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Vitamin B12 Supplementation

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23241. Do iron and vitamin C co-supplementation influence platelet function or LDL oxidizability in healthy volunteers? (PubMed)

Do iron and vitamin C co-supplementation influence platelet function or LDL oxidizability in healthy volunteers? To examine the effect of co-supplementation with iron and vitamin C on antioxidant status, platelet function and low density lipoprotein oxidation in normal healthy volunteers.The study was carried out with two groups of 20 subjects each acting as their own control, comparing presupplemention with postsupplemention. One group was supplemented with iron and the RDA level of vitamin C (...) and the second group with iron and 260 mg/d vitamin C.The International Antioxidant Research Centre, The Guy's, King's College and St Thomas's School of Biomedical Science, Guy's Campus, London.Forty normal healthy volunteers, recruited from the staff of the Medical School and Hospital in which two volunteers withdrew during the study.Subjects in both studies were randomly assigned to one of two groups (5 males and 5 females group) and received supplements containing iron (14 mg/d) and either 60 mg/d (Group

1999 European journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23242. A synergistic effect of a daily supplement for 1 month of 200 mg magnesium plus 50 mg vitamin B6 for the relief of anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. (PubMed)

A synergistic effect of a daily supplement for 1 month of 200 mg magnesium plus 50 mg vitamin B6 for the relief of anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. To investigate single and combined effects of daily dietary supplementation with 50 mg of vitamin B6 and 200 mg magnesium (as MgO) for one cycle for the relief of mild premenstrual symptoms, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design was used. Forty-four women with an average (...) synergistic effect of a daily dietary supplementation with a combination of Mg + vitamin B6 in the reduction of mild premenstrual anxiety-related symptoms was demonstrated during treatment of 44 women for one menstrual cycle. In view of the modest effect found, further studies are needed before making general recommendations for the treatment of premenstrual symptoms. The study indicated that absorption from MgO was poor and daily supplementation for longer than 1 month is necessary for tissue repletion.

2000 Journal of women's health & gender-based medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23243. Adequate immune response to tetanus toxoid and failure of vitamin A and E supplementation to enhance antibody response in healthy children. (PubMed)

Adequate immune response to tetanus toxoid and failure of vitamin A and E supplementation to enhance antibody response in healthy children. The effects of vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation on the IgG response to tetanus toxoid after primary immunization were evaluated in a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial involving 89 healthy infants with normal serum vitamin A and E levels at 2 months of age. Before the first dose of DPT vaccine, the infants were randomly enrolled (...) into four different study groups [Group I (n=24): 30,000 IU vitamin A for 3 days just after each three doses of primary vaccination, Group II (n=21): 150 mg oral vitamin E for only 1 day after the injections for primary immunization, Group III (n=21): vitamins A and E together in the same order, Group IV (n=23) no vitamin after DPT vaccines]. Serum tetanus antitoxin (IgG) titres were measured three times; initially at 2 months of age before the first dose of DPT, secondly at 5 months of age 1 month

2000 Vaccine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23244. Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to vertical transmission of HIV-1 in Tanzania. (PubMed)

Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to vertical transmission of HIV-1 in Tanzania. Observational studies suggest that poor nutritional status among HIV-infected pregnant women is associated with a higher risk of vertical transmission of HIV.We randomized 1083 pregnant women infected with HIV-1 in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effects of supplements of vitamin A and/or multivitamins (excluding vitamin A) using a 2-x-2 factorial design. We report (...) the effects of the supplements on HIV infection defined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or death up to 6 weeks postpartum.Of babies in the multivitamin arm 38, (10.1%) were HIV-positive at birth compared with 24 (6.6%) in the no-multivitamin arm (relative risk [RR] = 1.54; 95% CI, 0.94-2.51; p = .08). Of babies born to mothers in the vitamin A arm, 38 (10.0%) were HIV-positive at birth compared with 24 (6.7%) in the no-vitamin A arm (RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.91-2.43; p = 0.11). Neither multivitamins nor

2000 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23245. Maternal low-dose vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation has no effect on fetal loss and early infant mortality: a randomized cluster trial in Nepal. (PubMed)

Maternal low-dose vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation has no effect on fetal loss and early infant mortality: a randomized cluster trial in Nepal. The effect of vitamin A supplementation on the survival of infants aged <6 mo is unclear. Because most infant deaths occur in the first few month of life, maternal supplementation may improve infant survival.The objective was to assess the effect of maternal vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation on fetal loss and survival of infants <6 mo (...) of age.Married women of reproductive age in 270 wards of Sarlahi district, Nepal, were eligible to participate. Wards were randomly assigned to have women receive weekly doses of 7000 microg retinol equivalents as retinyl palmitate (vitamin A), 42 mg all-trans-beta-carotene, or placebo. Pregnancies were followed until miscarriage, stillbirth, maternal death, or live birth of one or more infants, who were followed through 24 wk of age.A total of 43559 women were enrolled; 15832 contributed 17373 pregnancies

2000 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23246. Effects of calcium and vitamin supplementation on colon cell proliferation in colorectal cancer. (PubMed)

Effects of calcium and vitamin supplementation on colon cell proliferation in colorectal cancer. Calcium and antioxidant vitamins, such as A, C, and E, have been shown to reduce colorectal epithelial proliferation and thereby to act as possible chemoprotective agents in colorectal cancer. We investigated the effects of an intervention with calcium and vitamins on cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa of patients operated on for colorectal cancer. Patients with resected colorectal cancer (...) of vitamin and calcium supplementation, showed a further decrease of mean total PCNALI in both groups, but this was not statistically significant. Our randomized trial showed that calcium and vitamin supplementation does not reduce cell kinetics of colon epithelium. Furthermore, this study suggests the need for extreme caution in the interpretation and publication of studies on chemoprotectants in colon cancer without a control group.

2000 Cancer investigation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23247. Measurement feasability of advanced glycated end-products from skin samples after antioxidant vitamin supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes. (PubMed)

Measurement feasability of advanced glycated end-products from skin samples after antioxidant vitamin supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes. To determine the feasibility of measuring advanced glycated end-products (AGEs)from skin samples and to evaluate the effects of a combination of vitamins E and C on measures of glycemic control and AGEs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Twenty-two patients with type 2 diabetes from a Family Medicine clinic were randomly assigned (...) to receive a daily dietary supplement containing either a combination of 400 mg of vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C or matching placebo for a period of one year. AGEs were measured from skin samples taken from the buttock.Nineteen subjects completed this one-year pilot study. There were no major problems found in measuring AGEs from skin samples taken from the butttock. Neither the treatment or placebo group had significant changes in glycemic control, protein glycosylation or AGEs.Skin samples taken

2000 The journal of nutrition, health & aging Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23248. Vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation reduces symptoms of illness in pregnant and lactating Nepali women. (PubMed)

Vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation reduces symptoms of illness in pregnant and lactating Nepali women. The contribution of nutritional interventions to the reduction in maternal morbidity rates in developing countries is not well known. We assessed the impact of weekly vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation on the prevalence of pregnancy and postpartum illness symptoms among 15,832 Nepali women in a placebo-controlled, double-masked, cluster-randomized trial. There was no impact (...) of either supplement on morbidity rates reported up to 28 wk of gestation, inclusive. However, in late pregnancy (>28 wk), symptoms of nausea, faintness and night blindness were reduced with vitamin A, but not beta-carotene, supplementation. Vitamin A supplementation shortened the length of labor by 1.5 h 50 min among nulliparous and multiparous women, respectively. Both interventions reduced the postpartum prevalence of at least four loose stools and night blindness. beta-Carotene supplementation also

2000 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23249. Supplemental vitamin A improves anemia and growth in anemic school children in Tanzania. (PubMed)

Supplemental vitamin A improves anemia and growth in anemic school children in Tanzania. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of the effects of dietary supplements on anemia, weight and height in 136 anemic school children from a low socioeconomic background in Bagamoyo District schools in Tanzania. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of dietary supplements on anemia and anthropometric indices of anemic school children. The supplements were vitamin A alone, iron (...) and vitamin A, iron alone or placebo, administered in a double-blinded design for 3 mo. All supplements were provided with local corn meals. Hemoglobin concentration, body weight and height were measured at baseline and at follow-up after supplementation. Vitamin A supplementation increased the mean hemoglobin concentration by 13.5 g/L compared with 3.5 g/L for placebo [P < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.19-13.57), the mean body weight by 0.6 kg compared with 0.2 kg for placebo (P < 0.0001, 95% CI

2000 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23250. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on coagulability and lipid levels in healthy male subjects. (PubMed)

The effect of vitamin C supplementation on coagulability and lipid levels in healthy male subjects. Although dietary intake and plasma levels of vitamin C have been inversely associated with cardiovascular disease, the mechanism through which it may exert its effect has not been fully explained. Since thrombosis plays an important role in the onset of cardiovascular disease, we investigated the effect of vitamin C on measures of hemostasis that have been associated with cardiovascular risk (...) . The effect of vitamin C on lipid levels was also evaluated. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we determined the effect of 2 g daily of vitamin C supplementation on platelet adhesion and aggregation, levels of tissue plasminogen activator antigen, plasminogen activator inhibitor, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, von Willebrand factor, and lipid levels in 18 healthy male volunteers with low normal vitamin C levels. No striking effects of vitamin C on the hemostatic measures were observed

2000 Thrombosis research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23251. A controlled clinical trial of vitamin E supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure. (PubMed)

A controlled clinical trial of vitamin E supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure. Oxidative stress is increased in patients with congestive heart failure and can contribute to the progressive deterioration observed in these patients. Increased oxidative stress is the result of either an increased production of free radicals or a depletion of endogenous antioxidants, such as vitamin E.We aimed to determine whether vitamin E supplementation of patients with advanced heart (...) , and norepinephrine were unchanged with treatment and were not significantly different from those in the control group.Supplementation with vitamin E did not result in any significant improvements in prognostic or functional indexes of heart failure or in the quality of life of patients with advanced heart failure.

2001 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23252. Vitamin A supplementation at birth delays pneumococcal colonization in South Indian infants. (PubMed)

Vitamin A supplementation at birth delays pneumococcal colonization in South Indian infants. Nasopharyngeal colonization is a risk factor for pneumococcal disease, a leading cause of complications and death in infants. We assessed the impact of vitamin A supplementation in reducing pneumococcal colonization in infants from an area with endemic vitamin A deficiency. We recruited 464 2-mo-old infants from a rural area in South India. Infants were randomly assigned to receive two 7000-microg (...) ratio 0.51 (0.28, 0.92), P = 0.02). The odds of colonization were 27% lower in the treatment group than in the placebo group [odds ratio 0.73 (0.48, 1.1), P = 0.13]. No differences were detected in the prevalence of invasive serotypes. The risk of colonization with penicillin-resistant isolates was 74% lower in the vitamin A group than in the placebo group at 2 mo of age. However, the prevalence of penicillin-resistant isolates was only 4%. Neonatal vitamin A supplementation may play a role

2001 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23253. Impact of vitamin A supplementation to rural children on morbidity due to diarrhoea. (PubMed)

Impact of vitamin A supplementation to rural children on morbidity due to diarrhoea. a number of studies have shown the association between vitamin A deficiency and the increased risk of diarrhoeal and other childhood morbidities and mortality. However, some studies have raised controversies regarding the reduction of the incidence of diarrhoea after vitamin A supplementation to children. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin A supplementation to young rural (...) children in reducing the incidence of diarrhoea.a double-blind randomized intervention trial was carried out amongst 404 rural children between 6-59 months of age to assess the impact of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity due to diarrhoea. Children aged 6-59 months were enrolled and allocated to receive either 200,000 or 50,000 IU of vitamin A and the same dose was repeated after six months. Morbidity due to diarrhoea was observed by twice-a-week household surveillance, during the subsequent one

2001 The Indian journal of medical research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23254. Vitamin B(6) therapy does not improve hematocrit in hemodialysis patients supplemented with iron and erythropoietin. (PubMed)

Vitamin B(6) therapy does not improve hematocrit in hemodialysis patients supplemented with iron and erythropoietin. Pyridoxine deficiency may be the cause of failure to respond appropriately to iron and erythropoietin (EPO) administration in hemodialysis patients.We studied 36 patients on chronic hemodialysis amply supplemented with iron and EPO, who failed to raise hematocrit levels >33%. Patients were divided into three equal groups and evaluated for 6 months as follows: Group (...) A -- no additional therapy; group B -- supplemented with oral pyridoxine 50 mg/day, and group C received 100 mg/day pyridoxine orally.In all our patients, erythrocyte pyridoxine levels were initially within reference range for a healthy population and did not vary significantly during the study period. Likewise, ferritin levels and iron saturation values remained normal and constant. Hemoglobin and/or hematocrit levels remained practically unchanged in all three groups.The results indicate that in hemodialysis

2001 Nephron Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23255. Zinc supplementation might potentiate the effect of vitamin A in restoring night vision in pregnant Nepalese women. (PubMed)

Zinc supplementation might potentiate the effect of vitamin A in restoring night vision in pregnant Nepalese women. Zinc deficiency may result in abnormal dark adaptation or night blindness, a symptom primarily of vitamin A deficiency. During a placebo-controlled trial in Nepal, weekly vitamin A supplementation of women reduced but failed to eliminate the incidence of night blindness during pregnancy, suggesting a role for zinc.The study examined the efficacy of daily zinc supplementation (...) A + placebo), zinc alone (zinc + placebo), and placebo (2 placebos: one for the vitamin A or beta-carotene study and one for the zinc study). Women underwent a clinic-based assessment that included pupillary threshold testing and phlebotomy before and after supplementation. Supplement use and daily history of night blindness were obtained at home twice every week.Zinc treatment increased serum zinc concentrations, but alone (zinc alone group), failed to restore night vision or to improve dark adaptation

2001 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23256. Randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on maternal morbidity during pregnancy and postpartum among HIV-infected women. (PubMed)

Randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on maternal morbidity during pregnancy and postpartum among HIV-infected women. To determine whether low-cost treatment of HIV using vitamin A would be beneficial, we examined the effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity of HIV-1 infected women.We conducted a randomized, double blind placebo-controlled trial at King Edward VIII Hospital, in Durban, South Africa. In total, 312 HIV-seropositive pregnant women (...) this study of HIV-infected pregnant women, vitamin A supplementation given in doses designed to decrease mother-to-infant transmission did not result in significant beneficial effect on reported symptoms pre- or postnatally. Further investigation with larger number of participants, tailoring supplementation for specific clinical conditions, outside the context of pregnancy, is required to help clarify the possible clinical benefits of vitamin A.

2000 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23257. The effects of vitamin C supplementation on protein oxidation in healthy volunteers. (PubMed)

The effects of vitamin C supplementation on protein oxidation in healthy volunteers. We have investigated vitamin C supplementation effects on immunoglobulin oxidation (carbonyls) and total plasma protein sulfhydryls in healthy human volunteers. After receiving placebo, plasma ascorbate and oxidation markers were unchanged. Following 5 weeks supplementation with vitamin C (400 mg/day), plasma ascorbate increased but no significant effect on protein oxidation was observed. At 10 and 15 weeks (...) supplementation, carbonyl levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.01) in subjects with low baseline ascorbate (29.51 +/- 5.3 microM) but not in those with normal baseline ascorbate (51.81 +/- 2.3 microM). To eliminate any effect from seasonal variation in dietary antioxidant intake, a second phase was undertaken. Subjects on vitamin C for 15 weeks were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or vitamin C. No difference in plasma sulfhydryl content was observed. Subjects withdrawn from supplementation

2000 Biochemical and biophysical research communications Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23258. Night blindness during pregnancy and subsequent mortality among women in Nepal: effects of vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation. (PubMed)

Night blindness during pregnancy and subsequent mortality among women in Nepal: effects of vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation. Night blindness due to vitamin A deficiency is common during pregnancy among women in Nepal. The authors assessed the risk of maternal death during and after a pregnancy with night blindness among women participating in a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation trial in Nepal from July 1994 to September 1997. Subjects (...) , 0.55), and the relative risk among women with or without night blindness in the vitamin A/beta-carotene group was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.91) and 0.18 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.36), respectively. Night-blind women were five times (95% CI: 2.20, 10.58) more likely to die from infections than were women who were not night blind. These findings show that night blindness during pregnancy is a risk factor of both short- and long-term mortality among women. Vitamin A/beta-carotene supplementation ameliorates

2000 American journal of epidemiology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23259. Effect of calcium or 25OH vitamin D3 dietary supplementation on bone loss at the hip in men and women over the age of 60. (PubMed)

Effect of calcium or 25OH vitamin D3 dietary supplementation on bone loss at the hip in men and women over the age of 60. Dietary supplements that prevent bone loss at the hip and that can be applied safely in the elderly are likely to reduce hip fractures. A daily dietary supplement of 750 mg calcium or 15 microg 25OH vitamin D3 on bone loss at the hip and other sites, bone turnover and calcium-regulating hormones were studied over 4 yr in elderly volunteers using a randomized, double-blind (...) loss, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and bone turnover. 25OH vitamin D3 was intermediate between placebo and calcium. Fracture rates and drop-out rates were similar among groups, and there were no serious adverse events with either supplement. A calcium supplement of 750 mg/day prevents loss of BMD, reduces femoral medullary expansion, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and high bone turnover. A supplement of 15 microg/day 25OH vitamin D3 is less effective, and because its effects are seen only at low

2000 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23260. Vitamin A supplementation in acute diarrhea. (PubMed)

Vitamin A supplementation in acute diarrhea. Vitamin A supplementation reduces the severity of subsequent diarrheal episodes. This study was conducted to examine the effect of single oral high-dose vitamin A supplementation on the duration of acute diarrhea in 6- to 12-month-old infants who are not malnourished.In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, infants who were admitted to Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children's Hospital Diarrheal Diseases Training (...) and Treatment Unit with acute diarrhea were randomly assigned either to a group receiving a single oral dose of 100,000 IU vitamin A or placebo. There were 60 infants in each group. All infants were followed up until the diarrheal episode ended. Serum vitamin A levels were determined both at admission and 2 weeks later.No effect of vitamin A supplementation could be demonstrated on either the total duration of diarrhea (7.4 +/- 3.2 days in the treatment group vs. 7.8 +/- 3.1 days in the placebo group

2000 Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

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