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Vitamin B12 Supplementation

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23281. Short-term effects of large-dose vitamin A supplementation on viral load and immune response in HIV-infected women. (PubMed)

Short-term effects of large-dose vitamin A supplementation on viral load and immune response in HIV-infected women. Vitamin A supplementation has been suggested for treatment and prevention of HIV infection. However, some in vitro data indicate that vitamin A may activate HIV. Randomly, 40 HIV-seropositive women of reproductive age were allocated to receive a single oral dose of 9900 micromol (300,000 IU) vitamin A or placebo. Plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration, total lymphocytes, selected (...) in viral load from baseline to each follow-up point did not differ between treatment groups. No difference was measured between treatment groups in the proportion of women who responded to PHA or Candida. This study provides no evidence that high dose vitamin A supplementation of HIV-infected women is associated with significant clinical or immunologic adverse effects.

1999 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes and human retrovirology : official publication of the International Retrovirology Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23282. Maternal vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation in lactating bangladeshi women benefits mothers and infants but does not prevent subclinical deficiency. (PubMed)

Maternal vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation in lactating bangladeshi women benefits mothers and infants but does not prevent subclinical deficiency. The effects of maternal postpartum vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation on maternal and infant serum retinol concentrations, modified relative dose-response (MRDR) ratios and breast milk vitamin A concentrations were assessed during a community-based trial in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 1-3 wk postpartum, women were randomly assigned (...) to receive either (1) a single dose of 200,000 international units [60,000 retinol equivalents (RE)] vitamin A followed by daily placebos (n = 74), (2) daily doses of beta-carotene [7.8 mg (1300 RE)] (n = 73) or (3) daily placebos (n = 73) until 9 mo postpartum. Compared to placebos, vitamin A supplementation resulted in lower maternal MRDR ratios (i.e., increased liver stores) and higher milk vitamin A concentrations at 3 mo, but these improvements were not sustained. The beta-carotene supplementation

1999 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23283. Treatment for iron deficiency anaemia with a combined supplementation of iron, vitamin A and zinc in women of Dinajpur, Bangladesh. (PubMed)

Treatment for iron deficiency anaemia with a combined supplementation of iron, vitamin A and zinc in women of Dinajpur, Bangladesh. The study was set up to determine to what extent the addition of a supplement of vitamin A alone or in combination with zinc would improve standard iron treatment and correction of iron deficiency anaemia.216 non-pregnant anaemic women of 15-45 years of age with haemoglobin levels < or = 100 g/l were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. One group (...) (A) received iron alone, a second group (B) received iron and vitamin A, and a third group (C) received iron, vitamin A and zinc. Every woman was given one iron capsule per day for 60 days as FeSO4 containing 60 mg of elemental iron. In addition, groups B and C received 200,000 i.u. of vitamin A, given as a supervised dose, on the first day of the treatment after collection of the blood sample. Group C received one zinc tablet per day for 60 days as zinc gluconate containing 15 mg of elemental zinc.The

1999 European journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23284. Double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of zinc or vitamin A supplementation in young children with acute diarrhoea. (PubMed)

Double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of zinc or vitamin A supplementation in young children with acute diarrhoea. In a double-blind, controlled trial with a factorial design, 684 patients (aged 6 months to 2 y; excludes 6 early dropouts) with acute watery diarrhoea of 3 d or less and some dehydration, who were attending a hospital, were randomly assigned to 4 groups to receive: (a) vitamin A 4500 microg retinol equivalent daily for 15 d; (b) 14.2 mg elemental zinc as acetate for the first (...) 417 patients and 40 mg of the remaining 273 patients randomized to this group for 15 d; (c) both vitamin A 4500 microg retinol equivalent and zinc at the above doses daily for 15 d; or (d) placebo mixtures for 15 d. Patients were observed in the hospital for 24 h and followed up at home for 15 d. All received ascorbic acid 30 mg with each dose of medicine or placebo. Zinc supplementation was associated with a reduced duration of diarrhoea (13%, p = 0.03) and markedly reduced rate (43%, p = 0.017

1999 Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23285. Impact of trace elements and vitamin supplementation on immunity and infections in institutionalized elderly patients: a randomized controlled trial. MIN. VIT. AOX. geriatric network. (PubMed)

Impact of trace elements and vitamin supplementation on immunity and infections in institutionalized elderly patients: a randomized controlled trial. MIN. VIT. AOX. geriatric network. Antioxidant supplementation is thought to improve immunity and thereby reduce infectious morbidity. However, few large trials in elderly people have been conducted that include end points for clinical variables.To determine the effects of long-term daily supplementation with trace elements (zinc sulfate (...) and selenium sulfide) or vitamins (beta carotene, ascorbic acid, and vitamin E) on immunity and the incidence of infections in institutionalized elderly people.This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study included 725 institutionalized elderly patients (>65 years) from 25 geriatric centers in France. Patients received an oral daily supplement of nutritional doses of trace elements (zinc and selenium sulfide) or vitamins (beta carotene, ascorbic acid, and vitamin E) or a placebo

1999 Archives of internal medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23286. Short-term vitamin E supplementation before marathon running: a placebo-controlled trial. (PubMed)

Short-term vitamin E supplementation before marathon running: a placebo-controlled trial. Gastrointestinal complaints and occult bleeding have been commonly described in marathon runners. We hypothesized that these complaints may arise from intestinal ischemia caused by the shunting of blood away from the splanchnic circulation during endurance racing followed by reperfusion injury. Studies in animal models have suggested prophylactic vitamin E supplementation may prevent this type of injury (...) . We sought to determine if prerace vitamin E supplementation would prevent intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in humans. Forty subjects who planned to complete the 1996 Houston-Tennaco Marathon were randomized to receive vitamin E (1000 IU daily) or placebo (soya lecithin) for 2 wk before the race in a double-blinded trial. Inclusion criteria included no use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) within 24 d of the race or vitamin or mineral supplements containing vitamins C or E

1999 Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23287. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol-lowering therapy and of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in a wide range of patients at increased risk of coronary heart disease death: early safety and efficacy experience. (PubMed)

MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol-lowering therapy and of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in a wide range of patients at increased risk of coronary heart disease death: early safety and efficacy experience. In observational studies, prolonged lower blood total cholesterol levels - down at least to 3 mmol. l-1 - are associated with lower risks of coronary heart disease. Cholesterol-lowering therapy may, therefore, be worthwhile for individuals at high risk of coronary heart (...) disease events irrespective of their presenting cholesterol levels. Observational studies also suggest that increased dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins may be associated with lower risks of coronary heart disease. The present randomized trial aims to assess reliably the effects on mortality and major morbidity of cholesterol-lowering therapy and of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in a wide range of different categories of high-risk patients.Men and women aged 40 to 80 years were eligible

1999 European heart journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23288. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on post-exercise plasma lipid peroxidation and blood antioxidant status in smokers: with special reference to haemoconcentration effect. (PubMed)

Effect of vitamin E supplementation on post-exercise plasma lipid peroxidation and blood antioxidant status in smokers: with special reference to haemoconcentration effect. The oxidative effects were investigated of exhausting exercise in smokers, and the possible protective role of 400 mg day(-1) vitamin E (Vit E) supplementation over a period of 28 days. The subjects exercised to exhaustion including concentric-eccentric contractions following maximal cycling. The haematocrit and haemoglobin (...) , leucocyte (WBC), plasma lactic acid (La) and malondialdehyde (MDA), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), serum Vit E and ceruloplasmin (CER) concentrations were measured pre and post exercise. Supplementation increased Vit E concentrations 28% and 31% in the controls and the smokers, respectively. Cigarette smoking and/or Vit E supplementation did not influence plasma lipid peroxidation or the antioxidant status at rest. Exercise caused significant haemoconcentration

1999 European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23289. Do iron and vitamin C co-supplementation influence platelet function or LDL oxidizability in healthy volunteers? (PubMed)

Do iron and vitamin C co-supplementation influence platelet function or LDL oxidizability in healthy volunteers? To examine the effect of co-supplementation with iron and vitamin C on antioxidant status, platelet function and low density lipoprotein oxidation in normal healthy volunteers.The study was carried out with two groups of 20 subjects each acting as their own control, comparing presupplemention with postsupplemention. One group was supplemented with iron and the RDA level of vitamin C (...) and the second group with iron and 260 mg/d vitamin C.The International Antioxidant Research Centre, The Guy's, King's College and St Thomas's School of Biomedical Science, Guy's Campus, London.Forty normal healthy volunteers, recruited from the staff of the Medical School and Hospital in which two volunteers withdrew during the study.Subjects in both studies were randomly assigned to one of two groups (5 males and 5 females group) and received supplements containing iron (14 mg/d) and either 60 mg/d (Group

1999 European journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23290. A synergistic effect of a daily supplement for 1 month of 200 mg magnesium plus 50 mg vitamin B6 for the relief of anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. (PubMed)

A synergistic effect of a daily supplement for 1 month of 200 mg magnesium plus 50 mg vitamin B6 for the relief of anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. To investigate single and combined effects of daily dietary supplementation with 50 mg of vitamin B6 and 200 mg magnesium (as MgO) for one cycle for the relief of mild premenstrual symptoms, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design was used. Forty-four women with an average (...) synergistic effect of a daily dietary supplementation with a combination of Mg + vitamin B6 in the reduction of mild premenstrual anxiety-related symptoms was demonstrated during treatment of 44 women for one menstrual cycle. In view of the modest effect found, further studies are needed before making general recommendations for the treatment of premenstrual symptoms. The study indicated that absorption from MgO was poor and daily supplementation for longer than 1 month is necessary for tissue repletion.

2000 Journal of women's health & gender-based medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23291. Adequate immune response to tetanus toxoid and failure of vitamin A and E supplementation to enhance antibody response in healthy children. (PubMed)

Adequate immune response to tetanus toxoid and failure of vitamin A and E supplementation to enhance antibody response in healthy children. The effects of vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation on the IgG response to tetanus toxoid after primary immunization were evaluated in a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial involving 89 healthy infants with normal serum vitamin A and E levels at 2 months of age. Before the first dose of DPT vaccine, the infants were randomly enrolled (...) into four different study groups [Group I (n=24): 30,000 IU vitamin A for 3 days just after each three doses of primary vaccination, Group II (n=21): 150 mg oral vitamin E for only 1 day after the injections for primary immunization, Group III (n=21): vitamins A and E together in the same order, Group IV (n=23) no vitamin after DPT vaccines]. Serum tetanus antitoxin (IgG) titres were measured three times; initially at 2 months of age before the first dose of DPT, secondly at 5 months of age 1 month

2000 Vaccine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23292. Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to vertical transmission of HIV-1 in Tanzania. (PubMed)

Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to vertical transmission of HIV-1 in Tanzania. Observational studies suggest that poor nutritional status among HIV-infected pregnant women is associated with a higher risk of vertical transmission of HIV.We randomized 1083 pregnant women infected with HIV-1 in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effects of supplements of vitamin A and/or multivitamins (excluding vitamin A) using a 2-x-2 factorial design. We report (...) the effects of the supplements on HIV infection defined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or death up to 6 weeks postpartum.Of babies in the multivitamin arm 38, (10.1%) were HIV-positive at birth compared with 24 (6.6%) in the no-multivitamin arm (relative risk [RR] = 1.54; 95% CI, 0.94-2.51; p = .08). Of babies born to mothers in the vitamin A arm, 38 (10.0%) were HIV-positive at birth compared with 24 (6.7%) in the no-vitamin A arm (RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.91-2.43; p = 0.11). Neither multivitamins nor

2000 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23293. Maternal low-dose vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation has no effect on fetal loss and early infant mortality: a randomized cluster trial in Nepal. (PubMed)

Maternal low-dose vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation has no effect on fetal loss and early infant mortality: a randomized cluster trial in Nepal. The effect of vitamin A supplementation on the survival of infants aged <6 mo is unclear. Because most infant deaths occur in the first few month of life, maternal supplementation may improve infant survival.The objective was to assess the effect of maternal vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation on fetal loss and survival of infants <6 mo (...) of age.Married women of reproductive age in 270 wards of Sarlahi district, Nepal, were eligible to participate. Wards were randomly assigned to have women receive weekly doses of 7000 microg retinol equivalents as retinyl palmitate (vitamin A), 42 mg all-trans-beta-carotene, or placebo. Pregnancies were followed until miscarriage, stillbirth, maternal death, or live birth of one or more infants, who were followed through 24 wk of age.A total of 43559 women were enrolled; 15832 contributed 17373 pregnancies

2000 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23294. Effects of calcium and vitamin supplementation on colon cell proliferation in colorectal cancer. (PubMed)

Effects of calcium and vitamin supplementation on colon cell proliferation in colorectal cancer. Calcium and antioxidant vitamins, such as A, C, and E, have been shown to reduce colorectal epithelial proliferation and thereby to act as possible chemoprotective agents in colorectal cancer. We investigated the effects of an intervention with calcium and vitamins on cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa of patients operated on for colorectal cancer. Patients with resected colorectal cancer (...) of vitamin and calcium supplementation, showed a further decrease of mean total PCNALI in both groups, but this was not statistically significant. Our randomized trial showed that calcium and vitamin supplementation does not reduce cell kinetics of colon epithelium. Furthermore, this study suggests the need for extreme caution in the interpretation and publication of studies on chemoprotectants in colon cancer without a control group.

2000 Cancer investigation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23295. Measurement feasability of advanced glycated end-products from skin samples after antioxidant vitamin supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes. (PubMed)

Measurement feasability of advanced glycated end-products from skin samples after antioxidant vitamin supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes. To determine the feasibility of measuring advanced glycated end-products (AGEs)from skin samples and to evaluate the effects of a combination of vitamins E and C on measures of glycemic control and AGEs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Twenty-two patients with type 2 diabetes from a Family Medicine clinic were randomly assigned (...) to receive a daily dietary supplement containing either a combination of 400 mg of vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C or matching placebo for a period of one year. AGEs were measured from skin samples taken from the buttock.Nineteen subjects completed this one-year pilot study. There were no major problems found in measuring AGEs from skin samples taken from the butttock. Neither the treatment or placebo group had significant changes in glycemic control, protein glycosylation or AGEs.Skin samples taken

2000 The journal of nutrition, health & aging Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23296. Vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation reduces symptoms of illness in pregnant and lactating Nepali women. (PubMed)

Vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation reduces symptoms of illness in pregnant and lactating Nepali women. The contribution of nutritional interventions to the reduction in maternal morbidity rates in developing countries is not well known. We assessed the impact of weekly vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation on the prevalence of pregnancy and postpartum illness symptoms among 15,832 Nepali women in a placebo-controlled, double-masked, cluster-randomized trial. There was no impact (...) of either supplement on morbidity rates reported up to 28 wk of gestation, inclusive. However, in late pregnancy (>28 wk), symptoms of nausea, faintness and night blindness were reduced with vitamin A, but not beta-carotene, supplementation. Vitamin A supplementation shortened the length of labor by 1.5 h 50 min among nulliparous and multiparous women, respectively. Both interventions reduced the postpartum prevalence of at least four loose stools and night blindness. beta-Carotene supplementation also

2000 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23297. Supplemental vitamin A improves anemia and growth in anemic school children in Tanzania. (PubMed)

Supplemental vitamin A improves anemia and growth in anemic school children in Tanzania. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of the effects of dietary supplements on anemia, weight and height in 136 anemic school children from a low socioeconomic background in Bagamoyo District schools in Tanzania. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of dietary supplements on anemia and anthropometric indices of anemic school children. The supplements were vitamin A alone, iron (...) and vitamin A, iron alone or placebo, administered in a double-blinded design for 3 mo. All supplements were provided with local corn meals. Hemoglobin concentration, body weight and height were measured at baseline and at follow-up after supplementation. Vitamin A supplementation increased the mean hemoglobin concentration by 13.5 g/L compared with 3.5 g/L for placebo [P < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.19-13.57), the mean body weight by 0.6 kg compared with 0.2 kg for placebo (P < 0.0001, 95% CI

2000 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23298. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on coagulability and lipid levels in healthy male subjects. (PubMed)

The effect of vitamin C supplementation on coagulability and lipid levels in healthy male subjects. Although dietary intake and plasma levels of vitamin C have been inversely associated with cardiovascular disease, the mechanism through which it may exert its effect has not been fully explained. Since thrombosis plays an important role in the onset of cardiovascular disease, we investigated the effect of vitamin C on measures of hemostasis that have been associated with cardiovascular risk (...) . The effect of vitamin C on lipid levels was also evaluated. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we determined the effect of 2 g daily of vitamin C supplementation on platelet adhesion and aggregation, levels of tissue plasminogen activator antigen, plasminogen activator inhibitor, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, von Willebrand factor, and lipid levels in 18 healthy male volunteers with low normal vitamin C levels. No striking effects of vitamin C on the hemostatic measures were observed

2000 Thrombosis research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23299. A controlled clinical trial of vitamin E supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure. (PubMed)

A controlled clinical trial of vitamin E supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure. Oxidative stress is increased in patients with congestive heart failure and can contribute to the progressive deterioration observed in these patients. Increased oxidative stress is the result of either an increased production of free radicals or a depletion of endogenous antioxidants, such as vitamin E.We aimed to determine whether vitamin E supplementation of patients with advanced heart (...) , and norepinephrine were unchanged with treatment and were not significantly different from those in the control group.Supplementation with vitamin E did not result in any significant improvements in prognostic or functional indexes of heart failure or in the quality of life of patients with advanced heart failure.

2001 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23300. Vitamin A supplementation at birth delays pneumococcal colonization in South Indian infants. (PubMed)

Vitamin A supplementation at birth delays pneumococcal colonization in South Indian infants. Nasopharyngeal colonization is a risk factor for pneumococcal disease, a leading cause of complications and death in infants. We assessed the impact of vitamin A supplementation in reducing pneumococcal colonization in infants from an area with endemic vitamin A deficiency. We recruited 464 2-mo-old infants from a rural area in South India. Infants were randomly assigned to receive two 7000-microg (...) ratio 0.51 (0.28, 0.92), P = 0.02). The odds of colonization were 27% lower in the treatment group than in the placebo group [odds ratio 0.73 (0.48, 1.1), P = 0.13]. No differences were detected in the prevalence of invasive serotypes. The risk of colonization with penicillin-resistant isolates was 74% lower in the vitamin A group than in the placebo group at 2 mo of age. However, the prevalence of penicillin-resistant isolates was only 4%. Neonatal vitamin A supplementation may play a role

2001 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

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