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Vitamin B12 Supplementation

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23301. Vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation reduces symptoms of illness in pregnant and lactating Nepali women. (PubMed)

Vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation reduces symptoms of illness in pregnant and lactating Nepali women. The contribution of nutritional interventions to the reduction in maternal morbidity rates in developing countries is not well known. We assessed the impact of weekly vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation on the prevalence of pregnancy and postpartum illness symptoms among 15,832 Nepali women in a placebo-controlled, double-masked, cluster-randomized trial. There was no impact (...) of either supplement on morbidity rates reported up to 28 wk of gestation, inclusive. However, in late pregnancy (>28 wk), symptoms of nausea, faintness and night blindness were reduced with vitamin A, but not beta-carotene, supplementation. Vitamin A supplementation shortened the length of labor by 1.5 h 50 min among nulliparous and multiparous women, respectively. Both interventions reduced the postpartum prevalence of at least four loose stools and night blindness. beta-Carotene supplementation also

2000 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23302. Supplemental vitamin A improves anemia and growth in anemic school children in Tanzania. (PubMed)

Supplemental vitamin A improves anemia and growth in anemic school children in Tanzania. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of the effects of dietary supplements on anemia, weight and height in 136 anemic school children from a low socioeconomic background in Bagamoyo District schools in Tanzania. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of dietary supplements on anemia and anthropometric indices of anemic school children. The supplements were vitamin A alone, iron (...) and vitamin A, iron alone or placebo, administered in a double-blinded design for 3 mo. All supplements were provided with local corn meals. Hemoglobin concentration, body weight and height were measured at baseline and at follow-up after supplementation. Vitamin A supplementation increased the mean hemoglobin concentration by 13.5 g/L compared with 3.5 g/L for placebo [P < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.19-13.57), the mean body weight by 0.6 kg compared with 0.2 kg for placebo (P < 0.0001, 95% CI

2000 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23303. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on coagulability and lipid levels in healthy male subjects. (PubMed)

The effect of vitamin C supplementation on coagulability and lipid levels in healthy male subjects. Although dietary intake and plasma levels of vitamin C have been inversely associated with cardiovascular disease, the mechanism through which it may exert its effect has not been fully explained. Since thrombosis plays an important role in the onset of cardiovascular disease, we investigated the effect of vitamin C on measures of hemostasis that have been associated with cardiovascular risk (...) . The effect of vitamin C on lipid levels was also evaluated. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we determined the effect of 2 g daily of vitamin C supplementation on platelet adhesion and aggregation, levels of tissue plasminogen activator antigen, plasminogen activator inhibitor, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, von Willebrand factor, and lipid levels in 18 healthy male volunteers with low normal vitamin C levels. No striking effects of vitamin C on the hemostatic measures were observed

2000 Thrombosis research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23304. A controlled clinical trial of vitamin E supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure. (PubMed)

A controlled clinical trial of vitamin E supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure. Oxidative stress is increased in patients with congestive heart failure and can contribute to the progressive deterioration observed in these patients. Increased oxidative stress is the result of either an increased production of free radicals or a depletion of endogenous antioxidants, such as vitamin E.We aimed to determine whether vitamin E supplementation of patients with advanced heart (...) , and norepinephrine were unchanged with treatment and were not significantly different from those in the control group.Supplementation with vitamin E did not result in any significant improvements in prognostic or functional indexes of heart failure or in the quality of life of patients with advanced heart failure.

2001 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23305. Vitamin A supplementation at birth delays pneumococcal colonization in South Indian infants. (PubMed)

Vitamin A supplementation at birth delays pneumococcal colonization in South Indian infants. Nasopharyngeal colonization is a risk factor for pneumococcal disease, a leading cause of complications and death in infants. We assessed the impact of vitamin A supplementation in reducing pneumococcal colonization in infants from an area with endemic vitamin A deficiency. We recruited 464 2-mo-old infants from a rural area in South India. Infants were randomly assigned to receive two 7000-microg (...) ratio 0.51 (0.28, 0.92), P = 0.02). The odds of colonization were 27% lower in the treatment group than in the placebo group [odds ratio 0.73 (0.48, 1.1), P = 0.13]. No differences were detected in the prevalence of invasive serotypes. The risk of colonization with penicillin-resistant isolates was 74% lower in the vitamin A group than in the placebo group at 2 mo of age. However, the prevalence of penicillin-resistant isolates was only 4%. Neonatal vitamin A supplementation may play a role

2001 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23306. Impact of vitamin A supplementation to rural children on morbidity due to diarrhoea. (PubMed)

Impact of vitamin A supplementation to rural children on morbidity due to diarrhoea. a number of studies have shown the association between vitamin A deficiency and the increased risk of diarrhoeal and other childhood morbidities and mortality. However, some studies have raised controversies regarding the reduction of the incidence of diarrhoea after vitamin A supplementation to children. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin A supplementation to young rural (...) children in reducing the incidence of diarrhoea.a double-blind randomized intervention trial was carried out amongst 404 rural children between 6-59 months of age to assess the impact of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity due to diarrhoea. Children aged 6-59 months were enrolled and allocated to receive either 200,000 or 50,000 IU of vitamin A and the same dose was repeated after six months. Morbidity due to diarrhoea was observed by twice-a-week household surveillance, during the subsequent one

2001 The Indian journal of medical research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23307. Vitamin B(6) therapy does not improve hematocrit in hemodialysis patients supplemented with iron and erythropoietin. (PubMed)

Vitamin B(6) therapy does not improve hematocrit in hemodialysis patients supplemented with iron and erythropoietin. Pyridoxine deficiency may be the cause of failure to respond appropriately to iron and erythropoietin (EPO) administration in hemodialysis patients.We studied 36 patients on chronic hemodialysis amply supplemented with iron and EPO, who failed to raise hematocrit levels >33%. Patients were divided into three equal groups and evaluated for 6 months as follows: Group (...) A -- no additional therapy; group B -- supplemented with oral pyridoxine 50 mg/day, and group C received 100 mg/day pyridoxine orally.In all our patients, erythrocyte pyridoxine levels were initially within reference range for a healthy population and did not vary significantly during the study period. Likewise, ferritin levels and iron saturation values remained normal and constant. Hemoglobin and/or hematocrit levels remained practically unchanged in all three groups.The results indicate that in hemodialysis

2001 Nephron Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23308. Zinc supplementation might potentiate the effect of vitamin A in restoring night vision in pregnant Nepalese women. (PubMed)

Zinc supplementation might potentiate the effect of vitamin A in restoring night vision in pregnant Nepalese women. Zinc deficiency may result in abnormal dark adaptation or night blindness, a symptom primarily of vitamin A deficiency. During a placebo-controlled trial in Nepal, weekly vitamin A supplementation of women reduced but failed to eliminate the incidence of night blindness during pregnancy, suggesting a role for zinc.The study examined the efficacy of daily zinc supplementation (...) A + placebo), zinc alone (zinc + placebo), and placebo (2 placebos: one for the vitamin A or beta-carotene study and one for the zinc study). Women underwent a clinic-based assessment that included pupillary threshold testing and phlebotomy before and after supplementation. Supplement use and daily history of night blindness were obtained at home twice every week.Zinc treatment increased serum zinc concentrations, but alone (zinc alone group), failed to restore night vision or to improve dark adaptation

2001 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23309. Randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on maternal morbidity during pregnancy and postpartum among HIV-infected women. (PubMed)

Randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on maternal morbidity during pregnancy and postpartum among HIV-infected women. To determine whether low-cost treatment of HIV using vitamin A would be beneficial, we examined the effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity of HIV-1 infected women.We conducted a randomized, double blind placebo-controlled trial at King Edward VIII Hospital, in Durban, South Africa. In total, 312 HIV-seropositive pregnant women (...) this study of HIV-infected pregnant women, vitamin A supplementation given in doses designed to decrease mother-to-infant transmission did not result in significant beneficial effect on reported symptoms pre- or postnatally. Further investigation with larger number of participants, tailoring supplementation for specific clinical conditions, outside the context of pregnancy, is required to help clarify the possible clinical benefits of vitamin A.

2000 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23310. The effects of vitamin C supplementation on protein oxidation in healthy volunteers. (PubMed)

The effects of vitamin C supplementation on protein oxidation in healthy volunteers. We have investigated vitamin C supplementation effects on immunoglobulin oxidation (carbonyls) and total plasma protein sulfhydryls in healthy human volunteers. After receiving placebo, plasma ascorbate and oxidation markers were unchanged. Following 5 weeks supplementation with vitamin C (400 mg/day), plasma ascorbate increased but no significant effect on protein oxidation was observed. At 10 and 15 weeks (...) supplementation, carbonyl levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.01) in subjects with low baseline ascorbate (29.51 +/- 5.3 microM) but not in those with normal baseline ascorbate (51.81 +/- 2.3 microM). To eliminate any effect from seasonal variation in dietary antioxidant intake, a second phase was undertaken. Subjects on vitamin C for 15 weeks were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or vitamin C. No difference in plasma sulfhydryl content was observed. Subjects withdrawn from supplementation

2000 Biochemical and biophysical research communications Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23311. Night blindness during pregnancy and subsequent mortality among women in Nepal: effects of vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation. (PubMed)

Night blindness during pregnancy and subsequent mortality among women in Nepal: effects of vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation. Night blindness due to vitamin A deficiency is common during pregnancy among women in Nepal. The authors assessed the risk of maternal death during and after a pregnancy with night blindness among women participating in a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation trial in Nepal from July 1994 to September 1997. Subjects (...) , 0.55), and the relative risk among women with or without night blindness in the vitamin A/beta-carotene group was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.91) and 0.18 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.36), respectively. Night-blind women were five times (95% CI: 2.20, 10.58) more likely to die from infections than were women who were not night blind. These findings show that night blindness during pregnancy is a risk factor of both short- and long-term mortality among women. Vitamin A/beta-carotene supplementation ameliorates

2000 American journal of epidemiology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23312. Effect of calcium or 25OH vitamin D3 dietary supplementation on bone loss at the hip in men and women over the age of 60. (PubMed)

Effect of calcium or 25OH vitamin D3 dietary supplementation on bone loss at the hip in men and women over the age of 60. Dietary supplements that prevent bone loss at the hip and that can be applied safely in the elderly are likely to reduce hip fractures. A daily dietary supplement of 750 mg calcium or 15 microg 25OH vitamin D3 on bone loss at the hip and other sites, bone turnover and calcium-regulating hormones were studied over 4 yr in elderly volunteers using a randomized, double-blind (...) loss, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and bone turnover. 25OH vitamin D3 was intermediate between placebo and calcium. Fracture rates and drop-out rates were similar among groups, and there were no serious adverse events with either supplement. A calcium supplement of 750 mg/day prevents loss of BMD, reduces femoral medullary expansion, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and high bone turnover. A supplement of 15 microg/day 25OH vitamin D3 is less effective, and because its effects are seen only at low

2000 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23313. Vitamin A supplementation in acute diarrhea. (PubMed)

Vitamin A supplementation in acute diarrhea. Vitamin A supplementation reduces the severity of subsequent diarrheal episodes. This study was conducted to examine the effect of single oral high-dose vitamin A supplementation on the duration of acute diarrhea in 6- to 12-month-old infants who are not malnourished.In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, infants who were admitted to Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children's Hospital Diarrheal Diseases Training (...) and Treatment Unit with acute diarrhea were randomly assigned either to a group receiving a single oral dose of 100,000 IU vitamin A or placebo. There were 60 infants in each group. All infants were followed up until the diarrheal episode ended. Serum vitamin A levels were determined both at admission and 2 weeks later.No effect of vitamin A supplementation could be demonstrated on either the total duration of diarrhea (7.4 +/- 3.2 days in the treatment group vs. 7.8 +/- 3.1 days in the placebo group

2000 Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23314. Multivitamin/mineral supplementation improves plasma B-vitamin status and homocysteine concentration in healthy older adults consuming a folate-fortified diet. (PubMed)

Multivitamin/mineral supplementation improves plasma B-vitamin status and homocysteine concentration in healthy older adults consuming a folate-fortified diet. Elevated homocysteine has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Although multivitamin use has been associated with low plasma homocysteine concentrations in several observational studies, no clinical trials have been conducted using multivitamin/mineral supplements to lower (...) homocysteine. We determined whether a multivitamin/mineral supplement formulated at about 100% Daily Value will further lower homocysteine concentration and improve B-vitamin status in healthy older adults already consuming a diet fortified with folic acid. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 80 free-living men and women aged 50-87 y with total plasma homocysteine concentrations of > or =8 micromol/L received either a multivitamin/mineral supplement or placebo for 56 d while

2000 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23315. Effects of supplemental vitamin A on retinoic acid concentrations in the plasma of preruminant calves. (PubMed)

Effects of supplemental vitamin A on retinoic acid concentrations in the plasma of preruminant calves. Neonatal calves are fed frequently milk replacers with vitamin A concentrations exceeding those recommended by the National Research Council. The vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), affects profoundly cellular differentiation and homeostasis. For this reason, effects of dietary vitamin A on plasma concentrations of RA isomers in milk replacer-fed calves were examined. Male, Holstein (...) concentrations occurring in calves supplemented with > or = 34,000 IU of vitamin A/day than in control (1700 IU of vitamin daily) and unsupplemented calves. Relative to controls, concentrations of all isomers of RA were higher in calves supplemented with > or = 34,000 of vitamin A daily during the experimental period. The predominant isomer in all calves was 9,13-dicis-RA. In control calves, 9,13-dicis-RA and 9-cis-RA were maximal at 1 to 6 days of age and then decreased progressively. In calves fed

2000 International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernährungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23316. No strong long-term effect of vitamin A supplementation in infancy on CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets. A community study from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. (PubMed)

No strong long-term effect of vitamin A supplementation in infancy on CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets. A community study from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. The World Health Organization recommends that 100,000 IU of vitamin A be given to infants between 6 and 12 months of age at the same time as measles vaccination in order to prevent vitamin A deficiency. In the present study, our aim was to assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation on T-cell subsets in a randomized factorial design, seeking (...) a possible modifying effect of measles vaccination. Three hundred children were allocated either to two doses of measles vaccine at 6 and 9 months of age or to poliomyelitis vaccine at age 6 months and measles vaccine at age 9 months. Within each group, infants were to receive two doses of vitamin A or two doses of placebo at 6 and 9 months of age. We found no significant effect of vitamin A supplementation on CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets at 3 and 9 months after supplementation. We found no effect

2000 Annals of tropical paediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23317. Effect of vitamin supplementation on cytokine response and on muscle damage after strenuous exercise. (PubMed)

Effect of vitamin supplementation on cytokine response and on muscle damage after strenuous exercise. The present double-blinded, placebo-controlled study investigated whether antioxidant vitamin supplementation was able to modulate the cytokine and lymphocyte responses after strenuous eccentric exercise. Furthermore, muscle enzyme release was examined to see whether antioxidant treatment could reduce muscle damage. Twenty male recreational runners randomly received either antioxidants (500 mg (...) of vitamin C and 400 mg of vitamin E) or placebo for 14 days before and 7 days after a 5% downhill 90-min treadmill run at 75% .VO(2 max). Although the supplemented group differed significantly with regard to plasma vitamin concentration before and after exercise when compared with the placebo group, the two groups showed identical exercise-induced changes in cytokine, muscle enzyme, and lymphocyte subpopulations. The plasma level of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist increased 20- and 3

2001 American journal of physiology. Cell physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23318. Circulating levels of retinol, tocopherol and carotenoid in Nepali pregnant and postpartum women following long-term beta-carotene and vitamin A supplementation. (PubMed)

Circulating levels of retinol, tocopherol and carotenoid in Nepali pregnant and postpartum women following long-term beta-carotene and vitamin A supplementation. To characterize circulating carotenoid and tocopherol levels in Nepali women during pregnancy and post-partum and to determine the effects of beta-carotene and vitamin A supplementation on their concentration in serum.Randomized community supplementation trial.The study was carried out from 1994 to 1997 in the Southern, rural plains (...) District of Sarlahi, Nepal.A total of 1431 married women had an ascertained pregnancy, of whom 1186 (83%) provided an analyzable serum sample during pregnancy; 1098 (77%) provided an analyzable 3-4 months post-partum serum sample.Women received a weekly dose of vitamin A (7000 microg RE), beta-carotene (42 mg) or placebo before, during and after pregnancy. Serum was analyzed for retinol, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, and beta

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2001 European journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23319. Effects of long-term supplementation with moderate pharmacologic doses of vitamin E are saturable and reversible in patients with type 1 diabetes. (PubMed)

Effects of long-term supplementation with moderate pharmacologic doses of vitamin E are saturable and reversible in patients with type 1 diabetes. Vitamin E supplementation has been proposed as adjunctive therapy to counteract the increased LDL oxidation in diabetes and thus prevent or delay cardiovascular complications.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a moderate pharmacologic dose of vitamin E for supplemented group (group S; n = 22) received 250 IU (168 mg) RRR-alpha-tocopherol 3 times/d for 1 y and the placebo group (group P; n = 22) received a placebo for 6 mo followed by 250 IU (168 mg) RRR-alpha-tocopherol 3 times/d for an additional 6 mo.Serum vitamin E doubled after 3 mo of supplementation, from a mean (+/-SD) of 36.9 +/- 10.9 to 66.4 +/- 18.3 micromol/L (P: < 0.0005). Although lipid profiles, glycated hemoglobin, and blood biochemistry

2000 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23320. Vitamin A supplements and diarrheal and respiratory tract infections among children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. (PubMed)

Vitamin A supplements and diarrheal and respiratory tract infections among children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. To determine the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the risk of diarrhea and of acute respiratory infection.Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.Six hundred eighty-seven children, 6 to 60 months old, hospitalized with pneumonia, who received vitamin A or placebo at baseline and at 4 and 8 months after discharge from hospital.Incidence (...) and duration of episodes of diarrhea and respiratory tract infections during the year after discharge from the hospital.Relative to those receiving placebo, children receiving vitamin A had a significantly smaller risk of severe watery diarrhea (multivariate odds ratio = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.32-0.99, P =.04) but a higher risk of cough and rapid respiratory rate (multivariate odds ratio = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.17-2.36, P =.004). Vitamin A supplementation was also associated with increased risk of acute diarrhea

2000 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: predicted high

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