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Vitamin B12 Supplementation

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22281. Multivitamin/mineral supplementation improves plasma B-vitamin status and homocysteine concentration in healthy older adults consuming a folate-fortified diet. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Multivitamin/mineral supplementation improves plasma B-vitamin status and homocysteine concentration in healthy older adults consuming a folate-fortified diet. Elevated homocysteine has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Although multivitamin use has been associated with low plasma homocysteine concentrations in several observational studies, no clinical trials have been conducted using multivitamin/mineral supplements to lower (...) homocysteine. We determined whether a multivitamin/mineral supplement formulated at about 100% Daily Value will further lower homocysteine concentration and improve B-vitamin status in healthy older adults already consuming a diet fortified with folic acid. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 80 free-living men and women aged 50-87 y with total plasma homocysteine concentrations of > or =8 micromol/L received either a multivitamin/mineral supplement or placebo for 56 d while

2000 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22282. Vitamin K supplementation reduces serum concentrations of under-gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin in healthy young and elderly adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vitamin K supplementation reduces serum concentrations of under-gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin in healthy young and elderly adults. Subclinical vitamin K insufficiency, manifested by under-gamma-carboxylation of the bone matrix protein osteocalcin, may be common.Our objective was to delineate the prevalence of submaximal gamma-carboxylation as assessed by response to phylloquinone supplementation and to evaluate the effect of this intervention on skeletal turnover in healthy North American (...) a >1% decrease. Phylloquinone supplementation reduced serum osteocalcin but did not alter NTx or BSAP concentration.Usual dietary practices in this population did not provide adequate vitamin K for maximal osteocalcin carboxylation. Phylloquinone supplementation reduced serum osteocalcin concentration but did not alter other markers of serum bone turnover.

2000 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22283. No strong long-term effect of vitamin A supplementation in infancy on CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets. A community study from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. (Abstract)

No strong long-term effect of vitamin A supplementation in infancy on CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets. A community study from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. The World Health Organization recommends that 100,000 IU of vitamin A be given to infants between 6 and 12 months of age at the same time as measles vaccination in order to prevent vitamin A deficiency. In the present study, our aim was to assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation on T-cell subsets in a randomized factorial design, seeking (...) a possible modifying effect of measles vaccination. Three hundred children were allocated either to two doses of measles vaccine at 6 and 9 months of age or to poliomyelitis vaccine at age 6 months and measles vaccine at age 9 months. Within each group, infants were to receive two doses of vitamin A or two doses of placebo at 6 and 9 months of age. We found no significant effect of vitamin A supplementation on CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets at 3 and 9 months after supplementation. We found no effect

2000 Annals of tropical paediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22284. Effects of supplemental vitamin A on retinoic acid concentrations in the plasma of preruminant calves. (Abstract)

Effects of supplemental vitamin A on retinoic acid concentrations in the plasma of preruminant calves. Neonatal calves are fed frequently milk replacers with vitamin A concentrations exceeding those recommended by the National Research Council. The vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), affects profoundly cellular differentiation and homeostasis. For this reason, effects of dietary vitamin A on plasma concentrations of RA isomers in milk replacer-fed calves were examined. Male, Holstein (...) concentrations occurring in calves supplemented with > or = 34,000 IU of vitamin A/day than in control (1700 IU of vitamin daily) and unsupplemented calves. Relative to controls, concentrations of all isomers of RA were higher in calves supplemented with > or = 34,000 of vitamin A daily during the experimental period. The predominant isomer in all calves was 9,13-dicis-RA. In control calves, 9,13-dicis-RA and 9-cis-RA were maximal at 1 to 6 days of age and then decreased progressively. In calves fed

2000 International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernährungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22285. Vitamin B(6) therapy does not improve hematocrit in hemodialysis patients supplemented with iron and erythropoietin. (Abstract)

Vitamin B(6) therapy does not improve hematocrit in hemodialysis patients supplemented with iron and erythropoietin. Pyridoxine deficiency may be the cause of failure to respond appropriately to iron and erythropoietin (EPO) administration in hemodialysis patients.We studied 36 patients on chronic hemodialysis amply supplemented with iron and EPO, who failed to raise hematocrit levels >33%. Patients were divided into three equal groups and evaluated for 6 months as follows: Group (...) A -- no additional therapy; group B -- supplemented with oral pyridoxine 50 mg/day, and group C received 100 mg/day pyridoxine orally.In all our patients, erythrocyte pyridoxine levels were initially within reference range for a healthy population and did not vary significantly during the study period. Likewise, ferritin levels and iron saturation values remained normal and constant. Hemoglobin and/or hematocrit levels remained practically unchanged in all three groups.The results indicate that in hemodialysis

2001 Nephron Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22286. Vitamin A supplementation and other predictors of anemia among children from Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. (Abstract)

Vitamin A supplementation and other predictors of anemia among children from Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. The associations of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and packed cell volume with socioeconomic factors, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and nutritional status were examined among 687 children admitted to hospital with pneumonia participating in a double blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A supplementation. Children were randomized to receive 2 doses of vitamin A (200,000 (...) ). Children with repeated diagnoses of malaria had 4.1 times the risk of developing severe anemia than did children without the diagnosis (95% CI = 1.3, 13.5; P = 0.02). Vitamin A supplements were associated with an overall nonsignificant reduction of 14% in the risk of developing severe anemia (adjusted prevalence ratio = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.37, 1.99; P = 0.73). We conclude that malaria, HIV infection, low socioeconomic status, and short duration of breastfeeding are strong and independent determinants

2000 The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22287. Influence of daily calcium and vitamin D supplementation on parathyroid hormone secretion. (Abstract)

Influence of daily calcium and vitamin D supplementation on parathyroid hormone secretion. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation have been shown to reduce secondary hyperparathyroidism and play a role in age-related osteoporosis. In order to define the optimal regimen of calcium and vitamin D supplementation to produce the maximal inhibition of parathyroid hormone secretion, we compared the administration of a calcium-vitamin D supplement as a single morning dose with the administration of two (...) divided doses at 6-hour intervals. Twelve healthy male volunteers were assigned to three investigational procedures, which were alternated at weekly intervals. After a 'blank' control procedure, when they were not exposed to any supplements, they received one of two calcium-vitamin D supplement regimens: either two doses of Orocal D3 (500 mg calcium and 400 IU vitamin D3) with a 6-hour interval between doses, or one water-soluble effervescent powder pack of Cacit vitamin D3, taken in the morning (1000

2001 Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22288. Effects of a short-term vitamin D(3) and calcium supplementation on blood pressure and parathyroid hormone levels in elderly women. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of a short-term vitamin D(3) and calcium supplementation on blood pressure and parathyroid hormone levels in elderly women. Calcium supplementation is effective in reducing blood pressure in various states of hypertension, including pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia. In addition, calcitropic hormones are associated with blood pressure. The hypothesis is that short-term therapy with calcium and vitamin D(3) may improve blood pressure as well as secondary hyperparathyroidism (...) more effectively than calcium monotherapy. The effects of 8 weeks of supplementation with vitamin D(3) (cholecalciferol) and calcium on blood pressure and biochemical measures of bone metabolism were studied. The sample consisted of 148 women (mean +/- SD age, 74 +/- 1 yr) with a 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD(3)) level below 50 nmol/L. They received either 1200 mg calcium plus 800 IU vitamin D(3) or 1200 mg calcium/day. We measured intact PTH, 25OHD(3), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), blood pressure

2001 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22289. Responsiveness of dark-adaptation threshold to vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation in pregnant and lactating women in Nepal. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Responsiveness of dark-adaptation threshold to vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation in pregnant and lactating women in Nepal. Impaired dark adaptation occurs commonly in vitamin A deficiency.We sought to examine the responsiveness of dark-adaptation threshold to vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation in Nepali women.The dark-adapted pupillary response was tested in 298 pregnant women aged 15-45 y in a placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A and beta-carotene; 131 of these women were (...) , for all 3 groups).During pregnancy, pupillary dark adaptation was strongly associated with serum retinol concentration and improved significantly in response to vitamin A supplementation. This noninvasive testing technique is a valid indicator of population vitamin A status in women of reproductive age.

2000 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22290. Lipid peroxide, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in ischaemic stroke and effect of exogenous vitamin E supplementation on outcome. (Abstract)

Lipid peroxide, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in ischaemic stroke and effect of exogenous vitamin E supplementation on outcome. 30 patients with CT proven infarct presenting within 24 hours of the acute event were included in the study with 20 age and sex matched controls. On day 1 and day 15 of stroke, levels of plasma lipid peroxide (oxidant) and plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta carotene (antioxidant) were estimated. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups, one group receiving (...) -tocopherol in control 9.74 +/- 2.76 micrograms/ml as compared to 7.57 +/- 2.92 micrograms/ml in stroke patients (p < 0.02). Initially the plasma lipid peroxide levels are high and antioxidant levels are low in patients of ischemic stroke. Exogenous vitamin E supplementation does not have any significant effect on early neurological outcome but it does bring about significant changes in subsequent recovery and rehabilitation of patients of stroke.

1997 The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22291. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on circulating cell adhesion molecules pre- and post-coronary angioplasty. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of vitamin E supplementation on circulating cell adhesion molecules pre- and post-coronary angioplasty. The soluble adhesion molecules P-selectin (sP-selectin) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) are derived from platelets and endothelial cells. Circulating concentrations of these soluble adhesion molecules are raised in patients with atherosclerosis and following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). We have investigated the effects of vitamin E supplements (...) (800 IU/day) on circulating plasma ICAM-1 and P-selectin levels pre- and post-PTCA. Patients, randomized to group, were pre-treated with vitamin E or placebo (soybean oil) for 1 month before routine PTCA. Plasma sICAM-1 and sP-selectin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on blood taken immediately pre- and post-PTCA. Total protein and alpha-tocopherol were measured on the same samples. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations increased in patients receiving vitamin E: 19.1 (1.5) [mean

2000 Annals of clinical biochemistry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22292. Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) study: a randomized trial of the effect of vitamins E and C on 3-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis. (Abstract)

Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) study: a randomized trial of the effect of vitamins E and C on 3-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis. To study the efficacy of vitamin E and C supplementation on the progression of carotid atherosclerosis, hypothesizing an enhanced preventive effect in men and in smokers and synergism between vitamins.Double-masked two-by-two factorial trial, randomization in four strata (by gender and smoking status) to receive twice (...) , 0.017 and 0.016 mm year-1. The proportion of men with progression was reduced by 74% (95% CI 36-89%, P = 0.003) by supplementation with the formulation containing both vitamins, as compared with placebo.Our study shows that a combined supplementation with reasonable doses of both vitamin E and slow-release vitamin C can retard the progression of common carotid atherosclerosis in men. This may imply benefits with regard to other atherosclerosis-based events.

2000 Journal of internal medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22293. A controlled clinical trial of vitamin E supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A controlled clinical trial of vitamin E supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure. Oxidative stress is increased in patients with congestive heart failure and can contribute to the progressive deterioration observed in these patients. Increased oxidative stress is the result of either an increased production of free radicals or a depletion of endogenous antioxidants, such as vitamin E.We aimed to determine whether vitamin E supplementation of patients with advanced heart (...) , and norepinephrine were unchanged with treatment and were not significantly different from those in the control group.Supplementation with vitamin E did not result in any significant improvements in prognostic or functional indexes of heart failure or in the quality of life of patients with advanced heart failure.

2001 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22294. Impact of vitamin A supplementation to rural children on morbidity due to diarrhoea. (Abstract)

Impact of vitamin A supplementation to rural children on morbidity due to diarrhoea. a number of studies have shown the association between vitamin A deficiency and the increased risk of diarrhoeal and other childhood morbidities and mortality. However, some studies have raised controversies regarding the reduction of the incidence of diarrhoea after vitamin A supplementation to children. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin A supplementation to young rural (...) children in reducing the incidence of diarrhoea.a double-blind randomized intervention trial was carried out amongst 404 rural children between 6-59 months of age to assess the impact of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity due to diarrhoea. Children aged 6-59 months were enrolled and allocated to receive either 200,000 or 50,000 IU of vitamin A and the same dose was repeated after six months. Morbidity due to diarrhoea was observed by twice-a-week household surveillance, during the subsequent one

2001 The Indian journal of medical research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22295. Vitamin A supplementation at birth delays pneumococcal colonization in South Indian infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vitamin A supplementation at birth delays pneumococcal colonization in South Indian infants. Nasopharyngeal colonization is a risk factor for pneumococcal disease, a leading cause of complications and death in infants. We assessed the impact of vitamin A supplementation in reducing pneumococcal colonization in infants from an area with endemic vitamin A deficiency. We recruited 464 2-mo-old infants from a rural area in South India. Infants were randomly assigned to receive two 7000-microg (...) ratio 0.51 (0.28, 0.92), P = 0.02). The odds of colonization were 27% lower in the treatment group than in the placebo group [odds ratio 0.73 (0.48, 1.1), P = 0.13]. No differences were detected in the prevalence of invasive serotypes. The risk of colonization with penicillin-resistant isolates was 74% lower in the vitamin A group than in the placebo group at 2 mo of age. However, the prevalence of penicillin-resistant isolates was only 4%. Neonatal vitamin A supplementation may play a role

2001 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22296. Multicentric study of efficacy of periconceptional folic acid containing vitamin supplementation in prevention of open neural tube defects from India. (Abstract)

Multicentric study of efficacy of periconceptional folic acid containing vitamin supplementation in prevention of open neural tube defects from India. A folic acid containing multivitamin preparation was evaluated for its efficacy in preventing recurrence of open neural tube defect (NTD) in a blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. The trial was carried out at the five centres in India, viz., Bangalore, Mumbai, Lucknow, New Delhi and Pune.The preparation contained 4 mg of folic acid besides (...) calcium, iron, zinc and vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, C, D and nicotinamide. The placebo contained calcium and iron only. A total of 466 women with previous history of giving birth to a child with open NTD were included in the trial (231 in the vitamin group and 235 in the placebo group). The supplementation was given for at least one month prior to conception and up to three months after conception. All women were offered antenatal diagnosis with screening of maternal serum alpha foetoprotein (AFP

2000 The Indian journal of medical research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22297. Supplemental vitamin A improves anemia and growth in anemic school children in Tanzania. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Supplemental vitamin A improves anemia and growth in anemic school children in Tanzania. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of the effects of dietary supplements on anemia, weight and height in 136 anemic school children from a low socioeconomic background in Bagamoyo District schools in Tanzania. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of dietary supplements on anemia and anthropometric indices of anemic school children. The supplements were vitamin A alone, iron (...) and vitamin A, iron alone or placebo, administered in a double-blinded design for 3 mo. All supplements were provided with local corn meals. Hemoglobin concentration, body weight and height were measured at baseline and at follow-up after supplementation. Vitamin A supplementation increased the mean hemoglobin concentration by 13.5 g/L compared with 3.5 g/L for placebo [P < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.19-13.57), the mean body weight by 0.6 kg compared with 0.2 kg for placebo (P < 0.0001, 95% CI

2000 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22298. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on coagulability and lipid levels in healthy male subjects. (Abstract)

The effect of vitamin C supplementation on coagulability and lipid levels in healthy male subjects. Although dietary intake and plasma levels of vitamin C have been inversely associated with cardiovascular disease, the mechanism through which it may exert its effect has not been fully explained. Since thrombosis plays an important role in the onset of cardiovascular disease, we investigated the effect of vitamin C on measures of hemostasis that have been associated with cardiovascular risk (...) . The effect of vitamin C on lipid levels was also evaluated. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we determined the effect of 2 g daily of vitamin C supplementation on platelet adhesion and aggregation, levels of tissue plasminogen activator antigen, plasminogen activator inhibitor, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, von Willebrand factor, and lipid levels in 18 healthy male volunteers with low normal vitamin C levels. No striking effects of vitamin C on the hemostatic measures were observed

2000 Thrombosis research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22299. Vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation reduces symptoms of illness in pregnant and lactating Nepali women. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation reduces symptoms of illness in pregnant and lactating Nepali women. The contribution of nutritional interventions to the reduction in maternal morbidity rates in developing countries is not well known. We assessed the impact of weekly vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation on the prevalence of pregnancy and postpartum illness symptoms among 15,832 Nepali women in a placebo-controlled, double-masked, cluster-randomized trial. There was no impact (...) of either supplement on morbidity rates reported up to 28 wk of gestation, inclusive. However, in late pregnancy (>28 wk), symptoms of nausea, faintness and night blindness were reduced with vitamin A, but not beta-carotene, supplementation. Vitamin A supplementation shortened the length of labor by 1.5 h 50 min among nulliparous and multiparous women, respectively. Both interventions reduced the postpartum prevalence of at least four loose stools and night blindness. beta-Carotene supplementation also

2000 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

22300. Vitamin A supplements and diarrheal and respiratory tract infections among children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. (Abstract)

Vitamin A supplements and diarrheal and respiratory tract infections among children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. To determine the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the risk of diarrhea and of acute respiratory infection.Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.Six hundred eighty-seven children, 6 to 60 months old, hospitalized with pneumonia, who received vitamin A or placebo at baseline and at 4 and 8 months after discharge from hospital.Incidence (...) and duration of episodes of diarrhea and respiratory tract infections during the year after discharge from the hospital.Relative to those receiving placebo, children receiving vitamin A had a significantly smaller risk of severe watery diarrhea (multivariate odds ratio = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.32-0.99, P =.04) but a higher risk of cough and rapid respiratory rate (multivariate odds ratio = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.17-2.36, P =.004). Vitamin A supplementation was also associated with increased risk of acute diarrhea

2000 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: predicted high

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