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Vitamin B12 Supplementation

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23321. A randomised, single-blind, crossover comparison of the acceptability of the calcium and vitamin D3 supplements Calcichew D3 Forte and Ad Cal D3 in elderly patients. (PubMed)

A randomised, single-blind, crossover comparison of the acceptability of the calcium and vitamin D3 supplements Calcichew D3 Forte and Ad Cal D3 in elderly patients. Supplements of calcium and vitamin D are given to elderly patients in order to reduce the likelihood of osteoporotic fractures. The acceptability of the preparation is an important component of the compliance of such patients with their treatment.To compare the acceptability of Calcichew D3 Forte (CDF) and Ad Cal D3 (ACD (...) ).This was a randomised, crossover, comparative study of two formulations of calcium and vitamin D. Patients took CDF for seven days followed by ACD for seven days, or vice versa, according to the randomisation schedule. At the end of each treatment period, patients used visual analogue scales (VAS) to indicate the grittiness, chalkiness, taste, ease of chewing, ease of swallowing and stickiness of each preparation.One hundred and two elderly patients taking calcium supplements were recruited. Of these, 94 were

2001 Current medical research and opinion Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23322. Vitamin E supplementation restores glutathione and malondialdehyde to normal concentrations in erythrocytes of type 1 diabetic children. (PubMed)

Vitamin E supplementation restores glutathione and malondialdehyde to normal concentrations in erythrocytes of type 1 diabetic children. This study examined the relationship between cellular glutathione and vitamin E concentrations and the effect of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) supplementation on glutathione and lipid peroxidation product concentrations in the erythrocytes of type 1 diabetic patients.We obtained written informed consent to participate in this study from diabetic patients (n (...) = 29) and their age-matched nondiabetic siblings (n = 21) according to the guidelines of the Institutional Review Board on Human Experimentation. Diabetic patients were supplemented with a DL-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) capsule (100 IU/orally) or placebo for 3 months in a double-blind clinical trial. Fasting blood samples were collected from each diabetic patient before the start of and after the 3 months of vitamin E or placebo supplementation. Glutathione, malondialdehyde (which is a product

2000 Diabetes Care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23323. Vitamin B6 supplementation can improve peripheral polyneuropathy in patients with chronic renal failure on high-flux haemodialysis and human recombinant erythropoietin. (PubMed)

Vitamin B6 supplementation can improve peripheral polyneuropathy in patients with chronic renal failure on high-flux haemodialysis and human recombinant erythropoietin. High-flux haemodialysis (HD) has recently been vigorously promoted as a novel standard, and it can indeed efficiently reduce the occurrence of most uraemic symptoms due to middle molecular toxins and/or underdialysis. However, some symptoms remain problematical, particularly peripheral polyneuropathy (PPN). One of the possible (...) reasons for this is that the patients may have low concentrations of some nutrients, e.g. vitamin B(6), necessary for normal peripheral neuron function.Predialysis serum pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (P5P) level was determined in 36 chronic HD patients who were undergoing high-flux HD and receiving human recombinant erythropoietin. Among them, 26 patients suffered from PPN. Prior to supplementation, these 26 patients were examined and their neurological symptoms were ranked according to our PPN symptom score

2000 Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23324. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity of low-birth-weight neonates. (PubMed)

Effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity of low-birth-weight neonates. Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants (< 2,500 g) are at increased risk of respiratory infection in the first few months of life and have low liver stores of vitamin A. As retinol is essential for respiratory epithelial cell differentiation, deficiency could result in pathological changes in the respiratory epithelium, with respiratory problems.A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect (...) of vitamin A supplementation on the incidence and severity of respiratory infections in LBW infants during their first year of life.One hundred and thirty LBW infants (gestational age < 36 weeks and birth weight 950-1,700 g) were enrolled in the study. The infants were randomly allocated to a vitamin A or placebo group. Infants in the vitamin A group received 25,000 IU of vitamin A (retinyl palmitate, Arovit drops, Roche, Basle, Switzerland) on study days 1, 4 and 8. Study day 1 was between 36 and 60

2000 South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23325. Effects of supplemental parenteral administration of vitamin E and selenium to Jerseys and Holsteins during the nonlactating period. (PubMed)

Effects of supplemental parenteral administration of vitamin E and selenium to Jerseys and Holsteins during the nonlactating period. To determine effects of breed and supplemental administration of vitamin E and selenium (Se) during late gestation on circulating concentrations of these micronutrients in periparturient Jerseys and Holsteins.Randomized controlled clinical study.16 Jersey and 36 Holstein cows.Cows were allotted to blocks on the basis of breed and expected parturition date. Cows (...) within blocks were randomly assigned to be given vitamin E or Se parenterally 3 to 4 weeks prior to anticipated parturition in a 2 x 2 factorial design.Results of ANOVA indicated Jerseys had higher blood concentrations of Se and lower serum concentrations of vitamin E than Holsteins at the end of lactation. Jerseys had higher blood concentrations of Se than Holsteins 3 to 4 weeks prior to parturition and at parturition. Selenium administration increased blood concentrations of Se at parturition

2000 American journal of veterinary research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23326. Vitamin E and beta carotene supplementation in high risk for stroke: a subgroup analysis of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. (PubMed)

Vitamin E and beta carotene supplementation in high risk for stroke: a subgroup analysis of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. High serum or dietary levels of vitamin E and beta carotene appear to be associated with lower risk of stroke, but studies regarding their supplementation have not supported their use in stroke prevention.To determine if vitamin E (dl-alpha tocopherol) and beta carotene supplementations could be used in prevention of stroke in men at high risk (...) men because of previous stroke at baseline, leaving 28, 519.Incident and fatal subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, and unspecified stroke.Stroke occurred in a total of 1057 men: 85 had subarachnoid and 112 had intracerebral hemorrhage, 807 had cerebral infarction, and 53 had unspecified stroke. Within 90 days from onset, 160 men died of stroke. Vitamin E supplementation increased the risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage (relative risk [RR], 2.45; 95% confidence interval [CI

2000 Archives of neurology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23327. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on circulating cell adhesion molecules pre- and post-coronary angioplasty. (PubMed)

Effect of vitamin E supplementation on circulating cell adhesion molecules pre- and post-coronary angioplasty. The soluble adhesion molecules P-selectin (sP-selectin) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) are derived from platelets and endothelial cells. Circulating concentrations of these soluble adhesion molecules are raised in patients with atherosclerosis and following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). We have investigated the effects of vitamin E supplements (...) (800 IU/day) on circulating plasma ICAM-1 and P-selectin levels pre- and post-PTCA. Patients, randomized to group, were pre-treated with vitamin E or placebo (soybean oil) for 1 month before routine PTCA. Plasma sICAM-1 and sP-selectin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on blood taken immediately pre- and post-PTCA. Total protein and alpha-tocopherol were measured on the same samples. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations increased in patients receiving vitamin E: 19.1 (1.5) [mean

2000 Annals of clinical biochemistry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23328. Randomised controlled trial of oral vitamin A supplementation in preterm infants to prevent chronic lung disease. (Full text)

Randomised controlled trial of oral vitamin A supplementation in preterm infants to prevent chronic lung disease. Intramuscular supplementation with vitamin A in large doses may reduce the incidence of chronic lung disease.To investigate whether oral supplementation with vitamin A would reduce the incidence of chronic lung disease in a group of extremely low birthweight infants.Infants with birth weight < 1000 g were randomised at birth to receive oral vitamin A supplementation (5000 IU/day (...) ) or placebo for 28 days. The primary outcome was oxygen dependency at 28 days of age or death.A total of 154 infants were randomised; 77 received vitamin A (median birth weight (interquartile range) 806 (710-890) g), and 77 received placebo (median birth weight (interquartile range) 782 (662-880) g). Plasma vitamin A concentrations in the supplemented group were significantly higher at 24 hours of age but did not differ significantly at birth, 12 hours of age, 7 days, or 28 days of life. There were

2001 Archives of disease in childhood. Fetal and neonatal edition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23329. Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) study: a randomized trial of the effect of vitamins E and C on 3-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis. (PubMed)

Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) study: a randomized trial of the effect of vitamins E and C on 3-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis. To study the efficacy of vitamin E and C supplementation on the progression of carotid atherosclerosis, hypothesizing an enhanced preventive effect in men and in smokers and synergism between vitamins.Double-masked two-by-two factorial trial, randomization in four strata (by gender and smoking status) to receive twice (...) , 0.017 and 0.016 mm year-1. The proportion of men with progression was reduced by 74% (95% CI 36-89%, P = 0.003) by supplementation with the formulation containing both vitamins, as compared with placebo.Our study shows that a combined supplementation with reasonable doses of both vitamin E and slow-release vitamin C can retard the progression of common carotid atherosclerosis in men. This may imply benefits with regard to other atherosclerosis-based events.

2000 Journal of internal medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23330. Effect of withdrawal of calcium and vitamin D supplements on bone mass in elderly men and women. (PubMed)

Effect of withdrawal of calcium and vitamin D supplements on bone mass in elderly men and women. Supplementation with calcium and vitamin D reduces bone loss and prevents fractures in elderly people, but it is not known whether any lasting benefit remains if the supplements are discontinued.The objective was to determine whether gains in bone mineral density (BMD) induced by calcium and vitamin D supplementation persist after supplement withdrawal.Two-hundred ninety-five healthy, elderly men (...) and women (aged >/=68 y) who had completed a 3-y randomized, placebo-controlled trial of calcium and vitamin D supplementation were followed for an additional 2 y during which no study supplements were given. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and biochemical variables related to calcium metabolism and bone turnover were measured.In the 128 men, supplement-induced increases in spinal and femoral neck BMD were lost within 2 y of supplement discontinuation, but small benefits in total

2000 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23331. Responsiveness of dark-adaptation threshold to vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation in pregnant and lactating women in Nepal. (PubMed)

Responsiveness of dark-adaptation threshold to vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation in pregnant and lactating women in Nepal. Impaired dark adaptation occurs commonly in vitamin A deficiency.We sought to examine the responsiveness of dark-adaptation threshold to vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation in Nepali women.The dark-adapted pupillary response was tested in 298 pregnant women aged 15-45 y in a placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A and beta-carotene; 131 of these women were (...) , for all 3 groups).During pregnancy, pupillary dark adaptation was strongly associated with serum retinol concentration and improved significantly in response to vitamin A supplementation. This noninvasive testing technique is a valid indicator of population vitamin A status in women of reproductive age.

2000 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23332. Vitamin K supplementation reduces serum concentrations of under-gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin in healthy young and elderly adults. (PubMed)

Vitamin K supplementation reduces serum concentrations of under-gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin in healthy young and elderly adults. Subclinical vitamin K insufficiency, manifested by under-gamma-carboxylation of the bone matrix protein osteocalcin, may be common.Our objective was to delineate the prevalence of submaximal gamma-carboxylation as assessed by response to phylloquinone supplementation and to evaluate the effect of this intervention on skeletal turnover in healthy North American (...) a >1% decrease. Phylloquinone supplementation reduced serum osteocalcin but did not alter NTx or BSAP concentration.Usual dietary practices in this population did not provide adequate vitamin K for maximal osteocalcin carboxylation. Phylloquinone supplementation reduced serum osteocalcin concentration but did not alter other markers of serum bone turnover.

2000 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23333. Supplementing lactating women with puréed papaya and grated carrots improved vitamin A status in a placebo-controlled trial. (PubMed)

Supplementing lactating women with puréed papaya and grated carrots improved vitamin A status in a placebo-controlled trial. Doubts have been raised about the effectiveness of carotene-containing foods in improving the vitamin A status of populations at risk. We investigated the effect of papaya and carrots on the vitamin A status of lactating women with 2- to 12-mo-old infants in ZIMBABWE: The women were randomly assigned to three supplementation groups and a placebo group, and received 6 mg (...) of beta-carotene capsules, 650 g puréed papaya, 100 g grated carrots or a placebo, daily for 60 d. All groups were given a meal containing 10 g of vegetable oil daily. Serum retinol, relative dose response, serum ferritin, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein were measured before and after the supplementation period. Mean serum retinol increased significantly after supplementation in the beta-carotene group (P < 0.001), the papaya group (P < 0.001) and the carrot group (P < 0.001), but not in the placebo

2001 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23334. The effect of season and vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density in healthy women: a double-masked crossover study. (PubMed)

The effect of season and vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density in healthy women: a double-masked crossover study. Vitamin D status is known to be an important determinant of bone mineral density (BMD). There is a significant seasonal variation in serum vitamin D, and some studies have reported an associated seasonal variation in BMD. The present study was devised to investigate whether a seasonal variation in BMD could be detected in healthy normal subjects, along with associated (...) variations in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), intestinal calcium absorption and biochemical markers of bone turnover. A second aim was to investigate whether, if such variations were identified, they could be suppressed by vitamin D supplementation. The subjects were 70 healthy female volunteers (mean age 47.2 years, range 24-70 years) recruited into a double-masked crossover study and followed over 2 years. During the first year 35 subjects received a daily oral supplement containing 800 IU (20

2001 Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23335. Alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) and beta-carotene supplementation does not affect the risk for large abdominal aortic aneurysm in a controlled trial. (PubMed)

Alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) and beta-carotene supplementation does not affect the risk for large abdominal aortic aneurysm in a controlled trial. Antioxidants may retard atherogenesis and limit inflammatory processes involved in aneurysm formation. We evaluated effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on incidence of large abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects (n=29133) were 50-69-years-old male smokers (...) [CI] 0.62-1.11) among men receiving alpha-tocopherol compared with those who did not, and 0.93 (95% CI 0.69-1.24) among men receiving beta-carotene compared with those who did not. A modest though nonsignificant decrease in risk for nonruptured AAA was observed among alpha-tocopherol supplemented men (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.48-1.04) compared with men not receiving alpha-tocopherol. For beta-carotene, RR for nonruptured AAA was 0.86 (95% CI 0.59-1.27) compared with men not receiving beta-carotene

2001 Atherosclerosis Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23336. Hyperhomocysteinemia in hemodialysis patients: effects of 12-month supplementation with hydrosoluble vitamins. (Full text)

and to assess the effects of supplementation with hydrosoluble vitamins on serum homocysteine over one year.Serum total homocysteine (tHcy), vitamin B12, folate, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (P-5'-P; the active moiety of vitamin B6), as well as red blood cell folate concentrations, were measured in 168 chronic dialysis patients on three times weekly high-efficiency hemodialysis and not supplemented with hydrosoluble vitamins. Their methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (MTHFR) genotypes were also determined (...) Hyperhomocysteinemia in hemodialysis patients: effects of 12-month supplementation with hydrosoluble vitamins. High-efficiency hemodialysis may induce a deficiency in hydrosoluble vitamins. Supplementation with B-complex vitamins has been shown to lower serum homocysteine concentrations in several groups, but relatively few studies have concerned hemodialysis patients. Our objectives were to determine the status in B-complex vitamins in a large cohort of unsupplemented hemodialysis patients

2000 Kidney international Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23337. Effects of vitamin E supplementation on F(2)-isoprostane and thromboxane biosynthesis in healthy cigarette smokers. (PubMed)

Effects of vitamin E supplementation on F(2)-isoprostane and thromboxane biosynthesis in healthy cigarette smokers. Increased formation of 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) and thromboxane (TX) A(2), potent agonists of platelet and vascular thromboxane (TH)/PGH(2) receptors, has been detected in cigarette smokers. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of vitamin E (300, 600, and 1200 mg/d, each dose for 3 consecutive weeks) on 8-iso-PGF(2alpha (...) and were inversely correlated with urinary 11-dehydro-TXB(2) (r=-0.304, P=0.039) but not with 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) (r=-0.227, P=0.129). Vitamin E supplementation caused a dose-dependent increase in its plasma levels that reached a plateau at 600 mg (42.3+/-11.2 micromol/L, P<0. 001). This was not associated with any statistically significant change in urinary 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) or 11-dehydro-TXB(2) excretion.Supplementation with pharmacological doses of vitamin E has no detectable effects on lipid

2000 Circulation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23338. Benefits of vitamin E supplementation to Norplant users--in vitro and in vivo studies. (PubMed)

Benefits of vitamin E supplementation to Norplant users--in vitro and in vivo studies. Norplant subcutaneous implantation is a contraceptive method used in Indonesia. Endometrial bleeding is one major reason to discontinue the use of Norplant. Angiogenic response in the endometrium of Norplant users was found to be lower than in women with normal menstrual cycle. This disturbance in the angiogenic process may be caused by an imbalance of pro- and antioxidant processes in the endometrium (...) of Norplant users. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of vitamin E on the endometrial angiogenic activity and to assess the efficacy of vitamin E supplementation in treating endometrial bleeding in Norplant users. Subjects for this study were selected from Norplant users with an exposure of at least 3 months, with endometrial bleeding and recruited on the basis of fully informed consent. TBA reaction was used to measure degradation products of lipid peroxidation. The endometrial angiogenic

2000 Toxicology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23339. Lipid peroxide, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in ischaemic stroke and effect of exogenous vitamin E supplementation on outcome. (PubMed)

Lipid peroxide, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in ischaemic stroke and effect of exogenous vitamin E supplementation on outcome. 30 patients with CT proven infarct presenting within 24 hours of the acute event were included in the study with 20 age and sex matched controls. On day 1 and day 15 of stroke, levels of plasma lipid peroxide (oxidant) and plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta carotene (antioxidant) were estimated. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups, one group receiving (...) -tocopherol in control 9.74 +/- 2.76 micrograms/ml as compared to 7.57 +/- 2.92 micrograms/ml in stroke patients (p < 0.02). Initially the plasma lipid peroxide levels are high and antioxidant levels are low in patients of ischemic stroke. Exogenous vitamin E supplementation does not have any significant effect on early neurological outcome but it does bring about significant changes in subsequent recovery and rehabilitation of patients of stroke.

1997 The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23340. A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on preventing postmenopausal bone loss and modifying bone metabolism using identical twin pairs. (Full text)

A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on preventing postmenopausal bone loss and modifying bone metabolism using identical twin pairs. Vitamin D supplementation, when given with calcium, has been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce the incidence of hip fracture in elderly subjects. Despite its widespread use, the benefits of vitamin D supplementation in younger women and as a single agent are less clear. We performed a randomized co-twin, placebo (...) -controlled, double-blind trial over 2 years to measure the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on bone density and bone metabolism in young postmenopausal women. Seventy-nine monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs (mean age, 58.7 years; range, 47-70 years) were recruited. For each twin pair, one was randomized to 800 IU cholecalciferol/day for 2 years and the other was randomized to placebo. BMD was measured at the spine and hip and heel ultrasound at baseline, 12, 18, and 24 months. Samples were collected at 0, 3

2000 Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Controlled trial quality: predicted high

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