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Vitamin B12 Supplementation

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23361. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E and beta carotene for age-related cataract and vision loss: AREDS report no. 9. (Full text)

A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E and beta carotene for age-related cataract and vision loss: AREDS report no. 9. Experimental and observational data suggest that micronutrients with antioxidant capabilities may retard the development of age-related cataract.To evaluate the effect of a high-dose antioxidant formulation on the development and progression of age-related lens opacities and visual acuity loss.The 11-center Age (...) -Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) was a double-masked clinical trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive daily oral tablets containing either antioxidants (vitamin C, 500 mg; vitamin E, 400 IU; and beta carotene, 15 mg) or no antioxidants. Participants with more than a few small drusen were also randomly assigned to receive tablets with or without zinc (80 mg of zinc as zinc oxide) and copper (2 mg of copper as cupric oxide) as part of the age-related macular degeneration trial. Baseline

2001 Archives of ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23362. Short-term supplementation with zinc and vitamin A has no significant effect on the growth of undernourished Bangladeshi children. (PubMed)

Short-term supplementation with zinc and vitamin A has no significant effect on the growth of undernourished Bangladeshi children. Several vitamin A supplementation trials have failed to improve the growth rate in children. Addition of zinc to vitamin A might result in enhanced growth.This study evaluated the effect on growth in children of simultaneous supplementation with zinc and vitamin A.This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial. Six hundred fifty-three (...) not differ significantly among the groups. The proportions of children whose weight-for-age z scores did not change or decreased were 57% in the Z group, 46% in the A group, 50% in the ZA group, and 54% in the placebo group (NS). The proportions of children whose length-for-age z scores did not change or decreased were 42% in the Z group, 48% in the A group, 53% in the ZA group, and 46% in the placebo group (NS).Combined short-term zinc supplementation and a single dose of vitamin A has no significant

2002 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23363. Effects of vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation on body weight of South African HIV-infected women. (PubMed)

Effects of vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation on body weight of South African HIV-infected women. Effects of vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation on maternal weight among HIV-1-seropositive South African women were examined. Three hundred twelve HIV-seropositive pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks gestation were studied as part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at the King Edward VIII Hospital in Durban, South Africa (...) . Patients were randomized to receive placebo or 5,000 IU of retinyl palmitate and 30 mg of beta-carotene daily during pregnancy. At delivery, patients received placebo or 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate. The main outcome measures were prenatal and postnatal maternal weight and weight loss at three months after delivery as measured in body mass index (BMI). Supplementation of vitamin A was not associated with improvements in prepartum weight gain but was significantly associated with improved weight

2001 Journal of health, population, and nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23364. Can vitamin D supplementation reduce the risk of fracture in the elderly? A randomized controlled trial. (Full text)

Can vitamin D supplementation reduce the risk of fracture in the elderly? A randomized controlled trial. Randomized controlled trials have shown that a combination of vitamin D and calcium can prevent fragility fractures in the elderly. Whether this effect is attributed to the combination of vitamin D and calcium or to one of these nutrients alone is not known. We studied if an intervention with 10 microg of vitamin D3 per day could prevent hip fracture and other osteoporotic fractures (...) in a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Residents from 51 nursing homes were allocated randomly to receive 5 ml of ordinary cod liver oil (n = 569) or 5 ml of cod liver oil where vitamin D was removed (n = 575). During the study period of 2 years, fractures and deaths were registered, and the principal analysis was performed on the intention-to-treat basis. Biochemical markers were measured at baseline and after 1 year in a subsample. Forty-seven persons in the control group and 50 persons

2002 Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23365. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of vitamin A and zinc supplementation in persons with tuberculosis in Indonesia: effects on clinical response and nutritional status. (PubMed)

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of vitamin A and zinc supplementation in persons with tuberculosis in Indonesia: effects on clinical response and nutritional status. The results of cross-sectional studies indicate that micronutrient deficiencies are common in patients with tuberculosis. No published data exist on the effect of vitamin A and zinc supplementation on antituberculosis treatment.Our goal was to investigate whether vitamin A and zinc supplementation increases the efficacy (...) of antituberculosis treatment with respect to clinical response and nutritional status.In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis were divided into 2 groups. One group (n = 40) received 1500 retinol equivalents (5000 IU) vitamin A (as retinyl acetate) and 15 mg Zn (as zinc sulfate) daily for 6 mo (micronutrient group). The second group (n = 40) received a placebo. Both groups received the same antituberculosis treatment recommended by the World Health Organization

2002 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23366. Effect of folic acid and vitamin C supplementation on folate status and homocysteine level: a randomised controlled trial in Italian smoker-blood donors. (PubMed)

Effect of folic acid and vitamin C supplementation on folate status and homocysteine level: a randomised controlled trial in Italian smoker-blood donors. This trial sought to examine the effects of high dosage of folic acid and vitamin C supplementation on red blood cell folate (RCF), serum folate (SF) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels in subjects who smoke more than 15 cigarettes per day.A prospective study of 100 Italian repeat blood donors was undertaken to measure RCF, SF and Hcy levels before (...) and after 45 days of vitamin supplementation. All subjects were randomised into four groups: [A] folic acid (FA) 5 mg/day, [B] vitamin C 500 mg/day, [C] FA 5 mg/day plus vitamin C 500 mg/day [D] no supplementation.Before supplementation the median RCF, SF and Hcy levels were similar in the four groups; 32 (40%) subjects had an RCF level below 340 nmol/l, 15 (18.8%) had an SF level below 6.8 nmol/l and 21 (26.3%) had an Hcy level above 16 micromol/l. After 45 days the median RCF and SF levels were

2002 Atherosclerosis Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23367. Short-term vitamin A supplementation does not affect bone turnover in men. (PubMed)

Short-term vitamin A supplementation does not affect bone turnover in men. Limited data in humans and animals indicate that excess vitamin A stimulates bone resorption and inhibits bone formation, effects that over time might lead to bone loss and fracture. Thus, it is possible that vitamin A supplementation is a currently unrecognized risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. To further evaluate this possibility, a prospective, randomized, single-blind study of vitamin A supplementation (...) not differ between the supplemented and placebo-treated groups over the course of the study. In conclusion, short-term vitamin A supplementation at this dosage in healthy men does not alter serum markers of skeletal turnover. Thus, it is unlikely that short-term administration of vitamin A would contribute to the development of osteoporosis. Whether long-term vitamin A supplementation might have adverse skeletal effects remains to be determined.

2002 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23368. Vitamin E supplementation reduces plasma vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and von Willebrand factor levels and increases nitric oxide concentrations in hypercholesterolemic patients. (PubMed)

Vitamin E supplementation reduces plasma vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and von Willebrand factor levels and increases nitric oxide concentrations in hypercholesterolemic patients. Up-regulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and reduced nitric oxide (NO) availability represent early characteristics of atherosclerosis. To evaluate whether the antioxidant vitamin E affected the circulating levels of soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) and the plasma metabolite of NO (nitrite+nitrate (...) , respectively) with changes in vitamin E concentrations induced by vitamin E supplementation. In conclusion, isolated hypercholesterolemia both increased circulating sVCAM-1 and reduced NO metabolite concentrations. Vitamin E supplementation counteracts these alterations, thus representing a potential tool for endothelial protection in hypercholesterolemic patients.

2002 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23369. Retinoic acid metabolites in plasma are higher after intake of liver paste compared with a vitamin A supplement in women. (PubMed)

Retinoic acid metabolites in plasma are higher after intake of liver paste compared with a vitamin A supplement in women. The objectives of the present study were to compare the bioavailability of vitamin A from liver paste and from a vitamin A supplement at three nutritionally relevant levels of intake, and to estimate levels of "safe" intake based on concentrations of retinoic acid and its metabolites in plasma after a single dose of vitamin A from liver paste. Women (n = 35; 19-47 y of age (...) ) consumed 3.0, 7.5 or 15 mg vitamin A as liver paste or as a vitamin A supplement with a test meal in a randomized design, with a combined crossover (two sources) and parallel approach (three dosages). Retinyl esters and retinoic acid (RA) metabolites were quantified in blood samples at 2-24 h after dosing. The areas under the time-response curves (AUC) were calculated to evaluate responses in plasma vitamin A after intake of liver paste and the vitamin A supplements. For retinyl esters, the AUC

2001 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23370. Vitamin A supplementation and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 shedding in women: results of a randomized clinical trial. (Full text)

Vitamin A supplementation and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 shedding in women: results of a randomized clinical trial. Observational studies have associated vitamin A deficiency with vaginal shedding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected cells and mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. To assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation on vaginal shedding of HIV-1, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 6 weeks of daily oral vitamin A (10,000 IU of retinyl (...) palmitate) was conducted among 400 HIV-1-infected women in Mombasa, Kenya. At follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of HIV-1 DNA (18% vs. 21%, P=.4) or the quantity of HIV-1 RNA (3.12 vs. 3.00 log(10) copies/swab, P=1.0) in vaginal secretions of women receiving vitamin A, compared with women receiving placebo. No significant effect of supplementation on plasma HIV-1 load or CD4 or CD8 cell counts was observed, and no effect was seen among women who were vitamin

2002 The Journal of infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23371. Integration of vitamin A supplementation with the Expanded Programme on Immunization: lack of impact on morbidity or infant growth. (PubMed)

Integration of vitamin A supplementation with the Expanded Programme on Immunization: lack of impact on morbidity or infant growth. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from diarrheal disease, measles, and malaria. It has been proposed that vitamin A supplementation could be linked with childhood immunization programs to improve child health. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the impact of linking vitamin (...) A supplementation with the Expanded Programme on Immunization on morbidity and child growth. In West Java, Indonesia, 467 six-week-old infants were randomized to receive 7.5 mg retinol equivalent (RE), 15 mg RE, or placebo with childhood immunization contacts at 6, 10, and 14 wks and 9 mo of age. Child growth was assessed through anthropometry, and morbidity histories were obtained. Vitamin A supplementation had no apparent impact upon linear or ponderal growth or infectious disease morbidity in the first 15 mo

2001 Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23372. Calcium and vitamin D supplements reduce tooth loss in the elderly. (PubMed)

Calcium and vitamin D supplements reduce tooth loss in the elderly. Oral bone and tooth loss are correlated with bone loss at nonoral sites. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation slow the rate of bone loss from various skeletal sites, but it is not known if intake of these nutrients affects oral bone and, in turn, tooth retention.Tooth loss was examined in 145 healthy subjects aged 65 years and older who completed a 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the effect of calcium (...) and vitamin D supplementation on bone loss from the hip, as well as a 2-year follow-up study after discontinuation of study supplements. Teeth were counted at 18 months and 5 years. A comprehensive oral examination at 5 years included assessment of caries, oral hygiene, and periodontal disease. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of tooth loss were estimated by stepwise multivariate logistic regression. Initial age (mean +/- SD) of subjects was 71 +/- 5 years, and the number of teeth

2001 The American journal of medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23373. Mucosal pathology of the upper gastrointestinal tract associated with intensive chemotherapy in children: vitamin A supplements do not prevent lesions. (PubMed)

Mucosal pathology of the upper gastrointestinal tract associated with intensive chemotherapy in children: vitamin A supplements do not prevent lesions. Intensive chemotherapy (ICT) for a malignant disease in children may be associated with clinically significant mucosal lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract. This prospective and randomized study was conducted to evaluate more thoroughly the mucosal damage and to find out whether vitamin A therapy might prevent the development (...) of these lesions. Gastroduodenoscopy and non-invasive methods were used to examine a consecutive series of 20 patients (10 females, 10 males, aged 1-15 years) 4 weeks after initiating the therapy regimen. Half of the patients were randomized to take vitamin A supplements for 6 weeks. During a follow-up of 6 weeks, 13 (65%) reported some symptoms of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, diarrhea and mouth pain being most prominent. Endoscopic abnormalities were found in 13 (65 %) subjects: esophagitis in 10, erosive

2002 Pediatric hematology and oncology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23374. Vitamin C and E supplements to lansoprazole-amoxicillin-metronidazole triple therapy may reduce the eradication rate of metronidazole-susceptible Helicobacter pylori infection. (PubMed)

Vitamin C and E supplements to lansoprazole-amoxicillin-metronidazole triple therapy may reduce the eradication rate of metronidazole-susceptible Helicobacter pylori infection. To test whether vitamin C and E supplements to triple therapy can improve the Helicobacter pylori eradication rate and gastric inflammation.A total of 104 H. pylori-infected patients were randomized to receive: either lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and metronidazole twice daily for 1 week (triple-only group) or lansoprazole (...) , amoxicillin, metronidazole plus vitamin C (250 mg) and vitamin E (200 mg) twice daily for 1 week, followed immediately by vitamin C and E once daily for 6 consecutive weeks (triple-plus-vitamin group). Eight weeks after the completion of triple therapy, patients were assessed for the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication. The severity of gastric inflammation in histology was assessed for the acute and chronic inflammation scores.Intention-to-treat and per-protocol eradication rates were 59.1% and 64.4

2002 Helicobacter Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23375. Lack of long-term effect of vitamin C supplementation on blood pressure. (PubMed)

Lack of long-term effect of vitamin C supplementation on blood pressure. In a double-blinded randomized controlled trial, we investigated the long-term effect of vitamin C supplementation on blood pressure. A total of 439 Japanese subjects with atrophic gastritis initially participated in the trial using vitamin C and beta-carotene to prevent gastric cancer. Before and on early termination of beta-carotene supplementation, 134 subjects dropped out of this trial, whereas 120 and 124 subjects (...) took the vitamin C supplement daily at either 50 mg or 500 mg, respectively, for 5 years. Before supplementation, neither systolic nor diastolic blood pressure was significantly related with the serum vitamin C concentration. This relationship was unchanged after adjustment for age, body mass index, and alcohol intake or after stratification by gender. After 5 years, systolic blood pressure significantly increased in groups, regardless of vitamin C dose, compared with baseline. Systolic blood

2002 Hypertension Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23376. Serum ex vivo lipoprotein oxidizability in patients with ischemic heart disease supplemented with vitamin E. (PubMed)

Serum ex vivo lipoprotein oxidizability in patients with ischemic heart disease supplemented with vitamin E. The decreased oxidizability of plasma lipoproteins is related to the increased vitamin E intake and its association with a relatively lower incidence of coronary heart disease has been proposed. We investigated the effect of the in vivo vitamin E supplementation on the oxidizability of serum lipids in patients with ischemic heart disease and a moderate hypercholesterolemia. Thirty-two (...) ), plasma alpha-tocopherol and MDA levels between male patients and postmenopausal women supplemented with vitamin E, the results were compared between both genders. Six weeks of vitamin E supplementation significantly increased plasma vitamin E levels (by 87 %) in male patients but in postmenopausal women only by 34 %. Concomitantly with increased plasma levels of vitamin E the decrease in plasma MDA levels was observed in male patients (decrease by 20 %; p=0.008), but in postmenopausal women

2002 Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23377. A randomized, 4-month mango and fat supplementation trial improved vitamin A status among young Gambian children. (PubMed)

A randomized, 4-month mango and fat supplementation trial improved vitamin A status among young Gambian children. Supplementation with carotene-rich fruits may be an effective and sustainable approach to prevent vitamin A deficiency. To test the effectiveness of mango supplementation, 176 Gambian children, aged 2 to 7 y, were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 75 g of dried mango containing approximately 150 micro g retinol activity equivalents with (MF) or without (M) 5 g of fat, 5 d (...) . These results support the use of dietary supplementation with dried mangoes and a source of fat as one of several concurrent strategies that can be used to help maintain vitamin A status of children in developing countries where there is a severe seasonal shortage of carotenoid-rich foods.

2002 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23378. Preventing the common cold with a vitamin C supplement: a double-blind, placebo-controlled survey. (PubMed)

Preventing the common cold with a vitamin C supplement: a double-blind, placebo-controlled survey. One hundred sixty-eight volunteers were randomized to receive a placebo or a vitamin C supplement, two tablets daily, over a 60-day period between November and February. They used a five-point scale to assess their health and recorded any common cold infections and symptoms in a daily diary. Compared with the placebo group, the active-treatment group had significantly fewer colds (37 vs 50, P<.05 (...) ), fewer days challenged virally (85 vs 178), and a significantly shorter duration of severe symptoms (1.8 vs 3.1 days, P<.03). Consequently, volunteers in the active group were less likely to get a cold and recovered faster if infected. Few side effects occurred with the active treatment, and volunteers reported greatly increased satisfaction with the study supplement compared with any previous form of vitamin C. This well-tolerated vitamin C supplement may prevent the common cold and shorten

2002 Advances in therapy Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23379. Effect of multivitamin and vitamin A supplements on weight gain during pregnancy among HIV-1-infected women. (PubMed)

Effect of multivitamin and vitamin A supplements on weight gain during pregnancy among HIV-1-infected women. The pattern of weight gain during pregnancy among HIV-infected women is largely unknown. Multivitamin supplementation was shown to be effective in preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-positive women. These protective effects could be mediated in part by an improvement in the pattern of gestational weight gain.We examined the effects of multivitamin and vitamin A supplements (...) on weight gain during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy among HIV-infected women.We enrolled 1075 pregnant, HIV-1-positive women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we assigned each woman to 1 of 4 regimens: multivitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, and vitamins B-6, B-12, C, and E), vitamin A, multivitamins including vitamin A, or placebo. The women took these oral supplements daily and were weighed monthly

2002 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23380. Effect of homocysteine reduction by B-vitamin supplementation on markers of clotting activation. (PubMed)

Effect of homocysteine reduction by B-vitamin supplementation on markers of clotting activation. Homocysteine may have an effect on risk of cardiovascular disease by stimulating procoagulant factors and/or impair anti-coagulant mechanisms or fibrinolysis. However, data in humans of such effects are sparse. In this intervention study, we examined the effect of homocysteine lowering by B-vitamin supplementation on prothrombin fragments 1 and 2 (F1 + 2), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT (...) ), and fibrin degradation products (D-dimer). The study comprised 118 healthy volunteers, 50 with homocysteine > 16 mumol/L and 68 with homocysteine < or = 16 mumol/L, who were randomized to placebo or high-dose B-vitamin supplements (5 mg folic acid, 0.4 mg hydroxycobalamin, and 50 mg pyridoxine) daily for 8 weeks. Although homocysteine concentrations were 27.7% (p < 0.0001) reduced in the B-vitamin group compared to the placebo group, no effect on F1 + 2 and TAT concentrations was observed. A 10.4

2002 Thrombosis and haemostasis Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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