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Vitamin B12 Supplementation

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23341. Effects of a short-term vitamin D(3) and calcium supplementation on blood pressure and parathyroid hormone levels in elderly women. (PubMed)

Effects of a short-term vitamin D(3) and calcium supplementation on blood pressure and parathyroid hormone levels in elderly women. Calcium supplementation is effective in reducing blood pressure in various states of hypertension, including pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia. In addition, calcitropic hormones are associated with blood pressure. The hypothesis is that short-term therapy with calcium and vitamin D(3) may improve blood pressure as well as secondary hyperparathyroidism (...) more effectively than calcium monotherapy. The effects of 8 weeks of supplementation with vitamin D(3) (cholecalciferol) and calcium on blood pressure and biochemical measures of bone metabolism were studied. The sample consisted of 148 women (mean +/- SD age, 74 +/- 1 yr) with a 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD(3)) level below 50 nmol/L. They received either 1200 mg calcium plus 800 IU vitamin D(3) or 1200 mg calcium/day. We measured intact PTH, 25OHD(3), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), blood pressure

2001 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23342. Influence of daily calcium and vitamin D supplementation on parathyroid hormone secretion. (PubMed)

Influence of daily calcium and vitamin D supplementation on parathyroid hormone secretion. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation have been shown to reduce secondary hyperparathyroidism and play a role in age-related osteoporosis. In order to define the optimal regimen of calcium and vitamin D supplementation to produce the maximal inhibition of parathyroid hormone secretion, we compared the administration of a calcium-vitamin D supplement as a single morning dose with the administration of two (...) divided doses at 6-hour intervals. Twelve healthy male volunteers were assigned to three investigational procedures, which were alternated at weekly intervals. After a 'blank' control procedure, when they were not exposed to any supplements, they received one of two calcium-vitamin D supplement regimens: either two doses of Orocal D3 (500 mg calcium and 400 IU vitamin D3) with a 6-hour interval between doses, or one water-soluble effervescent powder pack of Cacit vitamin D3, taken in the morning (1000

2001 Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23343. Vitamin A supplementation and other predictors of anemia among children from Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. (PubMed)

Vitamin A supplementation and other predictors of anemia among children from Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. The associations of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and packed cell volume with socioeconomic factors, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and nutritional status were examined among 687 children admitted to hospital with pneumonia participating in a double blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A supplementation. Children were randomized to receive 2 doses of vitamin A (200,000 (...) ). Children with repeated diagnoses of malaria had 4.1 times the risk of developing severe anemia than did children without the diagnosis (95% CI = 1.3, 13.5; P = 0.02). Vitamin A supplements were associated with an overall nonsignificant reduction of 14% in the risk of developing severe anemia (adjusted prevalence ratio = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.37, 1.99; P = 0.73). We conclude that malaria, HIV infection, low socioeconomic status, and short duration of breastfeeding are strong and independent determinants

2000 The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23344. The effect of antenatal vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation on gut integrity of infants of HIV-infected South African women. (PubMed)

The effect of antenatal vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation on gut integrity of infants of HIV-infected South African women. Vitamin A is important for protection against diarrhea, and supplements may benefit gut function of infants of HIV-infected mothers.We studied 238 infants of HIV-infected South African women participating in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A during pregnancy (1.5 mg retinyl palmitate and 30 mg beta-carotene daily) plus 60 mg retinyl (...) palmitate at delivery. The placebo group received identical placebo capsules at the same times. When infants were 1, 6, and 14 weeks of age, lactulose/mannitol dual sugar intestinal permeability tests were performed.Maternal vitamin A supplementation did not significantly affect infant gut permeability in the group as a whole at any time. By multiple regression analysis, HIV infection of the infant by 14 weeks was significantly associated with increased gut permeability at both 6 and 14 weeks. After

2001 Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23345. Exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle performance in healthy women: role of vitamin E supplementation and endogenous oestradiol. (PubMed)

Exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle performance in healthy women: role of vitamin E supplementation and endogenous oestradiol. The purpose of this study was to investigate the individual and combined antioxidant effects of menstrual cycle phase-related alterations in blood serum oestradiol concentrations and of dietary vitamin E supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle performance. A group of 18 sedentary women, aged 19-35 years, were given supplements of 300 mg (...) (GPx) activities and apolipoprotein B containing lipoprotein (non-high density lipoprotein, HDL, fraction) oxidation. Serum vitamin E, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and oestradiol concentrations were measured in pre-exercise blood samples. Neither vitamin E supplementation nor oestradiol concentrations influenced SOD and GPx activities or the susceptibility of the non-HDL fraction to oxidation while at rest. Plasma malondialdehyde concentration was unaffected by exercise

2001 European journal of applied physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23346. Impact of vitamin A supplementation on anaemia and plasma erythropoietin concentrations in pregnant women: a controlled clinical trial. (PubMed)

Impact of vitamin A supplementation on anaemia and plasma erythropoietin concentrations in pregnant women: a controlled clinical trial. Although studies suggest that vitamin A or its metabolites influence the synthesis of erythropoietin in vitro and in animal models, it is unclear whether vitamin A supplementation increases plasma erythropoietin concentrations in humans.To determine whether daily vitamin A supplementation increases plasma erythropoietin concentrations in pregnant women (...) with a high prevalence of anaemia.A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted to examine the effect of daily vitamin A (3000 microg retinol equivalent), iron (30 mg), and folate (400 microg) versus iron (30 mg) and folate (400 microg) (control) on haemoglobin and plasma erythropoietin concentrations in 203 pregnant women in Malawi, Africa.Mean gestational age at enrollment was 23 wk, at which time 50% of the women were anaemic (haemoglobin <110 g/L). Mean (+/-SEM) change

2001 European journal of haematology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23347. Antioxidant vitamin supplements do not reduce reactive oxygen species activity in Helicobacter pylori gastritis in the short term. (Full text)

Antioxidant vitamin supplements do not reduce reactive oxygen species activity in Helicobacter pylori gastritis in the short term. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in Helicobacter pylori-mediated gastric carcinogenesis, whereas diets high in antioxidant vitamins C and E are protective. We have examined the effect of vitamin C and E supplements in combination with H. pylori eradication on reactive oxygen species activity in H. pylori gastritis. H. pylori-positive patients were (...) ascorbic acid. Plasma ascorbic acid doubled in both groups of patients receiving vitamins and mucosal levels also increased. Malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species fell in patients in whom H. pylori was eradicated but vitamin supplements were not effective either alone or in combination with H. pylori eradication. Supplements of vitamins C and E do not significantly reduce mucosal reactive oxygen species damage in H. pylori gastritis.

2002 The British journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23348. Combined calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation in elderly women: confirmation of reversal of secondary hyperparathyroidism and hip fracture risk: the Decalyos II study. (PubMed)

Combined calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation in elderly women: confirmation of reversal of secondary hyperparathyroidism and hip fracture risk: the Decalyos II study. Vitamin D insufficiency and low calcium intake contribute to increase parathyroid function and bone fragility in elderly people. Calcium and vitamin D supplements can reverse secondary hyperparathyroidism thus preventing hip fractures, as proved by Decalyos I. Decalyos II is a 2-year, multicenter, randomized, double-masked (...) , placebo-controlled confirmatory study. The intention-to-treat population consisted of 583 ambulatory institutionalized women (mean age 85.2 years, SD = 7.1) randomized to the calcium-vitamin D3 fixed combination group (n = 199); the calcium plus vitamin D3 separate combination group (n = 190) and the placebo group (n = 194). Fixed and separate combination groups received the same daily amount of calcium (1200 mg) and vitamin D3 (800 IU), which had similar pharmacodynamic effects. Both types of calcium

2002 Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23349. Contraction-induced muscle damage is unaffected by vitamin E supplementation. (PubMed)

Contraction-induced muscle damage is unaffected by vitamin E supplementation. Vitamin E supplementation may confer a protective effect against eccentrically biased exercise-induced muscle damage through stabilization of the cell membrane and possibly via inhibition of free radical formation. Evidence supporting a protective role of vitamin E after contraction-induced muscle injury in humans is, however, inconsistent. The present study sought to determine the effect of vitamin E supplementation (...) on indices of exercise-induced muscle damage and the postexercise inflammatory response after performance of repeated eccentric muscle contractions.Young healthy men performed a bout of 240 maximal isokinetic eccentric muscle contractions (0.52 rad.s-1) after being supplemented for 30 d with either vitamin E (N = 9; 1200 IU.d-1) or placebo (N = 7; safflower oil).Measurements of torque (isometric and concentric) decreased (P < 0.05) below preexercise values immediately post- and at 48 h post-exercise

2002 Medicine and science in sports and exercise Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23350. Comparison of the effects of supplemental red palm oil and sunflower oil on maternal vitamin A status. (PubMed)

Comparison of the effects of supplemental red palm oil and sunflower oil on maternal vitamin A status. Conflicting results have been reported on the ability of dietary carotenoids to improve vitamin A status in lactating women. Red palm oil is one of the richest dietary sources of beta-carotene.We aimed to determine the efficacy of red palm oil in increasing retinol and provitamin A status in pregnant and lactating women.Ninety rural, pregnant Tanzanian women from 3 randomly selected villages

2001 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23351. Impact of vitamin A supplementation through different dosages of red palm oil and retinol palmitate on preschool children. (PubMed)

Impact of vitamin A supplementation through different dosages of red palm oil and retinol palmitate on preschool children. Red palm oil (5 ml and 10 ml), ground nut oil fortified with 400 and 800 retinol equivalent retinol palmitate, and ground nut oil (5 and 10 ml), were administered to six groups of preschool children (four experimental and two control groups) in randomly assigned balwadis of Ramanathapuram District of Tamil Nadu for a period of 7 months, to monitor the difference (...) in the efficacy of the mode of supplementation and the optimum dose for improving vitamin A status. Results show that red palm oil groups recorded more gain in retinol and beta-carotene levels compared to other dosage groups, and that administration of 10 ml did not offer any substantial improvement over the 5-ml daily dose.

2002 Journal of tropical pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23352. Influence of daily regimen calcium and vitamin D supplementation on parathyroid hormone secretion. (PubMed)

Influence of daily regimen calcium and vitamin D supplementation on parathyroid hormone secretion. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation has been shown to reduce secondary hyperparathyroidism and play a role in the management of senile osteoporosis. In order to define the optimal regimen of calcium and vitamin D supplementation to produce the maximal inhibition of parathyroid hormone secretion, we have compared the administration of a similar amount of Ca and vitamin D, either as a single (...) morning dose or split in two doses, taken 6 hours apart. Twelve healthy volunteers were assigned to three investigational procedures, at weekly intervals. After a blank control procedure, when they were not exposed to any drug intake, they received two calcium-vitamin D supplement regimens including either two doses of Orocal D3 (500 mg Ca and 400 IU vitamin D) 6 hours apart or one water-soluble effervescent powder pack of Cacit D3 in a single morning dose (1000 mg Ca and 880 IU vitamin D). During

2002 Calcified tissue international Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23353. Randomised double-blind trial of the effect of vitamin A supplementation of Indonesian pregnant women on morbidity and growth of their infants during the first year of life. (Full text)

Randomised double-blind trial of the effect of vitamin A supplementation of Indonesian pregnant women on morbidity and growth of their infants during the first year of life. To investigate whether supplementation with vitamin A together with iron of Indonesian pregnant women decreases morbidity and improves growth of their infants during the first year of life.Women from a rural area in West Java, Indonesia, were randomly assigned on an individual basis to double-blind supplementation once (...) weekly from approximately 18 weeks of pregnancy until delivery. Supplementation comprised 120 mg iron and 500 microg folic acid with or without 4800 RE vitamin A. Their newborn infants were followed up during the first year of life: weight, length, morbidity and food intake were assessed monthly.Infants whose mothers had taken vitamin A supplements during pregnancy had similar weight, length, weight gain and growth as their counterparts during the follow-up period. The proportions of infants

2002 European journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23354. Influence of vitamin C supplementation on oxidative and immune changes after an ultramarathon. (Full text)

Influence of vitamin C supplementation on oxidative and immune changes after an ultramarathon. The purpose of this randomized study was to measure the influence of vitamin C (n = 15 runners) compared with placebo (n = 13 runners) supplementation on oxidative and immune changes in runners competing in an ultramarathon race. During the 7-day period before the race and on race day, subjects ingested in randomized, double-blind fashion 1,500 mg/day vitamin C or placebo. On race day, blood samples (...) , respectively, P < 0.001). No significant group or interaction effects were measured for lipid hydroperoxide, F2-isoprostane, immune cell counts, plasma interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-1-receptor antagonist, or IL-8 concentrations, or mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 and IFN-gamma production. These data indicate that vitamin C supplementation in carbohydrate-fed runners does not serve as a countermeasure to oxidative and immune changes during or after a competitive ultramarathon race.

2002 Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23355. Positive effects of a chicken eggshell powder-enriched vitamin-mineral supplement on femoral neck bone mineral density in healthy late post-menopausal Dutch women. (Full text)

Positive effects of a chicken eggshell powder-enriched vitamin-mineral supplement on femoral neck bone mineral density in healthy late post-menopausal Dutch women. Although bone metabolism is largely under genetic control, the role of nutrition is considerable. The present study evaluates the effects of chicken eggshell powder, a new source of dietary Ca, and purified CaCO3 on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and hip. Besides BMD we also looked at biochemical markers of bone (...) and Ca metabolism. Both Ca sources were provided in combination with minerals and vitamins including Mg, cholecalciferol and phylloquinone. We designed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to take place over 12 months. Healthy Caucasian women (n 85), selected by age (> or =50 and <70 years), from the databases of general practitioners were recruited by telephone calls. They had to be at least 5 years post-menopausal, with lumbar spine T-score being > - 2.5. At baseline, their mean

2002 The British journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23356. Vitamin supplementation can markedly reduce the homocysteine elevation induced by fenofibrate. (PubMed)

Vitamin supplementation can markedly reduce the homocysteine elevation induced by fenofibrate. Elevated homocysteine concentrations are a risk factor for atherosclerotic disease. Recently it was reported that lipid lowering with fibrates increases homocysteine by up to 40%. Since elevated homocysteine concentrations can readily be lowered by vitamin supplementation, a randomized, double-blind crossover study was performed to investigate the effect of fenofibrate plus folic acid, vitamin B6 (...) and B12 versus fenofibrate plus placebo in hyperlipidemic men. The crossover study comprised a run-in period of 6 weeks, a first treatment phase of 6 weeks, a washout phase of 8 weeks and a second treatment phase of 6 weeks. Vitamins were given at doses of 650 microg folic acid, 50 microg vitamin B12 and 5 mg vitamin B6 per day for a period of 6 weeks. After fenofibrate plus placebo the increase in homocysteine concentration was 44+/-47%. After fenofibrate plus vitamins it was 13+/-25%, being

2001 Atherosclerosis Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23357. Effect of two years' supplementation with natural antioxidants on vitamin and trace element status biomarkers: preliminary data of the SU.VI.MAX study. (PubMed)

Effect of two years' supplementation with natural antioxidants on vitamin and trace element status biomarkers: preliminary data of the SU.VI.MAX study. The "SUpplementation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXidants" (SU.VI.MAX) study is a randomized double-blind, placebo controlled, primary-prevention trial designed to test the efficacy of a daily supplementation with antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C, 120 mg; vitamin E, 30 mg; and beta-carotene, 6 mg) and minerals (selenium, 100 microg; and zinc, 20 (...) mg) at nutritional doses (one to three times the daily recommended dietary allowances), in reducing the frequency of cancers and cardiovascular diseases. The study involves 12,735 eligible subjects (women aged 35-60 years, men aged 45-60 years) included in 1994 in France. They will be followed up for 8 years. The targeted population is the general population. The aim of this specific analysis is to assess the effect of 2 years of supplementation on biochemical indicators of vitamin and trace

2001 Cancer detection and prevention Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23358. Vitamin A supplements ameliorate the adverse effect of HIV-1, malaria, and diarrheal infections on child growth. (PubMed)

Vitamin A supplements ameliorate the adverse effect of HIV-1, malaria, and diarrheal infections on child growth. Evidence from animal experiments and observational studies in humans suggests that vitamin A plays a fundamental role in physical growth. However, results from vitamin A supplementation trials in children are inconsistent; whereas some did not find an overall effect on growth, others found benefits only among specific groups, including children with low concentrations of serum (...) retinol or short duration of breastfeeding. The apparent lack of an overall effect of vitamin A on growth could be attributed to context-specific distribution of conditions that affect both growth and the response to supplementation, eg, baseline vitamin A status, deficiency of other nutrients (fat, zinc), and the presence of infectious diseases. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, malaria, and diarrheal disease adversely affect growth and are associated with increased prevalence of vitamin

2002 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23359. Effect of vitamin and trace-element supplementation on cognitive function in elderly subjects. (PubMed)

Effect of vitamin and trace-element supplementation on cognitive function in elderly subjects. To determine whether supplementation with vitamins and trace elements in modest amounts influences cognitive function in apparently healthy, elderly subjects.The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ninety-six, apparently healthy, independent men and women older than 65 y of age were recruited and randomized to receive a supplement of trace elements and vitamins (...) the reference standard showed lower responses on cognitive tests. There was no significant correlation between individual nutrient levels and performance on various cognitive function tests.Cognitive functions improved after oral supplementation with modest amounts of vitamins and trace elements. This has considerable clinical and public health significance. We recommend that such a supplement be provided to all elderly subjects because it should significantly improve cognition and thus quality of life

2001 Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23360. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no. 8. (Full text)

A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no. 8. Observational and experimental data suggest that antioxidant and/or zinc supplements may delay progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and vision loss.To evaluate the effect of high-dose vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc supplements on AMD progression and visual acuity.The Age (...) -Related Eye Disease Study, an 11-center double-masked clinical trial, enrolled participants in an AMD trial if they had extensive small drusen, intermediate drusen, large drusen, noncentral geographic atrophy, or pigment abnormalities in 1 or both eyes, or advanced AMD or vision loss due to AMD in 1 eye. At least 1 eye had best-corrected visual acuity of 20/32 or better. Participants were randomly assigned to receive daily oral tablets containing: (1) antioxidants (vitamin C, 500 mg; vitamin E, 400 IU

2001 Archives of ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

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