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Vitamin B12 Supplementation

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22421. A primary prevention trial using nutritional doses of antioxidant vitamins and minerals in cardiovascular diseases and cancers in a general population: the SU.VI.MAX study--design, methods, and participant characteristics. SUpplementation en VItamines et (Abstract)

A primary prevention trial using nutritional doses of antioxidant vitamins and minerals in cardiovascular diseases and cancers in a general population: the SU.VI.MAX study--design, methods, and participant characteristics. SUpplementation en VItamines et The SUpplementation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, primary-prevention trial designed to test the efficacy of daily supplementation with antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C (...) , 120 mg; vitamin E, 30 mg; and beta-carotene, 6 mg) and minerals (selenium, 100 microg; and zinc, 20 mg) at nutrition-level doses (one to three times the daily recommended dietary allowances) in reducing several major health problems in industrialized countries, especially the main causes of premature death, cancers and cardiovascular diseases. The present report describes the design, implementation, and baseline characteristics of participants in this 8-year cohort study, which started in 1994

1998 Controlled clinical trials Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22422. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on the bone mineral density of the femoral neck is associated with vitamin D receptor genotype. (Abstract)

The effect of vitamin D supplementation on the bone mineral density of the femoral neck is associated with vitamin D receptor genotype. Recent studies suggest that variations of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene are related to bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, we examined the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on BMD at the femoral neck in relation to VDR genotype. We analyzed 81 women, age 70 years and over, who participated in a placebo-controlled clinical trial on the effect (...) of vitamin D3 supplementation (400 IU daily for at least 2 years) on BMD and fracture incidence. VDR genotype was based on the presence (b) or absence (B) of the BsmI restriction site. Mean BMD of the right and left femoral neck was measured at baseline and after 1 and 2 years. Dietary calcium, body mass index, and years since menopause were assessed at baseline while biochemical markers were measured at baseline and after 1 year. There was no difference among the BB, Bb, and bb genotype for baseline

1997 Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22423. A low molar ratio of retinol binding protein to transthyretin indicates vitamin A deficiency during inflammation: studies in rats and a posterior analysis of vitamin A-supplemented children with measles. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A low molar ratio of retinol binding protein to transthyretin indicates vitamin A deficiency during inflammation: studies in rats and a posterior analysis of vitamin A-supplemented children with measles. To assess whether the molar ratio of retinol-binding protein (RBP) to transthyretin (TTR) is of utility in detecting vitamin A (VA) deficiency during inflammation, we analyzed data from a rat model of endotoxin-induced inflammation and from a previously reported randomized, placebo-controlled (...) trial of VA supplementation in children with acute measles. In rats, both marginal VA deficiency and inflammation were independent causes of low plasma RBP (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.001), whereas plasma TTR concentration was reduced only by inflammation (P < 0.001). The molar ratio of plasma RBP to TTR was reduced (by approximately 50%) only in rats with marginal VA deficiency and inflammation (two-way ANOVA interaction, P < 0.01). Serum retinol concentration, C-reactive protein (CRP, an indicator

1998 The Journal of nutrition

22424. Influence of calcium or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 supplementation on the hepatic microsomal and in vivo metabolism of vitamin D3 in vitamin D-depleted rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Influence of calcium or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 supplementation on the hepatic microsomal and in vivo metabolism of vitamin D3 in vitamin D-depleted rats. Hypocalcemic vitamin D (D)-depleted rats were supplemented with calcium or 1,25(OH)2D3, and the metabolism of D3 to 25(OH)D3 was studied. Infusion with 7 or 65 pmol 1,25(OH)2D3 X 24 h-1 led to normal or slight hypercalcemia associated with physiological and supraphysiological plasma concentrations of the hormone while calcium supplementation (...) the in vitro 25(OH)D3 production remained unaffected by 1,25(OH)2D3. Investigation of the kinetics of intravenous 25(OH)[3H]D3 revealed similar elimination constants in all groups. The data indicate that calcium supplementation of hypocalcemic D-depleted rats results in an increased transformation of D3 into 25(OH)D3 while supplementation with 1,25(OH)2D3 does not affect the in vitro D3-25 hydroxylase but seems to influence the in vivo handling of the vitamin by accelerating its metabolism.

1986 Journal of Clinical Investigation

22425. The role of interleukin-6 in vitamin A deficiency during Plasmodium falciparum malaria and possible consequences for vitamin A supplementation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The role of interleukin-6 in vitamin A deficiency during Plasmodium falciparum malaria and possible consequences for vitamin A supplementation. Kinetics of serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were studied in patients with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in relation to vitamin A and its binding proteins, retinol binding protein (RBP) and pre-albumin. It was found that IL-6 levels followed the rise and decrease of parasitaemia by 12 hr and correlated inversely with levels of vitamin (...) A and its binding proteins. These data suggest that vitamin A supplementation alone might still be insufficient to restore a malaria-induced vitamin A deficiency.

1992 Immunology

22426. Ocular signs and symptoms and vitamin A status in patients with cystic fibrosis treated with daily vitamin A supplements Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ocular signs and symptoms and vitamin A status in patients with cystic fibrosis treated with daily vitamin A supplements Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) may have low plasma vitamin A levels from malabsorption, zinc deficiency, liver disease, or poor compliance with prescribed supplements. In view of the increasing number of adults with CF, many of whom drive cars, it is important to assess vitamin A status. In our centre an attempt has been made to achieve normal levels of fat soluble (...) vitamins by annual estimation of plasma levels and appropriate oral supplementation. This study aimed to determine if this approach prevents vitamin A deficiency and the consequent problems with dark adaptation.The study was conducted at the regional adult and paediatric cystic fibrosis unit and the patients were recruited from there. Dark adaptation studies were conducted at the department of ophthalmology, St James's University Hospital. All patients are regularly seen in the outpatient department

1999 The British journal of ophthalmology

22427. High dose vitamin A supplementation of breast-feeding Indonesian mothers: effects on the vitamin A status of mother and infant. (Abstract)

High dose vitamin A supplementation of breast-feeding Indonesian mothers: effects on the vitamin A status of mother and infant. For regions where vitamin A deficiency is common, high dose vitamin A supplementation of lactating mothers is currently recommended, but the effects of this intervention have not been carefully evaluated. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial in which 153 Indonesian mothers 1-3 wk postpartum received either a capsule containing 312 mumol of vitamin A as retinyl (...) (< 0.52 mumol/L) were 36 and 15% in the placebo and vitamin A groups, respectively (P < 0.005), and the prevalences of low vitamin A stores (assessed by relative dose response) were 23 and 10%, respectively (P < 0.03). High dose vitamin A supplementation of lactating mothers is an efficacious way to improve the vitamin A status of both mother and breast-fed infant.

1993 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22428. A randomized trial of vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation for retinitis pigmentosa. (Abstract)

A randomized trial of vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation for retinitis pigmentosa. To determine whether supplements of vitamin A or vitamin E alone or in combination affect the course of retinitis pigmentosa.Randomized, controlled, double-masked trial with 2 x 2 factorial design and duration of 4 to 6 years. Electroretinograms, visual field area, and visual acuity were measured annually.Clinical research facility.601 patients aged 18 through 49 years with retinitis pigmentosa meeting (...) preset eligibility criteria. Ninety-five percent of the patients completed the study. There were no adverse reactions.Patients were assigned to one of four treatment groups receiving 15,000 IU/d of vitamin A, 15,000 IU/d of vitamin A plus 400 IU/d of vitamin E, trace amounts of both vitamins, or 400 IU/d of vitamin E.Cone electroretinogram amplitude.The two groups receiving 15,000 IU/d of vitamin A had on average a slower rate of decline of retinal function than the two groups not receiving

1993 Archives of ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22429. Randomized trial testing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on pregnancy outcomes and early mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Durban, South Africa. South African Vitamin A Study Group. (Abstract)

Randomized trial testing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on pregnancy outcomes and early mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Durban, South Africa. South African Vitamin A Study Group. Poor vitamin A status has been associated with a higher risk for mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 and there is contradictory evidence on the impact of vitamin A on perinatal outcome. We therefore assessed the effect of vitamin A supplementation to mothers on birth outcome and mother-to-child (...) transmission rates up to 3 months of age.There was no difference in the risk of HIV infection by 3 months of age between the vitamin A [20.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 15.7-24.9] and placebo groups (22.3%; 95% CI, 17.5-27.1), nor were there differences in foetal or infant mortality rates between the two groups. Women receiving vitamin A supplement were, however, less likely to have a preterm delivery (11.4% in the vitamin A and 17.4% in the placebo group; P = 0.03) and among the 80 preterm deliveries

1999 AIDS Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22430. "The SU.VI.MAX Study": a primary prevention trial using nutritional doses of antioxidant vitamins and minerals in cardiovascular diseases and cancers. SUpplementation on VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants. (Abstract)

"The SU.VI.MAX Study": a primary prevention trial using nutritional doses of antioxidant vitamins and minerals in cardiovascular diseases and cancers. SUpplementation on VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants. The "SUpplementation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants" (SU.VI.MAX) Study is a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, primary-prevention trial which started in 1994 in France. This epidemiologic study is designed to test the efficacy of a daily supplementation with antioxidant (...) . They also regularly provide information on health events and dietary intake by filling out computerized questionnaires using the Minitel Telematic Network. After 2 years of supplementation, biochemical indicators of vitamin and trace element status reach reasonable level without reaching concentrations as high as those observed in intervention studies, which tested relatively high doses of antioxidants, and ended up with higher risk of pathology.

1999 Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22431. Plasma vitamin D and 25OHD responses of young and old men to supplementation with vitamin D3. (Abstract)

Plasma vitamin D and 25OHD responses of young and old men to supplementation with vitamin D3. This study was conducted to determine whether there are age differences in the plasma parent vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) responses to eight weeks of supplementation with 20 microg/day of vitamin D3.Twenty-five healthy young men (age 18-35) and 25 healthy older men (62-79) were randomly assigned to supplementation with 20 microg/day of vitamin D3 or to no intervention and followed (...) for eight weeks. Plasma vitamin D3 was measured by high performance liquid chromatography and 25OHD was measured by competitive protein binding.Both young and old men in the supplemented group had pronounced, rapid and similar increases in plasma vitamin D3, whereas vitamin D3 concentrations were stable in the control group. By the end of the eight-week adaptation period, plasma vitamin D3 of young and old men had increased by 4.3 and 6.2 nmol/L respectively. In the supplemented group, mean 25OHD

2002 Journal of the American College of Nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22432. Vitamin A supplementation of women postpartum and of their infants at immunization alters breast milk retinol and infant vitamin A status. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vitamin A supplementation of women postpartum and of their infants at immunization alters breast milk retinol and infant vitamin A status. Vitamin A supplementation of lactating mothers and of infants at the time of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) immunizations have both been suggested as measures to prevent deficiency among infants. This multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Ghana, India and Peru to determine the effect (...) of maternal vitamin A supplementation on breast milk retinol and of maternal and infant supplementation on infant vitamin A status. Mothers in the intervention group received 60 mg vitamin A (as retinol palmitate) at 18-42 d postpartum; their infants were given 7.5 mg three times, i.e., at 6, 10 and 14 wk of age with DPT and OPV immunizations. Mothers and infants in the comparison group received a placebo. Maternal supplementation resulted in higher breast milk retinol at 2 mo postpartum [difference

2002 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22433. Effect of five-year supplementation of vitamin C on serum vitamin C concentration and consumption of vegetables and fruits in middle-aged Japanese: a randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

Effect of five-year supplementation of vitamin C on serum vitamin C concentration and consumption of vegetables and fruits in middle-aged Japanese: a randomized controlled trial. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of long-term vitamin C supplementation on serum and dietary vitamin C and identifying the factors associated with change in serum concentration.A total of 439 subjects with atrophic gastritis initially participated in a randomized clinical trial using vitamin C and beta (...) -carotene to prevent gastric cancer. We originally randomized the participants into four treatment groups using a 2x2 factorial design, whereby 0 or 15 mg/day beta-carotene and 50 or 500 mg/day vitamin C were administered in a double-blind manner. The beta-carotene component was terminated early after a mean treatment duration of four months. Before and upon early termination of beta-carotene supplementation, 134 subjects dropped out this trial, while 120 and 124 subjects took the vitamin C supplement

2003 Journal of the American College of Nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22434. Vitamin E supplementation does not increase the vitamin C radical concentration at rest and after exhaustive exercise in healthy male subjects. (Abstract)

Vitamin E supplementation does not increase the vitamin C radical concentration at rest and after exhaustive exercise in healthy male subjects. Extensive exercise may promote the formation of reactive oxygen species and subsequently contribute to tissue damage. A compound which can protect cells and tissues is vitamin E. The vitamin E radical, formed during the radical scavenging process, can be reduced by vitamin C resulting in a higher level of the vitamin C radical (semidehydroascorbate free (...) radical). An increase of the vitamin C radical, however, is assumed to exert prooxidative effects.To elucidate whether supplementation of vitamin E and exhaustive exercise lead to an increase of the vitamin C radical in human plasma.A placebo controlled, cross over study with 13 male volunteers was carried out. After an 8 day supplementation period with 500 I.U. D-alpha-tocopherol, the subjects performed two exhaustive treadmill runs. Blood samples were collected at rest, 0, 0.25, 1, 3, 24 and 48 h

2003 European journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22435. Effects on bone mineral density of calcium and vitamin D supplementation in elderly women with vitamin D deficiency. (Abstract)

Effects on bone mineral density of calcium and vitamin D supplementation in elderly women with vitamin D deficiency. Calcium and vitamin D deficiency is common in older individuals, particularly those who live in nursing homes, and increases the risk of osteoporosis and fractures.We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study of combined supplementation with 500 mg of elemental calcium, as carbonate, and 400 IU of vitamin D bid for 12 months in women older than 65 years of age (...) with vitamin D deficiency, defined as serum 25(OH)D concentrations vitamin D were 697 mg and 66.8 IU in the supplemented group (n = 95) and 671 mg and 61.8 IU in the placebo group (n = 97). The median serum 25(OH)D level was 7.0 ng/ml in both groups, and the medial intact parathyroid hormone (PTHi) levels were 49 and 48 pg/ml in the supplemented and placebo groups, respectively. The median increase in serum 25

2003 Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22436. Supplementation with vitamin C and/or vitamin B(6) in the prevention of Depo-Provera side effects in adolescents. (Abstract)

Supplementation with vitamin C and/or vitamin B(6) in the prevention of Depo-Provera side effects in adolescents. Depo-Provera-induced menstrual irregularity is believed to be secondary to relative estrogen deficiency. Weight gain associated with this contraceptive method is believed to be due to Depo-Provera's steroid-like appetite stimulation effect and to an altered tryptophan metabolism. We examined whether vitamin C, an important factor in uterine estrogen binding, and vitamin B(6 (...) ), a glucocorticoid antagonist and an important coenzyme in the tryptophan-serotonin pathway, might alleviate menstrual irregularities and weight gain associated with Depo-Provera.Fifty-five adolescent girls (age 16 +/- 1 yr, gyn age 4 +/- 1 yr, body mass index 25.2 +/- 0.9) who decided to initiate Depo-Provera (150 mg intramuscularly every 3 months) were randomly assigned to one of four groups (group 1: vitamin B(6) 50 mg plus placebo pill/day; group 2: vitamin C 500 mg plus placebo pill/day; group 3: vitamin B

2002 Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22437. Vitamin a supplementation of vitamin a deficient measles patients lowers the risk of measles-related pneumonia in zambian children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vitamin a supplementation of vitamin a deficient measles patients lowers the risk of measles-related pneumonia in zambian children. This is an a posteriori analysis of previously published data to assess whether improving vitamin A (VA) status resolves measles-related pneumonia (MP). Nonhospitalized acute measles patients (2 d of rash onset) had their VA status determined based on the molar ratio of retinol-binding protein to transthyretin (RBP/TTR). Using a cutoff value of supplements than in those receiving placebo; whereas in VA-sufficient

2002 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22438. Vitamin A and iron status are improved by vitamin A and iron supplementation in pregnant Indonesian women. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vitamin A and iron status are improved by vitamin A and iron supplementation in pregnant Indonesian women. In Indonesia, deficiencies of vitamin A and iron are of public health concern during pregnancy. We sought to determine the effects of vitamin A and iron supplementation on the vitamin A and iron status of pregnant Indonesian women. The women (n = 27) were randomly assigned to four groups. The modified relative dose response (MRDR) test for vitamin A status and hemoglobin, hematocrit (...) and ferritin values were determined at baseline. Thereafter, daily supplements were administered: placebo [Pl] (n = 7), 8.4 micromol vitamin A [A] (n = 7), 1.07 mmol iron [Fe] (n = 5), and 8.4 micromol vitamin A plus 1.07 mmol iron [A + Fe] (n = 8). Post-treatment tests were performed after 8 wk. The MRDR value was reduced, i.e., vitamin A status improved, more markedly by the combination of vitamin A and iron than by either nutrient alone (P = 0.034). The decrease in the MRDR relative to baseline

2002 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22439. Vitamin a status of pregnant women and effect of post partum vitamin a supplementation. (Abstract)

Vitamin a status of pregnant women and effect of post partum vitamin a supplementation. To assess the Vitamin A status of pregnant women in their third trimester using maternal serum retinol levels as the indicator; and (ii) To assess the impact of postpartum Vitamin A supplementation on the Vitamin A status of exclusively breastfed infants.Prospective randomized single blind controlled study.Teaching Hospital.109 apparently healthy primi and second gravida women registered at the antenatal (...) in the experimental group. There was no difference in the growth of infants in the two groups. However, the infant serum and the breast milk retinol levels were significantly higher in the supplemented group.There is a high prevalence of inapparent Vitamin A deficiency (29.7%) in pregnant women in their third trimester from lower socio-economic strata. Postpartum Vitamin A supplementation had a beneficial impact on the infant serum retional and the breast milk retinol level but no effect on infant growth.

2000 Indian pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22440. A randomised, double masked, clinical trial of high dose vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation after photorefractive keratectomy. (Abstract)

A randomised, double masked, clinical trial of high dose vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation after photorefractive keratectomy. To evaluate the effect of a high dose vitamin A and E supplementation on corneal re-epithelialisation time, visual acuity and haze following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK).Two groups of 20 patients who underwent myopic PRK were supplemented with either 25 000 IU retinol palmitate and 230 mg alpha tocopheryl nicotinate or a placebo. Clinical outcomes were (...) evaluated up to 360 days.In the vitamin treated group, re-epithelialisation time was significantly faster (p = 0.029) and haze incidence was reduced (p = 0.035), especially for high myopic corrections (p = 0.043). This group also reported a significantly better uncorrected visual acuity (p = 0.043).High dose vitamin A and E oral supplementation may accelerate re-epithelialisation time and may reduce corneal haze formation after PRK.

2001 British Journal of Ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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