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Vitamin B12 Supplementation

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22461. Vitamin A supplementation fails to reduce incidence of acute respiratory illness and diarrhea in preschool-age Indonesian children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vitamin A supplementation fails to reduce incidence of acute respiratory illness and diarrhea in preschool-age Indonesian children. Vitamin A supplementation of populations of vitamin A-deficient preschool-age children has been shown to reduce childhood mortality, but the primary preventive effects of such supplements on childhood infectious diseases have not been carefully evaluated. We conducted an individually randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked trial among 1,407 Indonesian (...) preschool-age children, to measure the effects of high dose vitamin A on acute respiratory and diarrheal illnesses. Signs and symptoms of morbidity were monitored using every other day home surveillance by trained interviewers. High dose vitamin A supplements increased the incidence of acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) by 8%, and acute lower respiratory illnesses (ALRI) by 39%. These detrimental effects on acute lower respiratory illnesses were most marked in children with adequate nutritional status

1996 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22462. Long-term oral vitamin E supplementation in cystic fibrosis patients: RRR-alpha-tocopherol compared with all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate preparations. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Long-term oral vitamin E supplementation in cystic fibrosis patients: RRR-alpha-tocopherol compared with all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate preparations. To investigate the efficacy of three different vitamin E preparations for optimizing vitamin E status in cystic fibrosis (CF patients long-term, 29 patients (aged 0.7-29.8 y) were randomly assigned to receive 400 IU of either RRR-alpha-tocopherol (A: 268 mg, n = 10) or all rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate as a fat-soluble (B: 400 mg, n = 10 (...) comparable doses. We conclude that CF patients can be efficiently supplemented with 400 IU/d of any one of the three vitamin E preparations and plasma values of healthy control subjects can be achieved.

1996 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22463. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on the growth of young children in northern Ghana. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of vitamin A supplementation on the growth of young children in northern Ghana. The effect of prophylactic vitamin A supplementation on child growth was studies in two randomized, placebo-controlled trials carried out in adjacent areas of northern Ghana between 1989 and 1991. In the Health Study, the midupper arm circumference (MUAC) and weight of the approximately 1500 children (aged 6-59 mo) in the trial were measured every 4 wk for up to 52 wk. In addition, MUAC, weight, and height (...) treatment group were compared by using multilevel modeling. There were no significant differences in either MUAC or gains in length/height. The only significant difference in weight gain was in the Survival Study: children in the vitamin A-supplemented group who were > or = 36 mo of age had a mean weight gain that was 3 g lower per month (95% CI: 0.4, 5.0, P = 0.02) than that in the placebo group; a difference that was unlikely to be functionally important in this age group. Vitamin A supplementation

1996 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22464. Vitamin D supplementation and fracture incidence in elderly persons. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. (Abstract)

Vitamin D supplementation and fracture incidence in elderly persons. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. To determine whether vitamin D supplementation decreases the incidence of hip fractures and other peripheral bone fractures.Prospective, double-blind trial.Community setting (Amsterdam and surrounding area).2578 persons (1916 women, 662 men) 70 years of age and older (mean age +/- SD, 80 +/- 6 years) living independently, in apartments for elderly persons, or in homes (...) in the placebo group and 77 persons in the vitamin D group (P = 0.86).Our results do not show a decrease in the incidence of hip fractures and other peripheral fractures in Dutch elderly persons after vitamin D supplementation.

1996 Annals of internal medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22465. Serum antioxidant potential, and lipoprotein oxidation in female smokers following vitamin C supplementation. (Abstract)

Serum antioxidant potential, and lipoprotein oxidation in female smokers following vitamin C supplementation. A single blind placebo controlled trial was carried out to assess the effect of high dose vitamin C supplementation on the antioxidant potential, and extent of lipoprotein oxidation of serum in female smokers. Sixteen apparently healthy subjects were randomised into two groups of eight. One group received 1 g of vitamin C for 14 days the other group received a placebo for 14 days. Serum (...) antioxidant potential (TRAP) was measured and lipoprotein oxidation was assessed by measuring serum malondialdehyde like material. Despite significant increases in serum C concentrations in the supplemented group, serum TRAP values did not change significantly over the course of the trial. Serum malondialdehyde like material also failed to show any temporal variation.

1996 International journal of food sciences and nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22466. Supplementation with vitamins C and E enhances cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in healthy adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Supplementation with vitamins C and E enhances cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in healthy adults. The effect of supplementation with vitamins C and E on cytokine production of healthy adult volunteers was studied in a single-blind trial. Ten subjects in each group received daily vitamin C (1 g ascorbic acid), vitamin E (400 mg dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate), or vitamins C and E for 28 d. Plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, ascorbate, and lipid peroxides as well (...) as the production of cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured before, during, and at the end of the supplementation and 1 wk later. PBMCs were cultured in the presence of absence of lipopolysaccharide for 24 h. The interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the culture supernates were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. Production of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha in the group supplemented with vitamins C and E

1996 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22467. Lowered risks of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease after vitamin/mineral supplementation: the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trial. (Abstract)

Lowered risks of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease after vitamin/mineral supplementation: the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trial. A total of 3,318 men and women from a region in rural China were randomized to receive daily either a multiple vitamin/mineral supplement or a placebo. Deaths that occurred in the participants were ascertained and classified according to cause over the 6-year period from 1985 to 1991. At the end of supplementation, blood pressure readings were taken (...) , and the prevalence of hypertension was determined. There was a slight reduction in overall mortality in the supplement group (relative risk (RR) = 0.93, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) 0.75-1.16), with the decreased relative risk most pronounced for cerebrovascular disease deaths (RR = 0.63, 95 percent CI 0.37-1.07). This benefit was greater for men (RR = 0.42, 95 percent CI 0.19-0.93) than for women (RR = 0.93, 95 percent CI 0.44-1.98). Among the survivors, the presence of elevations in both systolic

1996 American journal of epidemiology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22468. Impact of neonatal vitamin A supplementation on infant morbidity and mortality. (Abstract)

Impact of neonatal vitamin A supplementation on infant morbidity and mortality. To determine whether vitamin A supplementation at birth could reduce infant morbidity and mortality.We conducted a placebo-controlled trial among 2067 Indonesian neonates who received either 52 micromol (50,000 IU) orally administered vitamin A or placebo on the first day of life. Infants were followed up at 1 year to determine the impact of this intervention on infant mortality. A subgroup (n = 470) was also (...) for vitamin A and control infants. However, during this same 4-month period, 73% and 51% more control infants were brought for medical treatment for cough (p = 0.008) and fever (p = 0.063), respectively.Neonatal vitamin A supplementation may reduce the infant mortality rate and the prevalence of severe respiratory infection among young infants.

1996 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22469. Whole blood production of thromboxane, prostacyclin and leukotriene B4 after dietary fish oil supplementation in man: effect of vitamin E. (Abstract)

Whole blood production of thromboxane, prostacyclin and leukotriene B4 after dietary fish oil supplementation in man: effect of vitamin E. 12 subjects were given 30 ml/day of a fish oil already stabilized with vitamin E (1.5 IU/g) and other natural antioxidants (fish oil, FO), and the same fish oil supplemented with extra vitamin E (to total 4.5 IU/g) (FO+E), in a randomized double-blind cross-over study. The whole blood production of thromboxane B2, measured in serum, was reduced after 4 weeks (...) of ingestion of both FO+E (by 47%, P < 0.01) and of FO (by 40%, P < 0.05) whereas 6-keto-PGF1 alpha increased slightly in both cases, by 4% and 5% respectively, both NS. Leukotriene B4 production decreased on both FO+E (by 20%, NS) and FO (by 17%, P < 0.05). This study thus showed that a stabilized fish oil had marked effects on eicosanoid production, which may be important for its cardiovascular effect. Further supplementation with vitamin E had no additional effect, indicating that the vitamin E content

1996 Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22470. Impact of nutrition education and mega-dose vitamin A supplementation on the health of children in Nepal. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of nutrition education and mega-dose vitamin A supplementation on the health of children in Nepal. The impact on vitamin A deficiency (VAD), wasting malnutrition, and excessive childhood mortality of two alternative approaches-nutrition education and mega-dose capsule distribution (6-12-month-olds: 100,000 IU; 1-5-year-olds: 200,000 IU)-in communities in Nepal are compared. Approximately 40,000 children from 75 locations in seven districts in two ecological settings (lowland and hills (...) ) took part in the study and were randomly allocated to intervention cohorts or a control group. At 24 months after the implementation of the project the reduction of risk for xerophthalmia was greater among children whose mothers were able to identify vitamin-A-rich foods (relative risk (RR) = 0.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.10-0.62) than among the children who received mega-dose capsules (RR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.41-0.84). The risk of mortality at 2 years was reduced for both the nutrition

1996 Bulletin of the World Health Organization Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22471. A comparison of the effects of alfacalcidol treatment and vitamin D2 supplementation on calcium absorption in elderly women with vertebral fractures. (Abstract)

A comparison of the effects of alfacalcidol treatment and vitamin D2 supplementation on calcium absorption in elderly women with vertebral fractures. Although vitamin D supplementation in the frail elderly improves calcium absorption, suppresses parathyroid hormone, decreases bone loss and reduces the risk of fractures, such treatment may be ineffective in patients with vertebral osteoporosis, because of impaired vitamin D metabolism or resistance to the action of vitamin D metabolites (...) on the bowel. We have therefore performed a randomized, single masked study comparing the effects of alfacalcidol treatment (0.25 micrograms twice daily) and vitamin D2 supplementation (500-1000 units daily) on calcium absorption and bone turnover in 46 elderly women (median age 69 years, range 64-79 years) with radiological evidence of vertebral fractures. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased significantly after 3 and 6 months of treatment with vitamin D2 (p < 0.001), but was unchanged in the group

1996 Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22472. Hematologic effect of vitamin A supplementation in anemic Pakistani children. (Abstract)

Hematologic effect of vitamin A supplementation in anemic Pakistani children. To assess the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in anemic Pakistani children and investigate the hematologic response to vitamin A supplementation, 4-8 year old primary school children from the slum areas of Karachi were surveyed for anemia. Of 101 anemic children selected, 16% had low level of vitamin A ( < 20 micrograms/dl) and an additional 2% had deficient level ( < 10 micrograms/dl). Serum Retinol level showed (...) , Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration, Serum iron, ferritin or transferrin. A single vitamin A supplement improved the hematocrit in 6 weeks. Long-term studies are needed to find if the WHO recommended periodic massive doses of vitamin A besides improving the morbidity and mortality will also improve the overall picture of anemia in children.

1996 JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22473. The impact of vitamin A supplementation on physical growth of children is dependent on season. (Abstract)

The impact of vitamin A supplementation on physical growth of children is dependent on season. To determine the impact of vitamin A supplementation on physical growth in young children.Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial.Urban slum community clinic.900 children, aged 12-59 months, attending the community clinic with diarrhea of < or = 7 d were included in the trial.Each child was given a single dose capsule containing 200,000 IU vitamin A or placebo at enrollment.Mean increments (...) in weight and height during the 90 d period post supplementation.In all children, the mean increments in weight following supplementation were 0.66 kg (s.d. 0.5) and 0.64 kg (s.d. 0.6) in the vitamin A and placebo groups (P = 0.5). The mean increments in height were also similar in the two treatment groups (P = 0.5). Serum vitamin A was measured in 40 randomly selected children in each group; the proportion of subclinical deficiency (serum retinol < 20 micrograms/dl) was 62.5% in those enrolled during

1997 European journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22474. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. (Abstract)

High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. To determine the effectiveness of vitamin E treatment in normalizing retinal blood flow and renal function in patients with <10 years of type 1 diabetes.An 8-month randomized double-masked placebo-controlled crossover trial evaluated 36 type 1 diabetic and 9 nondiabetic subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to either 1,800 IU vitamin E/day or placebo for 4 months (...) and improving renal function in type 1 diabetic patients of short disease duration without inducing a significant change in glycemic control. This suggests that vitamin E supplementation may provide an additional benefit in reducing the risks for developing diabetic retinopathy or nephropathy.

1999 Diabetes Care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22475. The effect of beta-carotene supplementation on serum vitamin D metabolite concentrations. (Abstract)

The effect of beta-carotene supplementation on serum vitamin D metabolite concentrations. In the alpha-Tocopherol, beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) study, a large randomized placebo-controlled trial designed to test the cancer prevention effects of alpha-tocopherol (50 mg/day) and beta-carotene (20 mg/day), participants receiving supplemental beta-carotene had significantly higher rates of lung cancer than those not receiving beta-carotene. It has been hypothesized that the supplemental (...) beta-carotene may have interfered with the synthesis of vitamin D and that the resulting lower concentrations of vitamin D contributed to the elevated cancer incidence. We evaluated whether supplementation with beta-carotene altered the serum concentrations of either 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the ATBC Study, by comparing on-study changes between baseline and follow-up serum samples among 20 randomly selected matched pairs of subjects from the beta-carotene and placebo groups

1999 Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22476. Vitamin E supplementation and oxidative damage to DNA and plasma LDL in type 1 diabetes. (Abstract)

Vitamin E supplementation and oxidative damage to DNA and plasma LDL in type 1 diabetes. To determine the effect of 400 IU/day of the antioxidant vitamin E on the susceptibility of plasma LDL and lymphocyte DNA to oxidative damage in type 1 diabetes.We studied 42 patients with type 1 diabetes and 31 age- and sex-matched control subjects in a randomized prospective double-blind placebo-controlled trial by using 400 IU/day of oral vitamin E for 8 weeks. Measurements were made of single-strand (...) breaks in lymphocyte DNA at baseline and after hydrogen peroxide-induced stress (comet assay) and of copper-induced LDL oxidization and plasma antioxidant profiles.Plasma LDL and lymphocyte DNA were more resistant to induced oxidative change in the type 1 diabetes group than in control subjects. Vitamin E supplementation reduced LDL oxidizability in the control subjects but not in the type 1 diabetes group and had no effect on oxidative DNA damage in either group. The type 1 diabetes group had

1999 Diabetes Care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22477. Vitamin D supplementation during infancy is associated with higher bone mineral mass in prepubertal girls. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vitamin D supplementation during infancy is associated with higher bone mineral mass in prepubertal girls. The objective of this study was to determine whether vitamin D supplementation of breast-fed infants during the first year of life is associated with greater bone mineral content and/or areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in later childhood. The design was a retrospective cohort study. One hundred and six healthy prepubertal Caucasian girls (median age, 8 yr; range, 7-9 yr) were classified (...) as vitamin D supplemented or unsupplemented during the first year of life on the basis of a questionnaire sent to participating families and their pediatricians. Bone area (square centimeters) and bone mineral content (grams) were determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at six skeletal sites. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) 3'-gene polymorphisms (BsmI) were also determined. The supplemented (n = 91) and unsupplemented (n = 15) groups were similar in terms of season of birth, growth in the first year

1999 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22478. Respiratory infections reduce the growth response to vitamin A supplementation in a randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

Respiratory infections reduce the growth response to vitamin A supplementation in a randomized controlled trial. Studies on the effect of vitamin A supplementation on growth have yielded various results. It is possible that such growth is dependent on the burden of infectious diseases in the population.We analysed data from a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controled trial to examine the role of respiratory infections and diarrhoea in modifying the growth response to vitamin (...) A supplementation. A single high dose of vitamin A or placebo was given every 4 months to 1405 children aged 6-48 months, and 4430 child treatment cycles were used in this analysis.Vitamin A supplementation modestly improved linear but not ponderal growth of children who experienced little respiratory infection and especially of those who had vitamin A intake below the normative requirement (<400 RE/day). Children who received vitamin A and were free of respiratory infection grew 0.22 cm/4 months (95% CI: 0.08

1999 International journal of epidemiology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22479. The beneficial effects of weekly low-dose vitamin A supplementation on acute lower respiratory infections and diarrhea in Ecuadorian children. (Abstract)

The beneficial effects of weekly low-dose vitamin A supplementation on acute lower respiratory infections and diarrhea in Ecuadorian children. Previous studies of large-dose vitamin A supplementation on respiratory morbidity have produced conflicting results in a variety of populations. The influence of malnutrition has not been examined in the majority of these trials. We hypothesized that weekly low-dose vitamin A supplementation would prevent respiratory and diarrheal disease morbidity (...) -treated children 18 to 23 months of age than in children on placebo in this age group (point estimate: 0.26 [95% CI: 0.06-1.00]).Weekly low-dose (10 000 IU) vitamin A supplementation in a region of subclinical deficiency protected underweight children from ALRI and paradoxically increased ALRI in normal children with body weight over -1 SD. Protection from severe diarrhea was consistent with previous trials. Additional research is warranted to delineate potential beneficial and detrimental

1999 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22480. Retinyl palmitate supplementation by inhalation of an aerosol improves vitamin A status of preschool children in Gondar (Ethiopia). (Abstract)

Retinyl palmitate supplementation by inhalation of an aerosol improves vitamin A status of preschool children in Gondar (Ethiopia). We report successful vitamin A supplementation by inhalation of retinyl palmitate in a placebo-controlled pilot study in twenty-five preschool children (2-5 years of age) in the rural district of Gondar, Ethiopia. Preschool children (n 161) were randomly selected from 220 households. Out of this cohort, twenty-five children were randomly assigned to each of two (...) ) 3 months after supplementation with retinyl palmitate, suggesting that this novel method of delivery of retinyl palmitate by inhalation is effective in improving vitamin A status.

1999 The British journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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