, unlike vitamin B12, which increased only in the hyperhomocysteinemic individuals. Plasma tHcy decreased significantly in the supplemented groups. Treatment with vitamins (...) was not associated with improvement in EDD or antithrombotic function.Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is not associated with endothelial dysfunction in young male subjects with no additional cardiovascular risk factors, and reduction of tHcy by vitamin supplementation does not modify EDD in this age group. In this sample, tHcy was more related to vitamin B12 than to folic acid status.

2002 Clinical cardiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23383. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on childhood morbidity and mortality. (PubMed)

Effect of vitamin A supplementation on childhood morbidity and mortality. In a double blind design, 1520 children aged < 10 years were individually randomised in vitamin A and placebo group in slums of Chandigarh. Children > 12, 6-12 and < 6 months of age received 200,000, 100,000, 500,000 I.U. of vitamin A respectively every 4 to 6 months during 15 months trial period. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was significantly reduced in vitamin A compared to placebo group during the follow-up (...) period. In vitamin A group, incidence of diarrhoea and measles was significantly reduced but incidence of acute respiratory infections was not significantly different compared to control group. Risk of death was also significantly less in vitamin A group. Therefore, promotion of vitamin A rich diet or supplementation with synthetic vitamin A at 4-6 month interval should be a priority in populations where risk of vitamin A deficiency is high.

2002 Indian journal of medical sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23384. Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to transmission of HIV-1 through breastfeeding and early child mortality. (PubMed)

Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to transmission of HIV-1 through breastfeeding and early child mortality. HIV-1 transmission through breastfeeding is a global problem and has been associated with poor maternal micronutrient status.A total of 1078 HIV-infected pregnant women from Tanzania were randomly assigned to vitamin A or multivitamins excluding A from approximately 20 weeks' gestation and throughout lactation.Multivitamins excluding A had no effect on the total risk (...) of HIV-1 transmission (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.82-1.32, P= 0.76). Vitamin A increased the risk of transmission (RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.09-1.76, P = 0.009). Multivitamins were associated with non-statistically significant reductions in transmission through breastfeeding, and mortality by 24 months among those alive and not infected at 6 weeks. Multivitamins significantly reduced breastfeeding transmission in infants of mothers with low baseline lymphocyte counts (RR 0.37; 95% CI 0.16-0.85, P = 0.02) compared

2002 AIDS Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23385. Is routine supplementation therapy (calcium and vitamin D) useful after total thyroidectomy? (PubMed)

Is routine supplementation therapy (calcium and vitamin D) useful after total thyroidectomy? Our goal was to determine whether routine oral calcium (OC) and vitamin D (VD) administration can effectively prevent symptoms of hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy.Seventy-nine patients who underwent total thyroidectomy were randomly allotted to one of the following groups: (1) group A, no treatment; (2) group B, OC 3 g per day; (3) group C, OC 3 g + VD 1 mg per day. Treatment was started (...) parathyroid hormone levels did not differ in the 3 groups (P = not significant).Routine supplementation therapy with OC or VD effectively prevents symptomatic hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy and may allow for a safe early discharge. Further studies are necessary to determine the best treatment. The combination of OC and VD may further reduce the rate of PO hypocalcemia, without inhibiting parathyroid hormone secretion.

2002 Surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23386. Effect of low-dosage vitamin A and riboflavin on iron-folate supplementation in anaemic pregnant women. (PubMed)

Effect of low-dosage vitamin A and riboflavin on iron-folate supplementation in anaemic pregnant women. A double-blind, placebo, controlled trial was conducted in Banyudono subdistrict, Boyolali regency, Central Java province, Indonesia. The aim of the study was to determine whether adding low-dosage vitamin A and riboflavin can enhance the effect of iron-folate supplementation in anaemic pregnant women. From July to November 2000, 202 pregnant women were screened for anaemia (haemoglobin (...) increment being in group FR. Multiple comparisons only showed significant differences between group IFR and group IFA (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that iron-folate supplementation can increase haemoglobin concentrations in anaemic pregnant women. Adding riboflavin tends to enhance the effect of iron-folate supplementation, but this is not the case with adding vitamin A.

2002 Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23387. Recall of a lead-contaminated vitamin and mineral supplement in a clinical trial. (PubMed)

Recall of a lead-contaminated vitamin and mineral supplement in a clinical trial. The Treatment of Lead-exposed Children (TLC) trial tested whether developmental outcome differed between children treated for lead poisoning with succimer or placebo. On 7 July 1997, TLC was informed that the vitamin and mineral supplements it gave to all children were contaminated with about 35 microg of lead per tablet.TLC recalled the contaminated supplements and measured the children's exposure.The families (...) of 96% of the children were contacted with 30 days. Among the 571 children to whom the contaminated supplements were dispensed, the mean increase in blood lead was 0.06+/-0.01 micromol/L (1.2+/-0.2 microg/dL); among 78 children to whom they were not, it was 0.09+/-0.03 micromol/L (1.8+/-0.7 microg/dL). There was no evidence of a dose-response relation between estimated supplement consumption and increase in blood lead concentration.The children's blood lead concentrations were not detectably

1999 Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23388. Potential health economic benefits of vitamin supplementation. (Full text)

Potential health economic benefits of vitamin supplementation. This study used published relative risk estimates for birth defects, premature birth, and coronary heart disease associated with vitamin intake to project potential annual cost reductions in U.S. hospitalization charges. Epidemiological and intervention studies with relative risk estimates were identified via MEDLINE. Preventable fraction estimates were derived from data on the percentage of at-risk Americans with daily vitamin (...) %, respectively. For the conditions studied, nearly $20 billion in hospital charges were potentially avoidable with daily use of folic acid and zinc-containing multivitamins by all women of childbearing age and daily vitamin E supplementation by those over 50.

1997 Western Journal of Medicine

23389. Vitamin C and gastric cancer: supplements for some or fruit for all? (Full text)

Vitamin C and gastric cancer: supplements for some or fruit for all? 8949634 1997 01 07 2018 11 30 0017-5749 39 3 1996 Sep Gut Gut Vitamin C and gastric cancer: supplements for some or fruit for all? 345-7 O'Toole P P Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Merseyside. Lombard M M eng Journal Article Review England Gut 2985108R 0017-5749 0 Nitroso Compounds 0 Reactive Oxygen Species PQ6CK8PD0R Ascorbic Acid AIM IM Ascorbic Acid pharmacology therapeutic use Gastric Mucosa metabolism

1996 Gut

23390. The timing of high-dose vitamin A supplementation to children. (Full text)

The timing of high-dose vitamin A supplementation to children. 7661223 1995 10 04 2018 11 13 0090-0036 85 9 1995 Sep American journal of public health Am J Public Health The timing of high-dose vitamin A supplementation to children. 1200-1 Underwood B A BA eng Comment Editorial United States Am J Public Health 1254074 0090-0036 11103-57-4 Vitamin A AIM IM Am J Public Health. 1995 Sep;85(9):1246-51 7661232 Child Welfare Child, Preschool Drug Administration Schedule Humans Time Factors Vitamin (...) A therapeutic use Vitamin A Deficiency complications drug therapy 1995 9 1 1995 9 1 0 1 1995 9 1 0 0 ppublish 7661223 PMC1615586 BMJ. 1992 Jan 25;304(6821):207-10 1739794 Lancet. 1991 Jul 13;338(8759):67-71 1676467 Lancet. 1993 Jul 3;342(8862):7-12 8100345 J Nutr. 1993 Aug;123(8):1363-9 8336206 Am J Clin Nutr. 1993 Aug;58(2):192-7 8338047 J Nutr. 1994 Aug;124(8):1172-8 8064367 Am J Clin Nutr. 1994 Sep;60(3):388-92 8074070 Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Apr;61(4):853-9 7702031 Am J Public Health. 1995 Sep;85(9):1246

1995 American Journal of Public Health

23391. Vitamin A supplementation in developing countries. (Full text)

Vitamin A supplementation in developing countries. 7492178 1996 01 02 2018 11 13 1468-2044 73 3 1995 Sep Archives of disease in childhood Arch. Dis. Child. Vitamin A supplementation in developing countries. 275 Ray J J eng Comment Letter England Arch Dis Child 0372434 0003-9888 11103-57-4 Vitamin A AIM IM Arch Dis Child. 1995 Feb;72(2):106-7 7702368 Cranial Sutures drug effects Developing Countries Humans Vitamin A administration & dosage adverse effects 1995 9 1 1995 9 1 0 1 1995 9 1 0 0

1995 Archives of Disease in Childhood

23392. Vitamin A supplementation and morbidity in children born to HIV-infected women. (Full text)

Vitamin A supplementation and morbidity in children born to HIV-infected women. 7625492 1995 08 30 2018 11 13 0090-0036 85 8 Pt 1 1995 Aug American journal of public health Am J Public Health Vitamin A supplementation and morbidity in children born to HIV-infected women. 1049-51 Martorell R R Ramakrishnan U U eng Comment Editorial United States Am J Public Health 1254074 0090-0036 11103-57-4 Vitamin A AIM IM X Am J Public Health. 1995 Aug;85(8 Pt 1):1076-81 7625499 Diarrhea, Infantile etiology (...) prevention & control Female HIV Infections complications drug therapy transmission Humans Infant, Newborn Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical Respiratory Tract Infections etiology prevention & control Vitamin A therapeutic use 1995 8 1 1995 8 1 0 1 1995 8 1 0 0 ppublish 7625492 PMC1615823 Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1987 Jan 31;294(6567):294-6 3101849 Lancet. 1995 May 27;345(8961):1330-2 7752754 N Engl J Med. 1990 Jul 19;323(3):160-4 2194128 J Pediatr. 1987 Aug;111(2):269-77 3302193 Am J Clin Nutr

1995 American Journal of Public Health

23393. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations in plasma, gastric juice, and gastrointestinal mucosa: effects of gastritis and oral supplementation. (Full text)

Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations in plasma, gastric juice, and gastrointestinal mucosa: effects of gastritis and oral supplementation. Epidemiological evidence suggests that high dietary ascorbic acid reduces gastric cancer risk. It may do this by either reducing N-nitroso compound formation in gastric juice, or by scavenging reactive oxygen species in gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to discover if potential ascorbic acid protection might be increased (...) by supplementation. Thirty two patients were supplemented with ascorbic acid, 500 mg twice daily for two weeks. Gastric juice, plasma, and upper gastrointestinal biopsy ascorbate concentrations were measured and compared with values in 48 unsupplemented patients. It was found that ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations were considerably higher in biopsy specimens from oesophagus, body, antrum, duodenum, and rectum, compared with values in plasma or gastric juice. Plasma and mucosal concentrations were

1996 Gut

23394. The duration of the effect of vitamin A supplementation. (Full text)

The duration of the effect of vitamin A supplementation. 9096559 1997 04 25 2018 11 13 0090-0036 87 3 1997 Mar American journal of public health Am J Public Health The duration of the effect of vitamin A supplementation. 467-9 Sommer A A West K P KP Jr eng Comment Letter United States Am J Public Health 1254074 0090-0036 11103-57-4 Vitamin A AIM IM Am J Public Health. 1995 Sep;85(9):1246-51 7661232 Diarrhea prevention & control Drug Administration Schedule Food, Fortified Ghana Humans Infant (...) Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic Time Factors Vitamin A administration & dosage blood Vitamin A Deficiency drug therapy Xerophthalmia blood prevention & control 1997 3 1 2001 3 28 10 1 1997 3 1 0 0 ppublish 9096559 PMC1381027 Am J Clin Nutr. 1987 Jun;45(6):1466-71 3591726 Lancet. 1986 May 24;1(8491):1169-73 2871418 Am J Public Health. 1995 Sep;85(9):1246-51 7661232 Am J Public Health. 1995 Sep;85(9):1200-1 7661223

1997 American Journal of Public Health

23395. Vitamin A supplementation in developing countries. (Full text)

Vitamin A supplementation in developing countries. 7702368 1995 05 01 2018 11 13 1468-2044 72 2 1995 Feb Archives of disease in childhood Arch. Dis. Child. Vitamin A supplementation in developing countries. 106-7 Filteau S M SM Centre for International Child Health, Institute of Child Health, London. Tomkins A M AM eng Journal Article England Arch Dis Child 0372434 0003-9888 11103-57-4 Vitamin A AIM IM Arch Dis Child. 1995 Sep;73(3):275 7492178 Child Child, Preschool Developing Countries Food (...) , Fortified Humans Infant Nutritional Status Vaccination Vitamin A administration & dosage Vitamin A Deficiency complications therapy 1995 2 1 1995 2 1 0 1 1995 2 1 0 0 ppublish 7702368 PMC1510999 Am J Clin Nutr. 1987 Jul;46(1):91-4 3604975 Am J Clin Nutr. 1988 Nov;48(5):1271-6 3189216 Annu Rev Nutr. 1989;9:63-86 2669883 J Nutr. 1992 Feb;122(2):333-9 1310111 Ann Trop Paediatr. 1992;12(1):67-73 1376589 Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1992 Jul;200(3):303-20 1615007 Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1992;62(3):209-15 1473901 J

1995 Archives of Disease in Childhood

23396. Vitamin A capsule supplementation in Malawi villages: missed opportunities and possible interventions. (Full text)

Vitamin A capsule supplementation in Malawi villages: missed opportunities and possible interventions. A population-based survey was used to assess childhood and maternal vitamin A capsule coverage in Malawi and to investigate missed opportunities for capsule distribution. Overall, 9.3% of children had received vitamin A supplementation in the previous 6 months. Missed opportunities for receiving vitamin A were high in younger children. Fifty-five percent of mothers were covered in 8 villages (...) served by volunteers and 23% in the 58 villages without volunteers. Existing strategies need to be redesigned and new strategies defined. For instance, mothers could receive supplementation during infant BCG vaccination, and children could receive initial supplementation during measles vaccination. Village health volunteers could be used to target children over 2 years of age.

1995 American Journal of Public Health

23397. Vitamin supplement use and mortality. 1. Study that found no relationship is challenged. (Full text)

Vitamin supplement use and mortality. 1. Study that found no relationship is challenged. 8203677 1994 07 05 2018 11 13 0090-0036 84 6 1994 Jun American journal of public health Am J Public Health Vitamin supplement use and mortality. 1. Study that found no relationship is challenged. 1034-8 Enstrom J E JE eng Comment Letter United States Am J Public Health 1254074 0090-0036 0 Vitamins AIM IM Am J Public Health. 1993 Apr;83(4):546-50 8460732 Adult Aged Aged, 80 and over Cause of Death Female (...) Humans Male Middle Aged Mortality Vitamins administration & dosage 1994 6 1 1994 6 1 0 1 1994 6 1 0 0 ppublish 8203677 PMC1614946 Comput Biomed Res. 1974 Aug;7(4):325-32 4850570 Am J Public Health. 1993 Apr;83(4):546-50 8460732 Epidemiology. 1992 May;3(3):194-202 1591317

1994 American Journal of Public Health

23398. Vitamin D supplementation. (Full text)

Vitamin D supplementation. 8348418 1993 09 13 2018 11 13 0820-3946 149 4 1993 Aug 15 CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne CMAJ Vitamin D supplementation. 396-8 Vieth R R Kooh S W SW Murray T T Houpt J J eng Comment Letter Canada CMAJ 9711805 0820-3946 1406-16-2 Vitamin D CPD4NFA903 Aluminum SY7Q814VUP Calcium AIM IM CMAJ. 1992 Nov 1;147(9):1308, 1313 1340782 Absorption drug effects Aged Aluminum pharmacokinetics Alzheimer Disease etiology (...) Calcium administration & dosage Child, Preschool Humans Vitamin D administration & dosage pharmacology 1993 8 15 1993 8 15 0 1 1993 8 15 0 0 ppublish 8348418 PMC1485658 Nephron. 1985;39(1):10-7 3969185 J Nutr. 1981 Apr;111(4):694-8 6260915 Lancet. 1977 Jun 25;1(8026):1341-3 69059 N Engl J Med. 1992 Dec 3;327(23):1637-42 1331788 CMAJ. 1991 Oct 1;145(7):793-804 1822096 Am J Physiol. 1985 Aug;249(2 Pt 1):G209-13 4025548 Bone Miner. 1990 Dec;11(3):267-72 2085680 Environ Res. 1991 Apr;54(2):159-69 2029877

1993 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

23399. Vitamin A supplementation in preschool children with acute diarrhoea. (Full text)

Vitamin A supplementation in preschool children with acute diarrhoea. 7888907 1995 04 19 2018 11 13 0959-8138 310 6978 1995 Feb 25 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Vitamin A supplementation in preschool children with acute diarrhoea. 530 Pharoah P P Weinberg J J Hayward A A eng Comment Letter England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 11103-57-4 Vitamin A AIM IM BMJ. 1994 Nov 26;309(6966):1404-7 7819847 Child, Preschool Clinical Trials as Topic Diarrhea prevention & control Humans Infant Vitamin

1995 BMJ : British Medical Journal

23400. Vitamin D deficiency: time for action : Evidence supports routine supplementation for elderly people and others at risk  (Full text)

Vitamin D deficiency: time for action : Evidence supports routine supplementation for elderly people and others at risk  9831568 1999 01 07 2018 11 13 0959-8138 317 7171 1998 Nov 28 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Vitamin D deficiency: time for action. Evidence supports routine supplementation for elderly people and others at risk. 1466-7 Compston J E JE eng Editorial England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 1406-16-2 Vitamin D AIM IM BMJ. 1999 May 8;318(7193):1284-5; author reply 1285 10391703 BMJ (...) . 1999 May 8;318(7193):1284; author reply 1285 10231270 BMJ. 1999 May 8;318(7193):1285 10391704 Aged Humans Middle Aged Risk Factors Vitamin D administration & dosage Vitamin D Deficiency complications therapy 1998 11 30 1998 11 30 0 1 1998 11 30 0 0 ppublish 9831568 PMC1114332 Am J Clin Nutr. 1994 Oct;60(4):619-30 8092101 BMJ. 1994 Apr 23;308(6936):1081-2 8173430 Ann Intern Med. 1996 Feb 15;124(4):400-6 8554248 N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 4;337(10):670-6 9278463 Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Oct;66(4):929-36

1998 BMJ : British Medical Journal

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