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Vitamin B12 Supplementation

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23261. Relationship of blood thromboxane-B2 (TxB2) with lipid peroxides and effect of vitamin E and placebo supplementation on TxB2 and lipid peroxide levels in type 1 diabetic patients. (PubMed)

Relationship of blood thromboxane-B2 (TxB2) with lipid peroxides and effect of vitamin E and placebo supplementation on TxB2 and lipid peroxide levels in type 1 diabetic patients. To study the effect of vitamin E supplementation on platelet hyperaggregability in type 1 diabetic patients.Written informed consent according to the Institutional Review Board on Human Experimentation guidelines was obtained from diabetic patients (n = 29) and their age-matched normal siblings (n = 21) to participate (...) in this study. Diabetic patients were supplemented with DL-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) capsule (orally, 100 IU/day) or placebo for 3 months in a double-blind clinical trial. Alternate diabetic patients were assigned to vitamin E or placebo during regular visits to the clinic. Fasting blood was collected from each diabetic patient before the start and after the vitamin E or placebo supplementation. Platelet aggregability was assessed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the blood TxB2

1998 Diabetes Care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23262. Vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation reduces but does not eliminate maternal night blindness in Nepal. (PubMed)

Vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation reduces but does not eliminate maternal night blindness in Nepal. We investigated the effect of supplementing women weekly with 7000 microg retinol equivalents as preformed vitamin A or beta-carotene vs. a placebo, on the incidence of night blindness during pregnancy and the postpartum period in the rural plains of Nepal. Over a period of approximately 3 y, approximately 29,000 women of child-bearing age, living in 171 wards that were randomized to one (...) of the three supplements, contributed 9932 first pregnancies. A prospective, weekly surveillance identified night blindness in pregnant women, verified further by detailed questioning about nighttime vision. After delivery, women were also interviewed at approximately 3 and approximately 6 mo postpartum to elicit a night blindness history over the preceding 3 mo. Vitamin A supplementation reduced the incidence of night blindness during pregnancy from 10.7% among controls to 6.7% (relative risk 0.62, 95

1998 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23263. Integration of vitamin A supplementation with the expanded program on immunization does not affect seroconversion to oral poliovirus vaccine in infants. (PubMed)

Integration of vitamin A supplementation with the expanded program on immunization does not affect seroconversion to oral poliovirus vaccine in infants. Childhood immunization programs may provide infrastructure for delivering vitamin A supplements to infants in developing countries. The effect of giving vitamin A, an immune enhancer, on antibody responses to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (TOPV) is unknown. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted (...) to determine the effect of giving vitamin A simultaneously with TOPV on antibody responses to poliovirus. Infants (n = 467) received oral vitamin A, 15 mg retinol equivalent (RE), 7.5 mg RE or placebo with TOPV at 6, 10 and 14 wk of age. Antibody responses to poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 were measured by a microvirus neutralization assay at enrollment and at 9 mo of age. Seroconversion rates to poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 ranged from 98 to 100% in the three treatment groups, and there were no differences

1999 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23264. The effect of beta-carotene supplementation on serum vitamin D metabolite concentrations. (PubMed)

The effect of beta-carotene supplementation on serum vitamin D metabolite concentrations. In the alpha-Tocopherol, beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) study, a large randomized placebo-controlled trial designed to test the cancer prevention effects of alpha-tocopherol (50 mg/day) and beta-carotene (20 mg/day), participants receiving supplemental beta-carotene had significantly higher rates of lung cancer than those not receiving beta-carotene. It has been hypothesized that the supplemental (...) beta-carotene may have interfered with the synthesis of vitamin D and that the resulting lower concentrations of vitamin D contributed to the elevated cancer incidence. We evaluated whether supplementation with beta-carotene altered the serum concentrations of either 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the ATBC Study, by comparing on-study changes between baseline and follow-up serum samples among 20 randomly selected matched pairs of subjects from the beta-carotene and placebo groups

1999 Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23265. Retinyl palmitate supplementation by inhalation of an aerosol improves vitamin A status of preschool children in Gondar (Ethiopia). (PubMed)

Retinyl palmitate supplementation by inhalation of an aerosol improves vitamin A status of preschool children in Gondar (Ethiopia). We report successful vitamin A supplementation by inhalation of retinyl palmitate in a placebo-controlled pilot study in twenty-five preschool children (2-5 years of age) in the rural district of Gondar, Ethiopia. Preschool children (n 161) were randomly selected from 220 households. Out of this cohort, twenty-five children were randomly assigned to each of two (...) ) 3 months after supplementation with retinyl palmitate, suggesting that this novel method of delivery of retinyl palmitate by inhalation is effective in improving vitamin A status.

1999 The British journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23266. Iron and zinc supplementation improves indicators of vitamin A status of Mexican preschoolers. (PubMed)

Iron and zinc supplementation improves indicators of vitamin A status of Mexican preschoolers. The coexistence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies is a widespread public health problem in many regions of the world. Interactions between zinc deficiency and vitamin A metabolism have been reported but no longitudinal studies have evaluated the effect of iron deficiency on vitamin A.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementation with iron, zinc, or both on vitamin (...) and transthyretin but the increase in RBP was not significant. Iron supplementation significantly increased plasma retinol, RBP, and transthyretin. Supplementation with zinc plus iron significantly increased plasma retinol but not RBP or transthyretin. Children deficient in zinc, iron, or vitamin A (as indicated by nutrient plasma concentration) at the beginning of the study had a significantly greater increase in retinol than did children with adequate nutrient status.Supplementation with zinc, iron, or both

2000 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23267. The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on juvenile delinquency among American schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. (PubMed)

The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on juvenile delinquency among American schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Numerous studies conducted in juvenile correctional institutions have reported that violence and serious antisocial behavior have been cut almost in half after implementing nutrient-dense diets that are consistent with the World Health Organization's guidelines for fats, sugar, starches, and protein ratios. Two controlled trials tested whether (...) the cause of the behavioral improvements was psychological or biological in nature by comparing the behavior of offenders who either received placebos or vitamin-mineral supplements designed to provide the micronutrient equivalent of a well-balanced diet. These randomized trials reported that institutionalized offenders, aged 13 to 17 years or 18 to 26 years, when given active tablets produced about 40% less violent and other antisocial behavior than the placebo controls. However, generalization could

2000 Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23268. The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on the intelligence of American schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. (PubMed)

The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on the intelligence of American schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Many medical, nutrition, and education professionals have long suspected that poor diet impairs the academic performance of Western schoolchildren; academic performance often improves after improved diet. However, others have suggested that such academic gains may be due to psychologic effects rather than nutrition. To resolve this issue, two (...) independent research teams conducted randomized trials in which children were given placebos or low-dose vitamin-mineral tablets designed to raise nutrient intake to the equivalent of a well-balanced diet. Both teams reported significantly greater gains in nonverbal intelligence among the supplemented groups. The findings were important because of the apparent inadequacy of diet they revealed and the magnitude of the potential for increased intelligence. However, none of the ten subsequent replications

2000 Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23269. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D responses of younger and older men to three weeks of supplementation with 1800 IU/day of vitamin D. (PubMed)

Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D responses of younger and older men to three weeks of supplementation with 1800 IU/day of vitamin D. The objective of this study was to compare changes in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels of younger and older men after three weeks of oral vitamin D supplementation.Nine younger men (22 to 28 years) and nine older men (65 to 73 years) with self-reported vitamin D intakes below 200 IU/d were enrolled in February and randomized to 1800 IU/d of ergocalciferol (...) (vitamin D2, n=11) or to a control group (n=7) and followed for three weeks. Blood was collected at baseline, and after one, two and three weeks for measurement of plasma concentrations of total 25(OH)D, 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3.In both the younger and older supplemented men, 25(OH)D2 and total 25(OH)D concentrations increased significantly during the study, whereas values of these metabolites did not change in younger or older control subjects. No group showed significant changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3

1999 Journal of the American College of Nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23270. Vitamin E supplementation and oxidative damage to DNA and plasma LDL in type 1 diabetes. (PubMed)

Vitamin E supplementation and oxidative damage to DNA and plasma LDL in type 1 diabetes. To determine the effect of 400 IU/day of the antioxidant vitamin E on the susceptibility of plasma LDL and lymphocyte DNA to oxidative damage in type 1 diabetes.We studied 42 patients with type 1 diabetes and 31 age- and sex-matched control subjects in a randomized prospective double-blind placebo-controlled trial by using 400 IU/day of oral vitamin E for 8 weeks. Measurements were made of single-strand (...) breaks in lymphocyte DNA at baseline and after hydrogen peroxide-induced stress (comet assay) and of copper-induced LDL oxidization and plasma antioxidant profiles.Plasma LDL and lymphocyte DNA were more resistant to induced oxidative change in the type 1 diabetes group than in control subjects. Vitamin E supplementation reduced LDL oxidizability in the control subjects but not in the type 1 diabetes group and had no effect on oxidative DNA damage in either group. The type 1 diabetes group had

1999 Diabetes Care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23271. Vitamin E supplementation in hyperlipidaemic patients: effect of increasing doses on in vitro and in vivo low-density lipoprotein oxidation. (PubMed)

Vitamin E supplementation in hyperlipidaemic patients: effect of increasing doses on in vitro and in vivo low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Vitamin E supplementation is associated with a reduced risk of developing atherosclerotic events; probably because it inhibits low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, an initial step in atherosclerosis. Metal ion-dependent LDL oxidation is a commonly used method to estimate oxidizability of LDL, but the effect of antioxidant supplementation on the levels (...) of autoantibodies to oxidised LDL (ox-LDL), an in vivo indicator of LDL oxidation, is unknown.This double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the susceptibility of LDL to copper induced oxidation and malondialdehyde (MDA) derivatized-LDL (MDA-LDL) in hyperlipidaemic patients on supplements of vitamin E. The vitamin E group (n = 20) took vitamin E 100 IU daily and the dose was doubled at six-weekly intervals to 1600 IU daily. The control group (n = 17) received placebo in the same fashion. Blood samples

1999 European journal of clinical investigation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23272. Vitamin D supplementation during infancy is associated with higher bone mineral mass in prepubertal girls. (PubMed)

Vitamin D supplementation during infancy is associated with higher bone mineral mass in prepubertal girls. The objective of this study was to determine whether vitamin D supplementation of breast-fed infants during the first year of life is associated with greater bone mineral content and/or areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in later childhood. The design was a retrospective cohort study. One hundred and six healthy prepubertal Caucasian girls (median age, 8 yr; range, 7-9 yr) were classified (...) as vitamin D supplemented or unsupplemented during the first year of life on the basis of a questionnaire sent to participating families and their pediatricians. Bone area (square centimeters) and bone mineral content (grams) were determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at six skeletal sites. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) 3'-gene polymorphisms (BsmI) were also determined. The supplemented (n = 91) and unsupplemented (n = 15) groups were similar in terms of season of birth, growth in the first year

1999 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23273. Respiratory infections reduce the growth response to vitamin A supplementation in a randomized controlled trial. (PubMed)

Respiratory infections reduce the growth response to vitamin A supplementation in a randomized controlled trial. Studies on the effect of vitamin A supplementation on growth have yielded various results. It is possible that such growth is dependent on the burden of infectious diseases in the population.We analysed data from a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controled trial to examine the role of respiratory infections and diarrhoea in modifying the growth response to vitamin (...) A supplementation. A single high dose of vitamin A or placebo was given every 4 months to 1405 children aged 6-48 months, and 4430 child treatment cycles were used in this analysis.Vitamin A supplementation modestly improved linear but not ponderal growth of children who experienced little respiratory infection and especially of those who had vitamin A intake below the normative requirement (<400 RE/day). Children who received vitamin A and were free of respiratory infection grew 0.22 cm/4 months (95% CI: 0.08

1999 International journal of epidemiology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23274. Vitamin A supplementation selectively improves the linear growth of indonesian preschool children: results from a randomized controlled trial. (PubMed)

Vitamin A supplementation selectively improves the linear growth of indonesian preschool children: results from a randomized controlled trial. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with stunting and wasting in preschool children, but vitamin A supplementation trials have not shown a consistent effect on growth.We examined the effect of vitamin A supplementation on height and weight increments among Indonesian preschool children.Data were obtained from a randomized, double-masked, placebo (...) -controlled trial of rural Javanese children aged 6-48 mo. Children received 206000 IU vitamin A (103000 IU if aged <12 mo) or placebo every 4 mo.High-dose vitamin A supplementation modestly improved the linear growth of the children by 0.16 cm/4 mo. The effect was modified by age, initial vitamin A status, and breast-feeding status. Vitamin A supplementation improved height by 0.10 cm/4 mo in children aged <24 mo and by 0.22 cm/4 mo in children aged >/=24 mo. The vitamin A-supplemented children

2000 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23275. Prospective cohort study of antioxidant vitamin supplement use and the risk of age-related maculopathy. (PubMed)

Prospective cohort study of antioxidant vitamin supplement use and the risk of age-related maculopathy. In a prospective cohort study, the authors examined whether self-selection for antioxidant vitamin supplement use affects the incidence of age-related maculopathy. The study population consisted of 21,120 US male physician participants in the Physicians' Health Study I who did not have a diagnosis of age-related maculopathy at baseline (1982). During an average of 12.5 person-years of follow (...) -up, a total of 279 incident cases of age-related maculopathy with vision loss to 20/30 or worse were confirmed by medical record review. In multivariate analysis, as compared with nonusers of supplements, persons who used vitamin E supplements had a possible but nonsignificant 13% reduced risk of age-related maculopathy (relative risk = 0.87, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) 0.53-1.43), while users of multivitamins had a possible but nonsignificant 10% reduced risk (relative risk = 0.90, 95

1999 American journal of epidemiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23276. Oxidative stress in smokers supplemented with vitamin C. (PubMed)

Oxidative stress in smokers supplemented with vitamin C. The ability of vitamin C supplement to influence lipid peroxidation and pulmonary function tests in healthy smokers was investigated. In this randomized double blind controlled trail, 56 smokers (S) received either 500 mg of vitamin C (C) or placebo (P) daily for 4 weeks. All completed the trial. Both groups were comparable and the number of cigarettes smoked were C: 14.2 +/- 1.8 and P: 18.3 +/- 2.0 pack-years. Plasma vitamin C (...) concentrations increased significantly (p < 0.005) only in the group supplemented with vitamin C. Lipid peroxidation measured by breath pentane output (BPO) (C: 7.5 +/- 1.4 vs P: 7.0 +/- 1.3 pmol.kg-1.min-1) and plasma HPLC-separated malondialdehyde (MDA) (C: 0.58 +/- 0.05 vs P: 0.47 +/- 0.05 nmol.ml-1) were not significantly different between the 2 groups at baseline and did not change after four weeks of vitamin C supplementation (BPO: C: 5.3 +/- 0.9 vs P: 5.5 +/- 0.9 pmol.kg-1.min-1; HPLC-MDA: C: 0.50

1999 International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernährungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23277. A randomized trial of vitamin A supplements in relation to mortality among human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected children in Tanzania. (PubMed)

A randomized trial of vitamin A supplements in relation to mortality among human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected children in Tanzania. To determine whether vitamin A supplements result in reduced mortality among HIV-infected and uninfected children.Randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial.Starting in April, 1993, we randomized 687 children age 6 months to 5 years who were admitted to the hospital with pneumonia. Children who were severely malnourished or had clinical (...) assays with confirmatory neutralization assays. HIV status was ascertained for 648 of 687 enrolled children. The mean duration of follow-up was 24.4 months (SD = 12.1).Of 648 children 58 (9%) were HIV-infected. Compared with uninfected children, all-cause mortality was higher among HIV-infected children, as was mortality caused by pneumonia or diarrhea (P < 0.001 for each). Overall vitamin A supplements resulted in a 49% reduction in mortality [relative risk (RR), 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI

1999 The Pediatric infectious disease journal Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23278. Randomised controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on bone density and biochemical indices in preterm infants. (Full text)

Randomised controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on bone density and biochemical indices in preterm infants. To test the hypothesis that a vitamin D dose of 200 IU/kg, maximum 400 IU/day, given to preterm infants will maintain normal vitamin D status and will result in as high a bone mineral density as that attained with the recommended dose of 960 IU/day.Thirty nine infants of fewer than 33 weeks of gestational age were randomly allocated to receive vitamin D 200 IU/kg of body weight (...) /day up to a maximum of 400 IU/day or 960 IU/day until 3 months old. Vitamin D metabolites, bone mineral content and density were determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and plasma ionised calcium, plasma alkaline phosphatase, and intact parahormone measurements were used to evaluate outcomes.The 25 hydroxy vitamin D concentrations tended to be higher in infants receiving 960 IU/day, but the differences did not reach significance at any age. There was no difference between the infants

1999 Archives of disease in childhood. Fetal and neonatal edition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23279. Effect of 50- and 100-mg vitamin E supplements on cellular immune function in noninstitutionalized elderly persons. (PubMed)

Effect of 50- and 100-mg vitamin E supplements on cellular immune function in noninstitutionalized elderly persons. It has been suggested that vitamin E can counteract the age-associated decline in cellular immune responsiveness (CIR). Particularly, T helper cell type 1 (Th1) activity, ie, interferon (IFN) gamma-producing Th1 activity and, hence, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) would be enhanced by vitamin E supplementation.Our aim was to study the effects of 6 mo supplementation with 50 (...) the DTH test than did the placebo group (P = 0.03), although this difference was not significant after Bonferroni correction (P = 0.07).Possible beneficial effects of 100-mg vitamin E supplementation may be more pronounced in particular subgroups of elderly subjects.

1999 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23280. [Use of natural vitamin supplements in children during convalescence and in children with athletic activities]. (PubMed)

mass and strength emerged from the data collected in the athletic group, whereas an increase was observed in appetite, calorie intake, weight and muscular strength in the convalescent group (p < 0.05). A significant increase in vitamin B12, B3, B5 and D levels was observed in both groups.The supplement to provides an adequate intake for those categories at risk of vitamin deficiency or in conditions of increased requirements. (...) [Use of natural vitamin supplements in children during convalescence and in children with athletic activities]. Sporting activities and periods of convalescence call for an added intake of nutrients in children. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a natural vitamin supplement on diet, food intake, body composition and muscular strength in children during convalescence and in children practising sports.A comparative study was performed in two different groups of subjects: 20 children aged

1999 Minerva pediatrica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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