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Vitamin B12 Supplementation

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22301. Randomised controlled trial of oral vitamin A supplementation in preterm infants to prevent chronic lung disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Randomised controlled trial of oral vitamin A supplementation in preterm infants to prevent chronic lung disease. Intramuscular supplementation with vitamin A in large doses may reduce the incidence of chronic lung disease.To investigate whether oral supplementation with vitamin A would reduce the incidence of chronic lung disease in a group of extremely low birthweight infants.Infants with birth weight < 1000 g were randomised at birth to receive oral vitamin A supplementation (5000 IU/day (...) ) or placebo for 28 days. The primary outcome was oxygen dependency at 28 days of age or death.A total of 154 infants were randomised; 77 received vitamin A (median birth weight (interquartile range) 806 (710-890) g), and 77 received placebo (median birth weight (interquartile range) 782 (662-880) g). Plasma vitamin A concentrations in the supplemented group were significantly higher at 24 hours of age but did not differ significantly at birth, 12 hours of age, 7 days, or 28 days of life. There were

2001 Archives of disease in childhood. Fetal and neonatal edition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22302. Acute mountain sickness; prophylactic benefits of antioxidant vitamin supplementation at high altitude. (Abstract)

Acute mountain sickness; prophylactic benefits of antioxidant vitamin supplementation at high altitude. Acute mountain sickness; prophylactic benefits of Free-radical-mediated damage to the blood-brain barrier may be implicated in the pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness (AMS). To indirectly examine this, we conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the potentially prophylactic benefits of enteral antioxidant vitamin supplementation during ascent to high (...) altitude. Eighteen subjects aged 35 +/- 10 years old were randomly assigned double-blind to either an antioxidant (n = 9) or placebo group (n = 9). The antioxidant group ingested 4 capsules/day(-1) (2 after breakfast/2 after evening meal) that each contained 250 mg of L-ascorbic acid, 100 IU of dl-a-tocopherol acetate and 150 mg of alpha-lipoic acid. The placebo group ingested 4 capsules of identical external appearance, taste, and smell. Supplementation was enforced for 3 weeks at sea level and during

2001 High altitude medicine & biology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22303. Effects of long-term supplementation with moderate pharmacologic doses of vitamin E are saturable and reversible in patients with type 1 diabetes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of long-term supplementation with moderate pharmacologic doses of vitamin E are saturable and reversible in patients with type 1 diabetes. Vitamin E supplementation has been proposed as adjunctive therapy to counteract the increased LDL oxidation in diabetes and thus prevent or delay cardiovascular complications.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a moderate pharmacologic dose of vitamin E for supplemented group (group S; n = 22) received 250 IU (168 mg) RRR-alpha-tocopherol 3 times/d for 1 y and the placebo group (group P; n = 22) received a placebo for 6 mo followed by 250 IU (168 mg) RRR-alpha-tocopherol 3 times/d for an additional 6 mo.Serum vitamin E doubled after 3 mo of supplementation, from a mean (+/-SD) of 36.9 +/- 10.9 to 66.4 +/- 18.3 micromol/L (P: < 0.0005). Although lipid profiles, glycated hemoglobin, and blood biochemistry

2000 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22304. A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on preventing postmenopausal bone loss and modifying bone metabolism using identical twin pairs. (Abstract)

A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on preventing postmenopausal bone loss and modifying bone metabolism using identical twin pairs. Vitamin D supplementation, when given with calcium, has been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce the incidence of hip fracture in elderly subjects. Despite its widespread use, the benefits of vitamin D supplementation in younger women and as a single agent are less clear. We performed a randomized co-twin, placebo (...) -controlled, double-blind trial over 2 years to measure the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on bone density and bone metabolism in young postmenopausal women. Seventy-nine monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs (mean age, 58.7 years; range, 47-70 years) were recruited. For each twin pair, one was randomized to 800 IU cholecalciferol/day for 2 years and the other was randomized to placebo. BMD was measured at the spine and hip and heel ultrasound at baseline, 12, 18, and 24 months. Samples were collected at 0, 3

2000 Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22305. Vitamin A and E supplementation in breast-fed newborns. (Abstract)

Vitamin A and E supplementation in breast-fed newborns. Vitamins A and E are two potent antioxidant nutrients that play a significant role in immune function. In contrast to the numerous studies of vitamin A and E status in children, adolescents, and adults, information on term infants, particularly breast-fed infants, is scarce. The goals of the present investigation were to examine the vitamins A and E nutritional status of term breast-fed infants at birth and to assess retinol and tocopherol (...) plasma levels during a 3-month supplementation trial.The study was a prospective, blinded comparison of a supplementation protocol with a placebo in a group of consecutively recruited term newborns. The supplemented group received 3000 IU vitamin A and 5 IU vitamin E orally. The placebo group received a solution of similar viscosity and organoleptic characteristics. Vitamin A and E were separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 Spectrasyl column and quantified

2000 Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22306. Plasmatic homocysteine response to vitamin supplementation in elderly people. (Abstract)

Plasmatic homocysteine response to vitamin supplementation in elderly people. Homocysteine (Hcy) increase is now widely accepted as a risk factor for vascular disease. The effects of folic acid (FA) and vitamins B12 and B6 in lowering Hcy have been extensively studied, but there is still little data on the response to FA dietary administration. Our purpose was to evaluate the impact of the diet and the degree of response to different doses of pharmacological FA supplementation. In a prospective (...) , with or without pharmacological FA and B12 and B6 supplementation, significantly decreases the Hcy levels in elderly people. Therefore, a diet with high contents of FA might have an enormous impact on the morbidity and mortality of atherothrombosis.

2000 Thrombosis research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22307. A randomised, single-blind, crossover comparison of the acceptability of the calcium and vitamin D3 supplements Calcichew D3 Forte and Ad Cal D3 in elderly patients. (Abstract)

A randomised, single-blind, crossover comparison of the acceptability of the calcium and vitamin D3 supplements Calcichew D3 Forte and Ad Cal D3 in elderly patients. Supplements of calcium and vitamin D are given to elderly patients in order to reduce the likelihood of osteoporotic fractures. The acceptability of the preparation is an important component of the compliance of such patients with their treatment.To compare the acceptability of Calcichew D3 Forte (CDF) and Ad Cal D3 (ACD (...) ).This was a randomised, crossover, comparative study of two formulations of calcium and vitamin D. Patients took CDF for seven days followed by ACD for seven days, or vice versa, according to the randomisation schedule. At the end of each treatment period, patients used visual analogue scales (VAS) to indicate the grittiness, chalkiness, taste, ease of chewing, ease of swallowing and stickiness of each preparation.One hundred and two elderly patients taking calcium supplements were recruited. Of these, 94 were

2001 Current medical research and opinion Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22308. Kenyan school children have multiple micronutrient deficiencies, but increased plasma vitamin B-12 is the only detectable micronutrient response to meat or milk supplementation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Kenyan school children have multiple micronutrient deficiencies, but increased plasma vitamin B-12 is the only detectable micronutrient response to meat or milk supplementation. Animal source foods (ASF) can provide micronutrients in greater amounts and more bioavailable forms compared to plant source foods, but their intake is low in many poor populations. However, the impact of ASF on micronutrient status of undernourished populations has not been assessed. Supplemental meat (60-85 g/d), milk (...) , there was a high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies (iron, zinc, vitamins A and B-12 and riboflavin), yet plasma ferritin was low in few children, and none had low serum copper. At the end of the year of supplementation, plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were significantly increased in children fed the Meat or Milk meal; prevalence of severe plus moderate deficiency fell from 80.7% at baseline to 64.1% in the Meat group and from 71.6 to 45.1% in the Milk group, respectively. No significant improvement

2003 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22309. Malaria parasitaemia in relation to HIV status and vitamin A supplementation among pre-school children. (Abstract)

Malaria parasitaemia in relation to HIV status and vitamin A supplementation among pre-school children. To ascertain whether malaria parasitaemia in children is associated with HIV status. To examine the effect of vitamin A supplementation on malaria parasitaemia in children.We studied the cross-sectional associations between HIV status and malaria parasitaemia among 546 children 6-60 months of age who participated in a double-blind, randomized clinical trial of vitamin A supplementation (...) . Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for the presence of malaria parasites at baseline by HIV status in uni- and multivariate models that adjusted for sociodemographic and environmental variables. Among children with malaria, correlates of high parasite loads were identified. Next, we examined the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the risk of malaria parasitaemia and high parasite density at 4-8 months of the first dose in a subset of children.The prevalence of malaria

2003 Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22310. A synergistic effect of a daily supplement for 1 month of 200 mg magnesium plus 50 mg vitamin B6 for the relief of anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. (Abstract)

A synergistic effect of a daily supplement for 1 month of 200 mg magnesium plus 50 mg vitamin B6 for the relief of anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. To investigate single and combined effects of daily dietary supplementation with 50 mg of vitamin B6 and 200 mg magnesium (as MgO) for one cycle for the relief of mild premenstrual symptoms, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design was used. Forty-four women with an average (...) synergistic effect of a daily dietary supplementation with a combination of Mg + vitamin B6 in the reduction of mild premenstrual anxiety-related symptoms was demonstrated during treatment of 44 women for one menstrual cycle. In view of the modest effect found, further studies are needed before making general recommendations for the treatment of premenstrual symptoms. The study indicated that absorption from MgO was poor and daily supplementation for longer than 1 month is necessary for tissue repletion.

2000 Journal of women's health & gender-based medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22311. Adequate immune response to tetanus toxoid and failure of vitamin A and E supplementation to enhance antibody response in healthy children. (Abstract)

Adequate immune response to tetanus toxoid and failure of vitamin A and E supplementation to enhance antibody response in healthy children. The effects of vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation on the IgG response to tetanus toxoid after primary immunization were evaluated in a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial involving 89 healthy infants with normal serum vitamin A and E levels at 2 months of age. Before the first dose of DPT vaccine, the infants were randomly enrolled (...) into four different study groups [Group I (n=24): 30,000 IU vitamin A for 3 days just after each three doses of primary vaccination, Group II (n=21): 150 mg oral vitamin E for only 1 day after the injections for primary immunization, Group III (n=21): vitamins A and E together in the same order, Group IV (n=23) no vitamin after DPT vaccines]. Serum tetanus antitoxin (IgG) titres were measured three times; initially at 2 months of age before the first dose of DPT, secondly at 5 months of age 1 month

2000 Vaccine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22312. Vitamin E supplementation improves endothelial function in type I diabetes mellitus: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. (Abstract)

Vitamin E supplementation improves endothelial function in type I diabetes mellitus: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. We sought to determine, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study, whether vitamin E supplementation (1,000 IU for three months) would improve impaired conduit and resistance vessel endothelial vasodilator function (EVF) and systemic arterial compliance (SAC) in type I diabetes mellitus (DM).Oxidative stress is thought to be important in the pathogenesis (...) and after active or placebo therapy.The LDL VEC was increased by 127% after supplementation, resulting in a significant reduction in the oxidative susceptibility of LDL. There was no time-dependent change in FMD or in the response to ACh or SAC in the placebo group. A significant improvement in FMD (2.6 +/- 0.6% to 7.0 +/- 0.7%, p < 0.005) and the dose response to ACh (p < 0.05) were observed in those randomized to vitamin E therapy. Systemic arterial compliance was not affected by vitamin E (0.41

2000 Journal of the American College of Cardiology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22313. The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardio (GISSI)-Prevenzione Trial on fish oil and vitamin E supplementation in myocardial infarction survivors. (Abstract)

The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardio (GISSI)-Prevenzione Trial on fish oil and vitamin E supplementation in myocardial infarction survivors. A recent large-scale, open-label, randomized, controlled trial in 11, 324 myocardial infarction (MI) survivors has shown low-dose fish oil, but not vitamin E, to reduce significantly the cumulative rate of all-cause death, nonfatal MI, and nonfatal stroke. Neither intervention significantly reduced the other primary (...) questions remain about the benefits of increased plant sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for those who cannot obtain or consume fish. Also the benefits of diet versus fish oil supplementation haven't been determined precisely. Although it seems reasonable to increase sources of n-3 PUFA in the diet for those at high risk of coronary heart disease, current data do not support a policy of promoting fish oil capsules for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.

2000 Current cardiology reports

22314. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity of low-birth-weight neonates. (Abstract)

Effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity of low-birth-weight neonates. Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants (< 2,500 g) are at increased risk of respiratory infection in the first few months of life and have low liver stores of vitamin A. As retinol is essential for respiratory epithelial cell differentiation, deficiency could result in pathological changes in the respiratory epithelium, with respiratory problems.A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect (...) of vitamin A supplementation on the incidence and severity of respiratory infections in LBW infants during their first year of life.One hundred and thirty LBW infants (gestational age < 36 weeks and birth weight 950-1,700 g) were enrolled in the study. The infants were randomly allocated to a vitamin A or placebo group. Infants in the vitamin A group received 25,000 IU of vitamin A (retinyl palmitate, Arovit drops, Roche, Basle, Switzerland) on study days 1, 4 and 8. Study day 1 was between 36 and 60

2000 South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22315. Effects of calcium and vitamin supplementation on colon cell proliferation in colorectal cancer. (Abstract)

Effects of calcium and vitamin supplementation on colon cell proliferation in colorectal cancer. Calcium and antioxidant vitamins, such as A, C, and E, have been shown to reduce colorectal epithelial proliferation and thereby to act as possible chemoprotective agents in colorectal cancer. We investigated the effects of an intervention with calcium and vitamins on cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa of patients operated on for colorectal cancer. Patients with resected colorectal cancer (...) of vitamin and calcium supplementation, showed a further decrease of mean total PCNALI in both groups, but this was not statistically significant. Our randomized trial showed that calcium and vitamin supplementation does not reduce cell kinetics of colon epithelium. Furthermore, this study suggests the need for extreme caution in the interpretation and publication of studies on chemoprotectants in colon cancer without a control group.

2000 Cancer investigation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22316. Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to vertical transmission of HIV-1 in Tanzania. (Abstract)

Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to vertical transmission of HIV-1 in Tanzania. Observational studies suggest that poor nutritional status among HIV-infected pregnant women is associated with a higher risk of vertical transmission of HIV.We randomized 1083 pregnant women infected with HIV-1 in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effects of supplements of vitamin A and/or multivitamins (excluding vitamin A) using a 2-x-2 factorial design. We report (...) the effects of the supplements on HIV infection defined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or death up to 6 weeks postpartum.Of babies in the multivitamin arm 38, (10.1%) were HIV-positive at birth compared with 24 (6.6%) in the no-multivitamin arm (relative risk [RR] = 1.54; 95% CI, 0.94-2.51; p = .08). Of babies born to mothers in the vitamin A arm, 38 (10.0%) were HIV-positive at birth compared with 24 (6.7%) in the no-vitamin A arm (RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.91-2.43; p = 0.11). Neither multivitamins nor

2000 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22317. Maternal low-dose vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation has no effect on fetal loss and early infant mortality: a randomized cluster trial in Nepal. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Maternal low-dose vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation has no effect on fetal loss and early infant mortality: a randomized cluster trial in Nepal. The effect of vitamin A supplementation on the survival of infants aged <6 mo is unclear. Because most infant deaths occur in the first few month of life, maternal supplementation may improve infant survival.The objective was to assess the effect of maternal vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation on fetal loss and survival of infants <6 mo (...) of age.Married women of reproductive age in 270 wards of Sarlahi district, Nepal, were eligible to participate. Wards were randomly assigned to have women receive weekly doses of 7000 microg retinol equivalents as retinyl palmitate (vitamin A), 42 mg all-trans-beta-carotene, or placebo. Pregnancies were followed until miscarriage, stillbirth, maternal death, or live birth of one or more infants, who were followed through 24 wk of age.A total of 43559 women were enrolled; 15832 contributed 17373 pregnancies

2000 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22318. The effects of vitamin C supplementation on protein oxidation in healthy volunteers. (Abstract)

The effects of vitamin C supplementation on protein oxidation in healthy volunteers. We have investigated vitamin C supplementation effects on immunoglobulin oxidation (carbonyls) and total plasma protein sulfhydryls in healthy human volunteers. After receiving placebo, plasma ascorbate and oxidation markers were unchanged. Following 5 weeks supplementation with vitamin C (400 mg/day), plasma ascorbate increased but no significant effect on protein oxidation was observed. At 10 and 15 weeks (...) supplementation, carbonyl levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.01) in subjects with low baseline ascorbate (29.51 +/- 5.3 microM) but not in those with normal baseline ascorbate (51.81 +/- 2.3 microM). To eliminate any effect from seasonal variation in dietary antioxidant intake, a second phase was undertaken. Subjects on vitamin C for 15 weeks were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or vitamin C. No difference in plasma sulfhydryl content was observed. Subjects withdrawn from supplementation

2000 Biochemical and biophysical research communications Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22319. Randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on maternal morbidity during pregnancy and postpartum among HIV-infected women. (Abstract)

Randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on maternal morbidity during pregnancy and postpartum among HIV-infected women. To determine whether low-cost treatment of HIV using vitamin A would be beneficial, we examined the effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity of HIV-1 infected women.We conducted a randomized, double blind placebo-controlled trial at King Edward VIII Hospital, in Durban, South Africa. In total, 312 HIV-seropositive pregnant women (...) this study of HIV-infected pregnant women, vitamin A supplementation given in doses designed to decrease mother-to-infant transmission did not result in significant beneficial effect on reported symptoms pre- or postnatally. Further investigation with larger number of participants, tailoring supplementation for specific clinical conditions, outside the context of pregnancy, is required to help clarify the possible clinical benefits of vitamin A.

2000 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22320. Benefits of vitamin E supplementation to Norplant users--in vitro and in vivo studies. (Abstract)

Benefits of vitamin E supplementation to Norplant users--in vitro and in vivo studies. Norplant subcutaneous implantation is a contraceptive method used in Indonesia. Endometrial bleeding is one major reason to discontinue the use of Norplant. Angiogenic response in the endometrium of Norplant users was found to be lower than in women with normal menstrual cycle. This disturbance in the angiogenic process may be caused by an imbalance of pro- and antioxidant processes in the endometrium (...) of Norplant users. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of vitamin E on the endometrial angiogenic activity and to assess the efficacy of vitamin E supplementation in treating endometrial bleeding in Norplant users. Subjects for this study were selected from Norplant users with an exposure of at least 3 months, with endometrial bleeding and recruited on the basis of fully informed consent. TBA reaction was used to measure degradation products of lipid peroxidation. The endometrial angiogenic

2000 Toxicology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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