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Vitamin B12 Supplementation

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23201. Effect of vitamin and trace element supplementation on immune indices in healthy elderly. (PubMed)

Effect of vitamin and trace element supplementation on immune indices in healthy elderly. Aging is associated with a progressive decline in the immune system and a greater susceptibility to infection. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study, examined the effect of a vitamin and trace element supplement on immune responses of healthy, noninstitutionalized elderly subjects. Forty-seven subjects aged 61-79 years were randomly assigned to receive placebo or micronutrient supplementation for one (...) year. Thirty-five individuals completed the one-year study. Immune function was assessed before and after the period of supplementation. Cell-mediated immune function assessed by the number of T cells and subsets remained constant in the supplemented group and there was a significant increase in CD57 natural killer cells. In contrast, a significant decrease in T cells, CD4 cells, and CD4: CD8 ratio was noted in the placebo group. Supplementation with micronutrients can play a crucial role

1995 International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernährungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23202. Prevention of bone loss by vitamin D supplementation in elderly women: a randomized double-blind trial. (PubMed)

Prevention of bone loss by vitamin D supplementation in elderly women: a randomized double-blind trial. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone turnover and bone loss in elderly women. Three hundred forty-eight women, ages 70 yr and older, were randomized to receive 400 IU vitamin D3 per day (n = 177) or placebo (n = 171), double-blind, for a period of 2 yr. Main outcome measures were bone mineral density of both hips (femoral neck (...) and trochanter) and the distal radius, as well as biochemical markers of bone turnover. The effect of vitamin D supplementation was expressed as the difference in mean (percentage) change between the placebo group and the vitamin D group. The measurements were repeated in 283 women after 1 yr and in 248 women after 2 yr. Vitamin D supplementation significantly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (250HD) (+35 nmol/L) and 1,25-dehydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D] (+7.0 pmol/L) levels and urinary calcium/creatinine

1995 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23203. Vitamin A supplementation and childhood malaria in northern Ghana. (PubMed)

Vitamin A supplementation and childhood malaria in northern Ghana. Two companion, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of prophylactic vitamin A supplementation provided the opportunity to assess the impact of supplementation on malaria parasitemia, morbidity, and mortality in young children in northern Ghana. In the mortality study, 21,906 children were visited every 4 mo over 2 y, and in the morbidity study 1455 children were visited weekly for 1 y. There was no difference between children (...) supplemented with vitamin A and those given placebo in malaria mortality rates (rate ratio = 1.03; 95% CI 0.74, 1.43) or fever incidence based on reported symptoms. Malaria parasitemia rates, parasite densities in children with a positive blood smear, and rates of probable malaria illness also did not differ between treatment groups. There was no correlation between serum retinol at the beginning of the trial and subsequent malaria parasitemia in children who received placebo (r = 0.01). It is concluded

1995 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23204. Vitamin A supplementation, morbidity, and serum acute-phase proteins in young Ghanaian children. (PubMed)

Vitamin A supplementation, morbidity, and serum acute-phase proteins in young Ghanaian children. The association of vitamin A supplementation with concentrations of positive acute-phase proteins in the serum was investigated in the Child Health Study of the Ghana Vitamin A Supplementation Trials, a randomized, controlled trial of the effect of vitamin A on morbidity in children aged < 5 y. Mean serum concentrations of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, serum amyloid A, and C-reactive protein did (...) not differ overall between the vitamin A-supplemented and placebo-treated groups. Treatment groups were then subdivided according to what symptoms children had experienced in the week before blood sampling. Acute-phase-protein responses to fever and cough were not affected by vitamin A supplementation. There was a tendency for vitamin A-supplemented children, but not placebo children, to have elevated acute-phase proteins in association with reported vomiting or severe diarrhea. The failure

1995 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23205. The effects of vitamin A supplementation on the morbidity of children born to HIV-infected women. (Full text)

The effects of vitamin A supplementation on the morbidity of children born to HIV-infected women. The effects of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity of children born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women were evaluated in a population where vitamin A deficiency is not endemic.A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A supplementation was carried out in 118 offspring of HIV-infected women in Durban, South Africa. Those assigned to receive a supplement were given 50,000 (...) IU of vitamin A at 1 and 3 months of age; 100,000 IU at 6 and 9 months; and 200,000 IU at 12 and 15 months. Morbidity in the past month was then recalled at each follow-up visit. Analysis was based on 806 child-months.Among all children, the supplemented group had lower overall morbidity than the placebo group (OR = 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.48, 0.99). Among the 85 children of known HIV status (28 infected, 57 uninfected), morbidity associated with diarrhea was significantly reduced

1995 American Journal of Public Health Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23206. Effects of calcium supplements on femoral bone mineral density and vertebral fracture rate in vitamin-D-replete elderly patients. (PubMed)

Effects of calcium supplements on femoral bone mineral density and vertebral fracture rate in vitamin-D-replete elderly patients. The efficacy of calcium (Ca) in reducing bone loss is debated. In a randomized placebo-controlled double-masked study, we investigated the effects of oral Ca supplements on femoral shaft (FS), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD), and on the incidence of vertebral fracture in vitamin-D-replete elderly. Ninety-three healthy subjects (72.1 (...) +/- 0.6 years) were randomly allocated to three groups receiving 800 mg/day Ca in two different forms or a placebo for 18 months. Sixty-three patients (78.4 +/- 1.0 years) with a recent hip fracture were allocated to two groups receiving the two forms of Ca without placebo. FS BMD changes in Ca-supplemented non-fractured women were significantly different from those in the placebo group (+0.6 +/- 0.5% v -1.2 +/- 0.7%, p < 0.05). There was no difference in effect between the two forms of Ca

1994 Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23207. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein, and triglyceride concentrations. (PubMed)

Effect of vitamin C supplementation on lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein, and triglyceride concentrations. Plasma ascorbic acid (AA) frequently is positively correlated with high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and inversely related to total cholesterol concentration. To determine if vitamin C intake can alter cholesterol concentration, we examined the effect of vitamin C supplementation (1 g/d) on lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in 138 subjects, aged 20 to 65 years (...) < 0.10) increase of 1.9 mumol/L (5.3 mg/dL) in apo A-I concentration with supplementation and a significant (P < 0.05) difference of 0.10 mmol/L (3.8 mg/dL) in HDL cholesterol concentration between vitamin C and placebo treatment in a nonrandomized subgroup of individuals (n = 43) and a baseline plasma AA level less than 55 mumol/L. Although the apo A-I concentration increase was only marginally significant with supplementation, change in plasma AA concentration was significantly (P < 0.05

1995 Annals of epidemiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23208. Prevention of bone mineral loss in patients with Crohn's disease by long-term oral vitamin D supplementation. (PubMed)

Prevention of bone mineral loss in patients with Crohn's disease by long-term oral vitamin D supplementation. To determine whether long-term dietary supplementation with low doses of vitamin D helps to prevent bone loss and the development of osteoporosis or osteomalacia in out-patients with Crohn's disease.A randomized controlled study.The out-patient clinic of a tertiary centre (university hospital).Seventy-five out-patients (31 men and 44 women, aged 16-77 years) with Crohn's disease.All (...) patients were randomly assigned to receive either an oral supplement of 1000 IU/day vitamin D for 1 year or no supplement. Bone mineral density, assessed in the distal part of the nondominant forearm using single photon absorptiometry, and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, assessed using a competitive protein binding assay, were measured before and after the period of dietary supplementation.Relative change of bone mineral density.Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased in 57% of patients who

1995 European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23209. Bulging fontanelle after supplementation with 25,000 IU of vitamin A in infancy using immunization contacts. (PubMed)

Bulging fontanelle after supplementation with 25,000 IU of vitamin A in infancy using immunization contacts. To evaluate the safety of vitamin A supplementation in early infancy using DPT/OPV immunization contracts, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Bangladesh. One hundred and sixty-seven infants received three doses of either 25,000 IU of vitamin A or a placebo at about 6.5, 11.8 and 17.0 weeks of age. Trained physicians examined each of the infants on days (...) 1, 2, 3 and 8 after supplementation. Nine infants (10.5%) supplemented with vitamin A had episodes of bulging of the fontanelle compared with two infants (2.5%) in the placebo group (p < 0.05). Twelve of the 14 episodes occurred in infants supplemented with vitamin A. Of these 12 episodes, none occurred with the first dose, 3 occurred with the second and 9 with the third dose. The higher incidence of bulging of the fontanelle in the vitamin A group relative to the placebo group and its temporal

1995 Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23210. Assessment of the safety of high-dose, short-term supplementation with vitamin E in healthy older adults. (PubMed)

Assessment of the safety of high-dose, short-term supplementation with vitamin E in healthy older adults. The effect of daily supplementation of 800 mg dl alpha-tocopheryl acetate for 30 d on general health, nutrient status, hepatic and renal function, intermediary metabolism, hematological status, plasma nutrients and antioxidant status, thyroid hormones, and urinary creatinine concentrations was studied in 32 healthy elderly (> 60 y) people who participated in a double-blind, placebo (...) -controlled, residential trial. The subjects reported no side effects due to the supplements. Supplementation had no effect on body weight, plasma total protein, albumin, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, indicators of hepatic and renal function, hematologic status, thyroid hormones, or serum and urinary creatinine concentrations and creatinine clearance. Supplementation did cause a significant increase in serum vitamin E

1994 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23211. The impact of long-term vitamin supplementation on cognitive functioning. (PubMed)

The impact of long-term vitamin supplementation on cognitive functioning. The possibility that the taking of vitamin supplements may influence cognitive functioning was explored. One hundred and twenty-seven young healthy adults took either ten times the recommended daily dose of nine vitamins, or a placebo, under a double-blind procedure, for a year. After 12 months better performance on two measures of attention was found in females who had taken the vitamin supplement, even though the blood (...) status of nine vitamins reached a plateau after 3 months. The use of regression equations demonstrated the association between improved thiamin status and improved performance on a range of measures of cognitive functioning in females rather than males. Although it was not possible to establish the reason for a beneficial response in females rather than males, the evidence that females respond differently to dietary factors was discussed.

1995 Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23212. Metabolic benefits deriving from chronic vitamin C supplementation in aged non-insulin dependent diabetics. (PubMed)

Metabolic benefits deriving from chronic vitamin C supplementation in aged non-insulin dependent diabetics. Our study investigated the metabolic benefits deriving from chronic pharmacological vitamin C administration in aged non-insulin dependent (Type II) diabetic patients.Forty type II diabetic patients (age: 72 +/- 0.5 years) underwent placebo and vitamin C (0.5 g twice daily) administration in double-blind, randomized, cross-over fashion. All patients were treated by oral hypoglycaemic (...) agents which continued throughout the study. After baseline observations, treatment periods lasted 4 months and were separated by a 30-day wash-out period.Patients' antropometric data were unchanged throughout the study. Chronic vitamin C administration vs placebo was associated with a significant decline in fasting plasma free radicals (0.26 +/- 0.06 vs 0.49 +/- 0.07 p < 0.03) and insulin (90 +/- 4 vs 73 +/- 6 pmol/L p < 0.04), total- (7.3 +/- 0.5 vs 5.8 +/- 0.4 mmol/L p < 0.03), LDL-cholesterol

1995 Journal of the American College of Nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23213. Antioxidant status of dairy cows supplemented prepartum with vitamin E and selenium. (Full text)

Antioxidant status of dairy cows supplemented prepartum with vitamin E and selenium. Possible relationships among dietary antioxidants, oxidative status, and placental retention were investigated in periparturient dairy cows. During 6 wk prepartum, 16 cows each were given daily by capsule 1000 IU of vitamin E, 3 mg of Se, both vitamin E and Se, or neither (control). alpha-Tocopherol in serum and fast-acting antioxidants in plasma increased, but, in red blood cells, thiobarbituric acid-reactive (...) substances decreased during the last 6 wk before parturition in cows given vitamin E. These measurements were unaffected by supplementation of Se. Cows that had retained placenta > or = 12 h had lower fast-acting antioxidants in plasma and glutathione peroxidase in red blood cells up to 2 wk before calving than did cows that shed fetal membranes in < 12 h. Results suggest that inadequate dietary antioxidants may increase oxidative stress, production of lipid peroxides, and incidence of retained fetal

1994 Journal of dairy science Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23214. A randomized controlled trial of vitamin A supplementation in acute diarrhea. (PubMed)

A randomized controlled trial of vitamin A supplementation in acute diarrhea. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on duration of diarrhea was evaluated in 108 cases between 6 months to 5 years of age suffering from acute diarrhea of less than 3 days duration and results were compared with equal number of age and sex matched controls having comparable feeding pattern, nutritional and socio-economic status and clinical profile who did not receive vitamin A supplementation (...) . There was no significant difference in the mean duration of diarrhea in cases who received vitamin A and the controls. However, on subgroup analysis of the study and control groups a significant (p = 0.009) beneficial effect of vitamin A supplementation was noticed in cases who had a pre-existing vitamin A deficiency with CIC stage 3/5 and above. Even though vitamin A supplementation in malnourished children did not significantly alter the duration of diarrhea, a beneficial effect was observed in children who had CIC

1995 Indian pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23215. Effect of supplementation with beta-carotene and vitamin A on lung nutrient levels. (PubMed)

Effect of supplementation with beta-carotene and vitamin A on lung nutrient levels. The Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), a randomized, placebo-controlled lung cancer chemoprevention trial of 30 mg of beta-carotene and 25,000 IU of retinyl palmitate, was prematurely terminated when a 46% excess lung cancer mortality was found in subjects on the active arm. Before the CARET intervention ended, 21 men were recruited to participate in a 6-month biomarker study using the same (...) . Surgically obtained lung tissue from three CARET subjects in the active arm showed elevated carotene lung tissue levels but no increase in lung retinol levels compared to a group of surgical controls. Combined with our previous work showing a strong correlation between BAL and lung tissue nutrient levels, these findings suggest that supplementation with beta-carotene and vitamin A results in increased lung tissue as well as BAL cell levels of beta-carotene, with little change in lung retinol.

1998 Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23216. Vitamin A supplementation and severity of pneumonia in children admitted to the hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. (PubMed)

Vitamin A supplementation and severity of pneumonia in children admitted to the hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Vitamin A deficiency and acute lower respiratory tract infections coexist as important public health problems in many developing countries. We carried out a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine whether large doses of vitamin A given to Tanzanian children who are admitted to the hospital with nonmeasles pneumonia would reduce the severity of respiratory (...) disease. Six hundred eighty-seven children were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or vitamin A [200 000 IU (60 mg retinol equivalents) for children > 1 y of age and 100000 IU (30 mg retinol equivalents) for infants] on the day of admission and another dose on the following day. Of the 346 children in the vitamin A group, 13 died in the hospital, compared with 8 of 341 children in the placebo group; the relative mortality was 1.63 (95% CI: 0.67, 3.97; P = 0.28). The mean number of days

1998 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23217. Effects of dietary vitamin E supplementation during late pregnancy on lamb mortality and ewe productivity. (PubMed)

Effects of dietary vitamin E supplementation during late pregnancy on lamb mortality and ewe productivity. To determine the effect of feeding vitamin E to ewes during late pregnancy on lamb mortality and ewe productivity.Prospective study.1,302 mature Rambouillet and Targhee ewes.During a 3-year period, approximately 430 ewes/y were randomly allocated to 2 groups; supplement-group ewes were fed additional vitamin E and control-group ewes were not. Beginning approximately 3 weeks before (...) the first expected lambing date, ewes were fed 2.3 kg (5 lb) of alfalfa-grass hay/d and 0.23 kg (0.5 lb) of barley-based pellets/d with or without supplemental vitamin E. Pellets that were supplemented contained 1,450 mg of DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate/kg (658 mg/lb) of feed and provided an additional 330 IU of vitamin E/ewe/d. Selenium was incorporated into a trace mineral salt and fed free choice to all ewes throughout pregnancy.Supplemental vitamin E had no effect on ewe weight, body condition score

1998 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23218. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the preventive effect of supplemental oral vitamin C on attenuation of development of nitrate tolerance. (PubMed)

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the preventive effect of supplemental oral vitamin C on attenuation of development of nitrate tolerance. This study sought to evaluate the preventive effect of vitamin C, an antioxidant, on the development of nitrate tolerance.Decreased intracellular production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a mechanism of nitrate tolerance, and increased superoxide levels and reduced activation of guanylate cyclase have been observed (...) in vitro.In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 24 normal volunteers and 24 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) were randomized to receive either vitamin C (2 g three times daily [vitamin C group, n=12]) or placebo (placebo group, n=12). The vasodilator response to nitroglycerin was assessed with forearm plethysmography by measuring the change in FBF before and 5 min after sublingual administration of 0.3 mg of nitroglycerin. Blood samples were simultaneously obtained to measure platelet

1998 Journal of the American College of Cardiology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23219. Effects of supplementation with a combination of antioxidant vitamins and trace elements, at nutritional doses, on biochemical indicators and markers of the antioxidant system in adult subjects. (PubMed)

Effects of supplementation with a combination of antioxidant vitamins and trace elements, at nutritional doses, on biochemical indicators and markers of the antioxidant system in adult subjects. To test the impact of supplementation with nutritional doses of antioxidant nutrients on biochemical indicators of vitamin and trace element levels.A randomized double-blind trial was performed comparing two groups receiving daily either a combination of vitamins (beta-carotene, 6 mg; vitamin C, 120 mg (...) ; and vitamin E, 30 mg) and trace elements (zinc, 20 mg; and selenium, 100 micrograms); or a placebo.401 subjects (166 males aged 45 to 60 years and 235 females aged to 35 to 60 years). MEASURE OF OUTCOME: Biological markers of vitamin and trace element status and free radical parameters were measured initially, 3 months, and 6 months after supplemention.Mean serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, beta-carotene, zinc and selenium increased significantly after 3 months of supplementation

1998 Journal of the American College of Nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

23220. Assessment of the safety of supplementation with different amounts of vitamin E in healthy older adults. (PubMed)

Assessment of the safety of supplementation with different amounts of vitamin E in healthy older adults. We showed previously that supplementation for 30 d with 800 IU (727 mg) vitamin E/d did not adversely affect healthy elderly persons. We have now assessed the effects of 4 mo of supplementation with 60, 200, or 800 IU (55, 182, or 727 mg) all-rac-alpha-tocopherol/d on general health, nutrient status, liver enzyme function, thyroid hormone concentrations, creatinine concentrations, serum (...) autoantibodies, killing of Candida albicans by neutrophils, and bleeding time in 88 healthy subjects aged >65 y participating in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. No side effects were reported by the subjects. Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on body weight, plasma total proteins, albumin, glucose, plasma lipids or the lipoprotein profile, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, serum aspartate aminotransferase, serum alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, serum urea nitrogen, total

1998 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

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