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Vitamin B12 Supplementation

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22441. Carboxylation of osteocalcin in post-menopausal osteoporotic women following vitamin K and D supplementation. (Abstract)

Carboxylation of osteocalcin in post-menopausal osteoporotic women following vitamin K and D supplementation. The effect of vitamin supplements on bone metabolism indices in patients with osteoporosis has received scant attention in the literature. Over a 2-week period, vitamin supplements of K and K+D were given to 20 post-menopausal osteoporotic women with previous Colles fractures. Osteoporosis was confirmed by bone mass measurements that demonstrated that broadband ultrasound attenuation (...) (os calcis) was almost as discriminatory as dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (spine and hip) in Colles fracture patients compared with matched controls. Vitamin K corrected the carboxylation defect in osteocalcin and while less marked 4 weeks later, the improvement was still detectable. The result after K+D was similar. The level of carboxylation became the same as in premenopausal women. Total osteocalcin level (bound) osteocalcin. While there was vitamin K correctable undercarboxylation

1995 Bone Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22442. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein, and triglyceride concentrations. (Abstract)

Effect of vitamin C supplementation on lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein, and triglyceride concentrations. Plasma ascorbic acid (AA) frequently is positively correlated with high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and inversely related to total cholesterol concentration. To determine if vitamin C intake can alter cholesterol concentration, we examined the effect of vitamin C supplementation (1 g/d) on lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in 138 subjects, aged 20 to 65 years (...) < 0.10) increase of 1.9 mumol/L (5.3 mg/dL) in apo A-I concentration with supplementation and a significant (P < 0.05) difference of 0.10 mmol/L (3.8 mg/dL) in HDL cholesterol concentration between vitamin C and placebo treatment in a nonrandomized subgroup of individuals (n = 43) and a baseline plasma AA level less than 55 mumol/L. Although the apo A-I concentration increase was only marginally significant with supplementation, change in plasma AA concentration was significantly (P < 0.05

1995 Annals of epidemiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22443. Vitamin A and respiratory syncytial virus infection. Serum levels and supplementation trial. (Abstract)

Vitamin A and respiratory syncytial virus infection. Serum levels and supplementation trial. To determine the benefit of oral vitamin A supplementation for acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection.An observational study of vitamin A and retinol binding protein (RBP) levels in RSV-infected inpatients and two control groups; and a randomized, controlled trial of vitamin A supplementation for RSV-infected inpatients.Two tertiary care, urban teaching hospitals.Thirty-two RSV-infected (...) ) and the placebo group (n = 11) in improvement in severity score, mean days of hospitalization, intensive care, or receipt of supplemental oxygen.Serum vitamin A and RBP levels were low in children hospitalized with RSV infection and were lower in children admitted to the intensive care unit. Hospitalized control patients in intensive care also had lower levels than those treated on the ward. We observed no benefit from oral vitamin A supplementation for children hospitalized with RSV infection.

1996 Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22444. Vitamin A supplementation and morbidity among preschool children in south India. (Abstract)

Vitamin A supplementation and morbidity among preschool children in south India. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in an ongoing Growth Monitoring Research project in TamilNadu, India, to assess the impact of high-dose vitamin A supplementation on morbidity among mildly to moderately malnourished children aged < 3 y. Every 4 mo, the treatment group received 60 mg vitamin A (200,000 IU) whereas the control group received a placebo. Cases of xerophthalmia (...) for respiratory illness and 1.9 +/- 2.2 and 1.77 +/- 1.77 for diarrhea for the vitamin A (n = 309) and placebo (n = 274) groups, respectively. The differences in respiratory and diarrheal morbidity between the two groups were not statistically significant and these findings remained unaltered after multivariate analysis in which the effects of age, sex, socioeconomic status, sanitation, etc, were considered. These findings are similar to other recent findings and indicate that vitamin A supplementation does

1995 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22445. Effect of winter oral vitamin D3 supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in elderly adults. (Abstract)

Effect of winter oral vitamin D3 supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in elderly adults. A possible role for vitamin D deficiency in contributing to the winter increase in cardiovascular disease mortality was investigated by testing the effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors during winter.Randomised double-blind trial of vitamin D supplementation in winter.Men and women, mean age 70 years (range 63-76) recruited from general (...) (+/- 7) beats per min, P = 0.030].The failure of vitamin D supplementation to change blood pressure or serum cholesterol suggests that the winter increase in these factors is not caused by decreased vitamin D levels.

1995 European journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22446. Nutritional status of elderly female nursing home residents; the effect of supplementation with a physiological dose of water-soluble vitamins. (Abstract)

Nutritional status of elderly female nursing home residents; the effect of supplementation with a physiological dose of water-soluble vitamins. To assess the nutritional status of female elderly nursing home residents and to study the effect of dietary supplementation with a physiological dose of water-soluble vitamins.Single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled intervention trial. Daily consumed supplement consisted of fortified fruit juice containing 50 g carbohydrate and 50% of the daily (...) , at least 3 months resident at baseline. In each nursing home, 14 subjects were randomly assigned to the supplement or control group.Twelve weeks of supplementation.Participants had a poor nutritional status. Dietary supplementation significantly improved the concentrations of thiamin pyrophosphate and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, increased body weight and decreased serum homocysteine concentration in the supplement group. Plasma vitamin C levels were significantly increased in both supplement and control

1995 European journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22447. Plasma retinol level, vitamin A supplementation and acute respiratory infections in children of 1-5 years old in a developing country. Respiratory Diseases Working Group. (Abstract)

Plasma retinol level, vitamin A supplementation and acute respiratory infections in children of 1-5 years old in a developing country. Respiratory Diseases Working Group. To evaluate the relationship between vitamin A supplementation, plasma retinol level (PRL) and incidence, severity and duration of acute respiratory infect ions (ARI) in children 1-5 years old.A one year prospective randomized intervention study from June 1989 to May 1990 in Cikutra, a suburb of Bandung, Indonesia.Out (...) was 20 +/- 8 micrograms/dl; 8% of the children showed a deficient level of less than 10 micrograms/dl. The incidence or ARI was 6.7 +/- 3.5 episodes per child per year with a mean duration of 5.3 +/- 3.1 days per episode. In vitamin A supplemented children the duration of ARI was slightly shorter (5.2 +/- 3.1 versus 5.6 +/- 3.1 days, P < 0.01) but no effect on the incidence or severity of ARI was detected. Low, and especially deficient, PRL had improved after 3 months and even after 6 months

1995 Tubercle and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22448. Child morbidity and mortality following vitamin A supplementation in Ghana: time since dosing, number of doses, and time of year. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Child morbidity and mortality following vitamin A supplementation in Ghana: time since dosing, number of doses, and time of year. The impact of large-dose vitamin A supplementation given at intervals of 4 months on child mortality and morbidity was examined according to the time interval since dosing, number of doses received previously, and time of year.Two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of large doses of vitamin A administered at intervals of 4 months were conducted (...) in adjacent populations in northern Ghana.While vitamin A supplementation significantly reduced the overall incidence of severe illnesses (especially diarrhea with dehydration), clinic attendances, hospital admissions, and mortality, there was no evidence that the impact of each dose of vitamin A was related to the number of doses the child had received previously. There was no evidence that the effectiveness of the supplement waned over the 3 to 5 months between doses. The impact on mortality did

1995 American Journal of Public Health Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22449. Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation in alcoholic cirrhotics. (Abstract)

Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation in alcoholic cirrhotics. Alcohol ingestion promotes lipoperoxidation and alters cellular antioxidant mechanisms. Alpha-tocopherol levels decrease in alcoholics as severity of liver damage increases. The aim of this protocol was to study the effects of a long-term oral 500 mg vitamin E daily supplementation in decompensated ambulatory alcoholic cirrhotics.67 subjects were included in this double blind trial; 33 patients received vitamin E and 34 (...) vitamin E levels were corrected by cholesterol. Oral supplementation significantly increased serum vitamin E levels in the experimental group. Alcohol ingestion and hospitalization rates were similar in both groups. Life table analysis did not show significant differences in mortality between the two groups.Vitamin E supplementation with adequate doses of an alpha-tocopheryl acetate formulation during 1 year did not influence hepatic laboratory parameters, mortality or hospitalization rates

1995 Journal of the American College of Nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22450. Metabolic benefits deriving from chronic vitamin C supplementation in aged non-insulin dependent diabetics. (Abstract)

Metabolic benefits deriving from chronic vitamin C supplementation in aged non-insulin dependent diabetics. Our study investigated the metabolic benefits deriving from chronic pharmacological vitamin C administration in aged non-insulin dependent (Type II) diabetic patients.Forty type II diabetic patients (age: 72 +/- 0.5 years) underwent placebo and vitamin C (0.5 g twice daily) administration in double-blind, randomized, cross-over fashion. All patients were treated by oral hypoglycaemic (...) agents which continued throughout the study. After baseline observations, treatment periods lasted 4 months and were separated by a 30-day wash-out period.Patients' antropometric data were unchanged throughout the study. Chronic vitamin C administration vs placebo was associated with a significant decline in fasting plasma free radicals (0.26 +/- 0.06 vs 0.49 +/- 0.07 p < 0.03) and insulin (90 +/- 4 vs 73 +/- 6 pmol/L p < 0.04), total- (7.3 +/- 0.5 vs 5.8 +/- 0.4 mmol/L p < 0.03), LDL-cholesterol

1995 Journal of the American College of Nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22451. Supplementation with vitamins C and E suppresses leukocyte oxygen free radical production in patients with myocardial infarction. (Abstract)

Supplementation with vitamins C and E suppresses leukocyte oxygen free radical production in patients with myocardial infarction. Clinical studies suggest that neutrophil activation during acute myocardial infarction (MI) aggravates tissue injury. Activated neutrophils are an important source of oxygen free radicals (OFR), the injurious effects of which are counteracted by endogenous antioxidants. We have previously shown in healthy subjects that supplementation with antioxidant vitamins C (...) and E suppresses OFR production by isolated neutrophils assayed by chemiluminescence (CL). The present study, performed in patients with acute MI aimed (1) to investigate the effect of vitamin C and E supplementation upon neutrophil OFR production and serum lipid peroxides, (2) to evaluate serum levels of vitamins C and E in the course of MI. Forty-five patients with acute MI were randomized to receive either conventional treatment only (control, n=22). All measurements were performed on the 1st

1995 European heart journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22452. Impact of vitamin A supplementation on prevalence and incidence of xerophthalmia in Nepal. (Abstract)

Impact of vitamin A supplementation on prevalence and incidence of xerophthalmia in Nepal. To assess the impact of vitamin A supplementation at 4-month intervals on the prevalence and incidence of xerophthalmia among preschool-age children.A stratified, random sample of 40 wards with 4766 children in Sarlahi district of Nepal was selected to participate in a randomized, controlled, community trial. In the vitamin A group, at 4-month intervals, neonates received 50,000 IU, 1- to 11-month-old (...) in the 16 months after intervention. There were 1871 (84%) surviving children in the vitamin A group and 1711 (85%) in the placebo group examined at follow-up. After adjustment for the baseline prevalence of xerophthalmia, vitamin A reduced the prevalence at follow-up by 63% (95% confidence interval, 21% to 83%). The apparent incidence was 3.2/1000 per year in the vitamin A group and 9.2/1000 per year in the placebo group, an adjusted reduction of 62% (95% confidence interval, 0% to 86%).Supplementation

1995 Investigative ophthalmology & visual science Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22453. Effect of feeding a mineral-vitamin supplement before calving on the calving performance of a trace element deficient dairy herd. (Abstract)

Effect of feeding a mineral-vitamin supplement before calving on the calving performance of a trace element deficient dairy herd. A split-herd, randomised mineral-vitamin supplementation experiment was carried out in a large, trace element deficient dairy herd over two years. Ten weeks before the herd's mean calving date, 147 Holstein-Friesian cows were fed grass silage on to which 50 g per head of a mineral-vitamin supplement (3000 mg copper, 500 mg iodine, 45 mg selenium and 80 mg cobalt per (...) kg of supplement as specified) was sprinkled twice daily and 147 cows were fed the silage alone until calving. The supplement had no effect on the incidence of abortion (1.4 per cent), dystocia (2.3 per cent), fetal maldisposition (7.3 per cent), perinatal mortality (6.0 per cent) or retained fetal membranes (4.0 per cent), but it significantly increased the concentrations of trace elements in the blood and tissues of dead perinatal calves from 10 supplemented dams compared with those from eight

1995 The Veterinary record Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22454. Effect of vitamin and trace element supplementation on immune indices in healthy elderly. (Abstract)

Effect of vitamin and trace element supplementation on immune indices in healthy elderly. Aging is associated with a progressive decline in the immune system and a greater susceptibility to infection. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study, examined the effect of a vitamin and trace element supplement on immune responses of healthy, noninstitutionalized elderly subjects. Forty-seven subjects aged 61-79 years were randomly assigned to receive placebo or micronutrient supplementation for one (...) year. Thirty-five individuals completed the one-year study. Immune function was assessed before and after the period of supplementation. Cell-mediated immune function assessed by the number of T cells and subsets remained constant in the supplemented group and there was a significant increase in CD57 natural killer cells. In contrast, a significant decrease in T cells, CD4 cells, and CD4: CD8 ratio was noted in the placebo group. Supplementation with micronutrients can play a crucial role

1995 International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernährungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22455. Vitamin A supplementation does not improve growth of preschool children: a randomized, double-blind field trial in south India. (Abstract)

Vitamin A supplementation does not improve growth of preschool children: a randomized, double-blind field trial in south India. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in an ongoing growth monitoring research project in TamilNadu, India, to assess the role of high dose vitamin A supplementation on the growth of mild to moderately malnourished children < 3 y old. The treatment group received 60 mg of vitamin A and the control group received a placebo every 4 mo (...) , respectively, and the mean weight increments were 2.02 +/- 0.83 and 1.99 +/- 0.81 kg/y, respectively. The differences in growth increments between the two groups were not statistically significant. These findings remain unaltered following multivariate analysis and suggest the lack of an effect of vitamin A supplementation on growth in young children where access to health care and immunization are good.

1995 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22456. The effects of vitamin A supplementation on the morbidity of children born to HIV-infected women. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The effects of vitamin A supplementation on the morbidity of children born to HIV-infected women. The effects of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity of children born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women were evaluated in a population where vitamin A deficiency is not endemic.A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A supplementation was carried out in 118 offspring of HIV-infected women in Durban, South Africa. Those assigned to receive a supplement were given 50,000 (...) IU of vitamin A at 1 and 3 months of age; 100,000 IU at 6 and 9 months; and 200,000 IU at 12 and 15 months. Morbidity in the past month was then recalled at each follow-up visit. Analysis was based on 806 child-months.Among all children, the supplemented group had lower overall morbidity than the placebo group (OR = 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.48, 0.99). Among the 85 children of known HIV status (28 infected, 57 uninfected), morbidity associated with diarrhea was significantly reduced

1995 American Journal of Public Health Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22457. Effect of disodium monofluorophosphate, calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density in patients chronically treated with glucocorticosteroids: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. (Abstract)

Effect of disodium monofluorophosphate, calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density in patients chronically treated with glucocorticosteroids: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. To study the effect of fluoride on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients treated chronically with glucocorticosteroids, 15 subjects (renal grafted, n = 12; skin disease, n = 1; broncho pulmonary disorder, n = 1; Crohn's disease, n = 1) were prospectively studied in a double-blinded manner (...) and randomly allocated either to group 1 (n = 8) receiving 13.2 mg/day fluoride given as disodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) supplemented with calcium (1,000 mg/day) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcifediol) (50 micrograms/day), or to group 2 (n = 7) receiving Cas+ calcifediol alone. An additional group of 14 renal transplant patients treated chronically with glucocorticosteroids but exempt of specific therapeutic intervention for bone disease was set up as historical controls. BMD was measured by dual-energy X

1996 Mineral and electrolyte metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22458. Effect of vitamin A supplementation to mother and infant on morbidity in infancy. (Abstract)

Effect of vitamin A supplementation to mother and infant on morbidity in infancy. To assess the impact of Vitamin A supplementation to the mother soon after delivery and to the infant at six months on morbidity in infancy.Randomized double blind placebo controlled field trial.51 villages in two contiguous Primary Health Centers in Villupuram Health Unit District of Tamil Nadu, South India.909 newly delivered mother-and-infant pairs.Both mother and infant received Vitamin A (300,000 IU (...) for mothers and 200,000 IU for children) in 311 instances (AA); mother received Vitamin A but infant received Placebo in 301 instances (AP); and both mother and infant received Placebo in the remaining 297 instances (PP).Incidence of diarrhea and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI); distributions of infants by frequency of episodes and number of infected days.233 in the AA Group and 228 each in the AP and PP Groups were followed up regularly. The incidence of diarrhea in these infants was 97.4%, 96.9

1996 Indian pediatrics Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22459. Calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation prevents bone loss in the spine secondary to low-dose corticosteroids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (Abstract)

Calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation prevents bone loss in the spine secondary to low-dose corticosteroids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Therapy with low-dose corticosteroids is commonly used to treat allergic and autoimmune diseases. Long-term use of corticosteroids can lead to loss of bone mineral density and higher risk for vertebral fractures. Calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation is rational therapy for minimizing bone loss (...) , but little evidence for its effectiveness exists.To assess 1) the effects of supplemental calcium and vitamin D3 on bone mineral density of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 2) the relation between the effects of this supplementation and corticosteroid use.2-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.University outpatient-care facility.96 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 65 of whom were receiving treatment with corticosteroids (mean dosage, 5.6 mg/d).Calcium carbonate (1000 mg/d

1996 Annals of internal medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22460. Effect of early vitamin A supplementation on cell-mediated immunity in infants younger than 6 mo. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of early vitamin A supplementation on cell-mediated immunity in infants younger than 6 mo. One hundred twenty infants were randomly assigned to receive either 15 mg vitamin A or placebo with each of three DPT/OPV (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus/oral polio vaccine) immunizations at monthly intervals. Sixty-two received vitamin A and 58 received placebo. One month after the third supplementation dose, the response to the delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity test [multitest cell-mediated (...) immunity (CMI) skin evaluation] for tetanus, diphtheria, and tuberculin (purified protein derivative, PPD) was the same in the vitamin A and placebo infants. The number of anergic infants was 17 (27%) and 19 (33%) in the vitamin A and placebo groups, respectively. The number of positive tests among well-nourished infants was significantly higher than that in malnourished infants irrespective of supplementation (P < 0.001). Among the infants with adequate serum retinol concentrations (> 0.7 mumol/L

1997 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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