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Vitamin B12 Supplementation

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23221. Riboflavin and vitamin B-6 intakes and status and biochemical response to riboflavin supplementation in free-living elderly people. (PubMed)

Riboflavin and vitamin B-6 intakes and status and biochemical response to riboflavin supplementation in free-living elderly people. Free-living elderly people aged > or = 65 y were recruited to assess riboflavin and vitamin B-6 intakes and status and the effect of riboflavin supplementation on biochemical indicators of these 2 vitamins. The status of riboflavin (erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient; EGRAC) and vitamin B-6 (plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate; PLP) were determined (...) that riboflavin supplementation at physiologic doses corrects biochemical abnormalities of not only EGRAC, but also plasma PLP, confirming the biochemical interdependency of these vitamins and suggesting that riboflavin is the limiting nutrient.

1998 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23222. Effects of vitamin E and C supplementation on oxidative stress and viral load in HIV-infected subjects. (PubMed)

Effects of vitamin E and C supplementation on oxidative stress and viral load in HIV-infected subjects. The HIV-infected population is known to be oxidatively stressed and deficient in antioxidant micronutrients. Since in vitro replication of HIV is increased with oxidative stress, this study assessed the effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on lipid peroxidation, a measure of oxidative stress, and viral load in humans.A randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind study.Forty-nine HIV (...) -positive patients were randomized to receive supplements of both DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate (800 IU daily) and vitamin C (1000 mg daily), or matched placebo, for 3 months. Plasma antioxidant micronutrient status, breath pentane output, plasma lipid peroxides, malondialdehyde and viral load were measured at baseline and at 3 months. New or recurrent infections for the 6-month period after study entry were also recorded.The vitamin group (n = 26) had an increase in plasma concentrations of alpha

1998 AIDS Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23223. Reversal of defective nerve conduction with vitamin E supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a preliminary study. (PubMed)

Reversal of defective nerve conduction with vitamin E supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a preliminary study. The present study has examined the effect of vitamin E, the principal modulator of free radical activity, on electrophysiological parameters in patients with diabetic peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy, matched for duration of disease and metabolic control.A total of 21 subjects with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study (vitamin E (...) significant changes during the study, whereas nerve conduction improved significantly in 2 of the 12 studied electrophysiological parameters after 6 months in patients on vitamin E supplementation. The changes in the electrophysiological parameters were obvious in the median motor nerve fibers and tibial motor nerve fibers. Nerve conduction velocity in the median motor nerve fibers (P = 0.0019) and tibial motor nerve distal latency (P = 0.0284) improved significantly after 6 months of vitamin E

1998 Diabetes Care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23224. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women. (PubMed)

Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women. We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary (...) , the same trend was seen at the hip. No significant changes from baseline values were observed at the distal forearm in either the treatment or the placebo group. In conclusion, we found a significant increase in urinary calcium excretion in the treatment group compared with the placebo group. Together with significant changes in serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone, this indicates that a long-term calcium and vitamin supplement of 1 g elementary calcium (calcium carbonate) and 14 micrograms

1998 Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23225. Vitamin D supplementation and fracture incidence in elderly persons. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. (PubMed)

Vitamin D supplementation and fracture incidence in elderly persons. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. To determine whether vitamin D supplementation decreases the incidence of hip fractures and other peripheral bone fractures.Prospective, double-blind trial.Community setting (Amsterdam and surrounding area).2578 persons (1916 women, 662 men) 70 years of age and older (mean age +/- SD, 80 +/- 6 years) living independently, in apartments for elderly persons, or in homes (...) in the placebo group and 77 persons in the vitamin D group (P = 0.86).Our results do not show a decrease in the incidence of hip fractures and other peripheral fractures in Dutch elderly persons after vitamin D supplementation.

1996 Annals of internal medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23226. Effect of vitamin A supplementation to mother and infant on morbidity in infancy. (PubMed)

Effect of vitamin A supplementation to mother and infant on morbidity in infancy. To assess the impact of Vitamin A supplementation to the mother soon after delivery and to the infant at six months on morbidity in infancy.Randomized double blind placebo controlled field trial.51 villages in two contiguous Primary Health Centers in Villupuram Health Unit District of Tamil Nadu, South India.909 newly delivered mother-and-infant pairs.Both mother and infant received Vitamin A (300,000 IU (...) for mothers and 200,000 IU for children) in 311 instances (AA); mother received Vitamin A but infant received Placebo in 301 instances (AP); and both mother and infant received Placebo in the remaining 297 instances (PP).Incidence of diarrhea and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI); distributions of infants by frequency of episodes and number of infected days.233 in the AA Group and 228 each in the AP and PP Groups were followed up regularly. The incidence of diarrhea in these infants was 97.4%, 96.9

1996 Indian pediatrics Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23227. Vitamin A and respiratory syncytial virus infection. Serum levels and supplementation trial. (PubMed)

Vitamin A and respiratory syncytial virus infection. Serum levels and supplementation trial. To determine the benefit of oral vitamin A supplementation for acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection.An observational study of vitamin A and retinol binding protein (RBP) levels in RSV-infected inpatients and two control groups; and a randomized, controlled trial of vitamin A supplementation for RSV-infected inpatients.Two tertiary care, urban teaching hospitals.Thirty-two RSV-infected (...) ) and the placebo group (n = 11) in improvement in severity score, mean days of hospitalization, intensive care, or receipt of supplemental oxygen.Serum vitamin A and RBP levels were low in children hospitalized with RSV infection and were lower in children admitted to the intensive care unit. Hospitalized control patients in intensive care also had lower levels than those treated on the ward. We observed no benefit from oral vitamin A supplementation for children hospitalized with RSV infection.

1996 Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23228. Serum antioxidant potential, and lipoprotein oxidation in female smokers following vitamin C supplementation. (PubMed)

Serum antioxidant potential, and lipoprotein oxidation in female smokers following vitamin C supplementation. A single blind placebo controlled trial was carried out to assess the effect of high dose vitamin C supplementation on the antioxidant potential, and extent of lipoprotein oxidation of serum in female smokers. Sixteen apparently healthy subjects were randomised into two groups of eight. One group received 1 g of vitamin C for 14 days the other group received a placebo for 14 days. Serum (...) antioxidant potential (TRAP) was measured and lipoprotein oxidation was assessed by measuring serum malondialdehyde like material. Despite significant increases in serum C concentrations in the supplemented group, serum TRAP values did not change significantly over the course of the trial. Serum malondialdehyde like material also failed to show any temporal variation.

1996 International journal of food sciences and nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23229. Vitamin A and zinc supplementation of preschool children. (PubMed)

Vitamin A and zinc supplementation of preschool children. To determine whether supplementation of vitamin A and/or zinc (Zn) improved serum levels of these nutrients and/or height and weight gains in preschool children, 22 to 66 months, living in Belize, Central America.Subjects received either Zn, vitamin A, Zn and vitamin A or a placebo, (70 mg Zn and/or 3030 RE vitamin A, once per week) for 6 months in a 2x2 factorial design. Forty-three children, from a population of 104 prescreened (...) , completed the study; they were selected, prior to treatment, for low/marginal serum concentrations of these micronutrients.Serum Zn levels were greater (16%, p<0.001) for those who received Zn. In contrast, after vitamin A treatment there were no differences in serum vitamin A among groups. Although increases in height (+4.4 cm, p<0.001) and weight (+0.79 kg, p<0.001), compared with baseline values, were numerically greatest for children who received both supplements, only the vitamin A supplementation

1999 Journal of the American College of Nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23230. The beneficial effects of weekly low-dose vitamin A supplementation on acute lower respiratory infections and diarrhea in Ecuadorian children. (PubMed)

The beneficial effects of weekly low-dose vitamin A supplementation on acute lower respiratory infections and diarrhea in Ecuadorian children. Previous studies of large-dose vitamin A supplementation on respiratory morbidity have produced conflicting results in a variety of populations. The influence of malnutrition has not been examined in the majority of these trials. We hypothesized that weekly low-dose vitamin A supplementation would prevent respiratory and diarrheal disease morbidity (...) -treated children 18 to 23 months of age than in children on placebo in this age group (point estimate: 0.26 [95% CI: 0.06-1.00]).Weekly low-dose (10 000 IU) vitamin A supplementation in a region of subclinical deficiency protected underweight children from ALRI and paradoxically increased ALRI in normal children with body weight over -1 SD. Protection from severe diarrhea was consistent with previous trials. Additional research is warranted to delineate potential beneficial and detrimental

1999 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23231. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. (PubMed)

High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. To determine the effectiveness of vitamin E treatment in normalizing retinal blood flow and renal function in patients with <10 years of type 1 diabetes.An 8-month randomized double-masked placebo-controlled crossover trial evaluated 36 type 1 diabetic and 9 nondiabetic subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to either 1,800 IU vitamin E/day or placebo for 4 months (...) and improving renal function in type 1 diabetic patients of short disease duration without inducing a significant change in glycemic control. This suggests that vitamin E supplementation may provide an additional benefit in reducing the risks for developing diabetic retinopathy or nephropathy.

1999 Diabetes Care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23232. No effect of supplementation with vitamin E, ascorbic acid, or coenzyme Q10 on oxidative DNA damage estimated by 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion in smokers. (PubMed)

No effect of supplementation with vitamin E, ascorbic acid, or coenzyme Q10 on oxidative DNA damage estimated by 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion in smokers. The protective effect of fruit and vegetables against cancer has been related to their high antioxidant content. However, results from intervention trials have not been conclusive on the protective effect of antioxidant supplementation. In a randomized placebo-controlled trial we investigated the effect of dietary (...) supplementation with antioxidants on a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage with mechanistic relation to carcinogenesis. One hundred forty-two smoking men aged 35-65 y were randomly assigned to one of the following seven treatments for 2 mo: 100 mg D-alpha-tocopheryl acetate plus 250 mg slow-release ascorbic acid twice a day (n = 20), 100 mg D-alpha-tocopheryl acetate twice a day (n = 20), 250 mg ascorbic acid twice a day (n = 21), 250 mg slow-release ascorbic acid twice a day (n = 21), 30 mg coenzyme Q10 in oil

1997 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23233. A clinical trial to evaluate the effect of vitamin C supplementation on in vitro mutagen sensitivity. The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Clinical Community Oncology Program Network. (PubMed)

A clinical trial to evaluate the effect of vitamin C supplementation on in vitro mutagen sensitivity. The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Clinical Community Oncology Program Network. Mutagen sensitivity, as measured by an in vitro assay, has been described as a risk factor for the development of several tobacco-related epithelial cancers. In vitro studies have indicated that sensitivity to the clastogenic effects of bleomycin on chromosomes was reduced with the introduction of ascorbic acid

1997 Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23234. Decrease of ornithine decarboxylase activity in premalignant gastric mucosa and regression of small intestinal metaplasia in patients supplemented with high doses of vitamin E. (PubMed)

Decrease of ornithine decarboxylase activity in premalignant gastric mucosa and regression of small intestinal metaplasia in patients supplemented with high doses of vitamin E. The effect of high doses of vitamin E (Vit.E; 400 units/ day) on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and regression of small intestinal metaplasia (SIM) was studied in a 1-year double-blind intervention trial. Biochemical and morphological parameters were estimated in 14 evaluable SIM patients of 18 in the Vit.E group (...) of ODC, 62.6 +/- 7.8 units, decreased by 53 and 65%, respectively. Histological analysis of multiple biopsies, taken from the gastric antrum of patients supplemented with Vit.E, revealed that in 8 of 14 patients (57%) after 6 months and in 10 of 14 patients (71%) after 12 months, no signs of SIM were observed; gastroscopic dye procedure confirmed the regression of SIM in these cases and showed the presence of only small isolated stained areas identified as SIM.

1997 Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23235. The effect of pharmacological supplementation with vitamin C on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. (Full text)

The effect of pharmacological supplementation with vitamin C on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a powerful antioxidant but there is limited information on its ability to prevent LDL oxidation and its interaction with other natural antioxidants in vivo. We assessed the effect of 4 weeks pharmacological supplementation with vitamin C 1 g day(-1) on copper induced LDL oxidation and lipid peroxidation.Blood samples were obtained at baseline and at the end of 4 weeks (...) supplementation from 11 healthy non-smokers and also from nine control subjects. Plasma lipid peroxides were measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) by h.p.l.c. The relationship between vitamin C and two other important antioxidants, vitamin E and glutathione, was also studied.There was no difference in baseline values between the two groups and the oxidizability of LDL, assessed as the lag phase of conjugated dienes production and the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), remained unchanged

1997 British journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23236. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on measles vaccination in nine-month-old infants. (PubMed)

Effect of vitamin A supplementation on measles vaccination in nine-month-old infants. Childhood immunization programs have been suggested as an infrastructure to deliver vitamin A supplements to children in developing countries. The effects of giving vitamin A, a potent immune enhancer, with measles immunization to nine-month-old infants is unknown.A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial of vitamin A, 100,000 IU at the time of standard titer Schwarz measles immunization (...) rates were similar in vitamin A and placebo treatment groups.High dose vitamin A supplementation can be given without reducing seroconversion to standard titer Schwatz measles immunization in nine-month-old infants.

1997 Public health Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23237. Long-term vitamin D3 supplementation may have adverse effects on serum lipids during postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. (PubMed)

Long-term vitamin D3 supplementation may have adverse effects on serum lipids during postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. The positive short-term effects of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on serum lipids are well known, but it has been suggested that they vanish with time. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is widely used to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis but the influence of vitamin D3 on serum lipids is poorly known. The long-term effects of HRT and vitamin D3 (...) supplementation may have unfavorable effects on lipids in postmenopausal women. Pure vitamin D3 treatment was associated with increased serum LDL cholesterol. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of HRT on serum LDL cholesterol content were reduced when estradiol valerate was combined with vitamin D3. However, the relevance of these associations to cardiovascular morbidity remains to be established.

1997 European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23238. Effect of a two-year supplementation with low doses of antioxidant vitamins and/or minerals in elderly subjects on levels of nutrients and antioxidant defense parameters. (PubMed)

Effect of a two-year supplementation with low doses of antioxidant vitamins and/or minerals in elderly subjects on levels of nutrients and antioxidant defense parameters. Eighty-one elderly hospitalized subjects (> 65 years) were recruited for a double-blind placebo-controlled study to examine low dose supplementation of antioxidant vitamins and minerals on biological and functional parameters of free radical metabolism. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups, daily (...) receiving for 2 years: placebo group; mineral group: 20 mg zinc, 100 micrograms selenium; vitamin group: 120 mg vitamin C (Vit C), 6 mg beta-carotene (beta CA), 15 mg vitamin E (Vit E); mineral and vitamin group: Zn 20 mg, Se 100 micrograms, Vit C 120 mg, beta CA 6 mg, Vit E 15 mg.Fifty-seven subjects completed the study. A large frequency of Vit C, Zn and Se deficiencies were observed at baseline. As early as 6 months of treatment, a significant increase in vitamin and mineral serum levels was observed

1997 Journal of the American College of Nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23239. Effect of 3 months vitamin E supplementation on indices of the cellular and humoral immune response in elderly subjects. (PubMed)

Effect of 3 months vitamin E supplementation on indices of the cellular and humoral immune response in elderly subjects. It has been suggested that decreased immune responsiveness in the elderly may be counteracted by the antioxidant vitamin E. In a 3-month double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial among elderly subjects aged 65 years and over we studied the effects of a daily dose of 100 mg dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate on the cellular immune responsiveness (n 52) measured (...) by the in vitro response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to the mitogens concanavalin A (ConA) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Also effects on the humoral immune responsiveness (n 74) were investigated by measuring immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgG4 and IgA antibody concentrations against various common antigens. In the vitamin E group plasma alpha-tocopherol increased by 51% (P = 0.0001) during intervention whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group. Initial proliferative PBMC

1997 The British journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23240. Citrus fruit supplementation reduces lipoprotein oxidation in young men ingesting a diet high in saturated fat: presumptive evidence for an interaction between vitamins C and E in vivo. (PubMed)

Citrus fruit supplementation reduces lipoprotein oxidation in young men ingesting a diet high in saturated fat: presumptive evidence for an interaction between vitamins C and E in vivo. To determine the effects of vitamin C on cardiovascular risk factors, we studied dietary vitamin C enrichment in 36 healthy male students consuming a diet high in saturated fatty acids. After a 1-mo run-in period during which the subjects consumed approximately 50 mg ascorbic acid/d (low-C diet), half (...) of the subjects were randomly assigned to receive 500 mg ascorbic acid/d for an additional 2 mo (high-C diet). Plasma ascorbic acid increased from 13.5 micromol/L with the low-C diet to 51.7 micromol/L with the high-C diet. Plasma cholesterol increased slightly with the high-C diet, but not above baseline concentrations. This increase was offset by an increase in the lag period of in vitro LDL oxidation, which correlated with plasma ascorbic acid concentrations (r = 0.735, P = 0.0012). Lipoprotein vitamin E

1998 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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