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Vitamin B12 Deficiency

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16641. Impact of vitamin A supplementation to rural children on morbidity due to diarrhoea. (Abstract)

Impact of vitamin A supplementation to rural children on morbidity due to diarrhoea. a number of studies have shown the association between vitamin A deficiency and the increased risk of diarrhoeal and other childhood morbidities and mortality. However, some studies have raised controversies regarding the reduction of the incidence of diarrhoea after vitamin A supplementation to children. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin A supplementation to young rural (...) children in reducing the incidence of diarrhoea.a double-blind randomized intervention trial was carried out amongst 404 rural children between 6-59 months of age to assess the impact of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity due to diarrhoea. Children aged 6-59 months were enrolled and allocated to receive either 200,000 or 50,000 IU of vitamin A and the same dose was repeated after six months. Morbidity due to diarrhoea was observed by twice-a-week household surveillance, during the subsequent one

2001 The Indian journal of medical research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16642. Vitamin A supplementation at birth delays pneumococcal colonization in South Indian infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vitamin A supplementation at birth delays pneumococcal colonization in South Indian infants. Nasopharyngeal colonization is a risk factor for pneumococcal disease, a leading cause of complications and death in infants. We assessed the impact of vitamin A supplementation in reducing pneumococcal colonization in infants from an area with endemic vitamin A deficiency. We recruited 464 2-mo-old infants from a rural area in South India. Infants were randomly assigned to receive two 7000-microg (...) retinol equivalent doses of vitamin A (n = 239) or placebo (n = 225) orally at birth, and nasopharyngeal specimens were collected at ages 2, 4 and 6 mo. We studied the effect of vitamin A on culture-confirmed pneumococcal colonization and on the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes. Analyses were conducted by intention-to-treat. The risk of colonization among infants aged 4 mo who were not colonized by age 2 mo was significantly reduced in the vitamin A group compared with the placebo group [odds

2001 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

16643. A global study of vitamin D status and parathyroid function in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: baseline data from the multiple outcomes of raloxifene evaluation clinical trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A global study of vitamin D status and parathyroid function in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: baseline data from the multiple outcomes of raloxifene evaluation clinical trial. Vitamin D deficiency leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover, and bone loss and, when severe, to osteomalacia. Vitamin D deficiency is common in elderly people, especially the institutionalized. The definition of vitamin D deficiency is hampered by the fact that large interlaboratory (...) differences exist in assays for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), the main circulating metabolite. The international Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation study, a large prospective intervention trial in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, offered the opportunity to compare vitamin D status and parathyroid function throughout many countries over the world. For this study, baseline data were available from 7564 postmenopausal women from 25 countries on 5 continents. All women had osteoporosis

2001 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism

16644. Supplemental vitamin A improves anemia and growth in anemic school children in Tanzania. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in combating the problems of vitamin A deficiency and anemia, as well as in improving children's growth, in developing countries. (...) Supplemental vitamin A improves anemia and growth in anemic school children in Tanzania. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of the effects of dietary supplements on anemia, weight and height in 136 anemic school children from a low socioeconomic background in Bagamoyo District schools in Tanzania. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of dietary supplements on anemia and anthropometric indices of anemic school children. The supplements were vitamin A alone, iron

2000 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

16645. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity of low-birth-weight neonates. (Abstract)

Effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity of low-birth-weight neonates. Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants (< 2,500 g) are at increased risk of respiratory infection in the first few months of life and have low liver stores of vitamin A. As retinol is essential for respiratory epithelial cell differentiation, deficiency could result in pathological changes in the respiratory epithelium, with respiratory problems.A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect (...) of vitamin A supplementation on the incidence and severity of respiratory infections in LBW infants during their first year of life.One hundred and thirty LBW infants (gestational age < 36 weeks and birth weight 950-1,700 g) were enrolled in the study. The infants were randomly allocated to a vitamin A or placebo group. Infants in the vitamin A group received 25,000 IU of vitamin A (retinyl palmitate, Arovit drops, Roche, Basle, Switzerland) on study days 1, 4 and 8. Study day 1 was between 36 and 60

2000 South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde Controlled trial quality: predicted high

16646. Iron and zinc supplementation improves indicators of vitamin A status of Mexican preschoolers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Iron and zinc supplementation improves indicators of vitamin A status of Mexican preschoolers. The coexistence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies is a widespread public health problem in many regions of the world. Interactions between zinc deficiency and vitamin A metabolism have been reported but no longitudinal studies have evaluated the effect of iron deficiency on vitamin A.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementation with iron, zinc, or both on vitamin (...) and transthyretin but the increase in RBP was not significant. Iron supplementation significantly increased plasma retinol, RBP, and transthyretin. Supplementation with zinc plus iron significantly increased plasma retinol but not RBP or transthyretin. Children deficient in zinc, iron, or vitamin A (as indicated by nutrient plasma concentration) at the beginning of the study had a significantly greater increase in retinol than did children with adequate nutrient status.Supplementation with zinc, iron, or both

2000 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

16647. Hyperhomocysteinemia in hemodialysis patients: effects of 12-month supplementation with hydrosoluble vitamins. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hyperhomocysteinemia in hemodialysis patients: effects of 12-month supplementation with hydrosoluble vitamins. High-efficiency hemodialysis may induce a deficiency in hydrosoluble vitamins. Supplementation with B-complex vitamins has been shown to lower serum homocysteine concentrations in several groups, but relatively few studies have concerned hemodialysis patients. Our objectives were to determine the status in B-complex vitamins in a large cohort of unsupplemented hemodialysis patients (...) and to assess the effects of supplementation with hydrosoluble vitamins on serum homocysteine over one year.Serum total homocysteine (tHcy), vitamin B12, folate, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (P-5'-P; the active moiety of vitamin B6), as well as red blood cell folate concentrations, were measured in 168 chronic dialysis patients on three times weekly high-efficiency hemodialysis and not supplemented with hydrosoluble vitamins. Their methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (MTHFR) genotypes were also determined

2000 Kidney international Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16648. Vitamin B6 supplementation can improve peripheral polyneuropathy in patients with chronic renal failure on high-flux haemodialysis and human recombinant erythropoietin. (Abstract)

compared with initial symptoms. No improvement was observed in response to vitamin B(12) supplementation.This result suggests that although vitamin B(6) deficiency could not be demonstrated in patients with chronic renal failure on high-flux HD, vitamin B(6) supplementation was effective in improving PPN symptoms of various aetiologies, possibly because of vitamin B(6) resistance to PPN in these patients. (...) Vitamin B6 supplementation can improve peripheral polyneuropathy in patients with chronic renal failure on high-flux haemodialysis and human recombinant erythropoietin. High-flux haemodialysis (HD) has recently been vigorously promoted as a novel standard, and it can indeed efficiently reduce the occurrence of most uraemic symptoms due to middle molecular toxins and/or underdialysis. However, some symptoms remain problematical, particularly peripheral polyneuropathy (PPN). One of the possible

2000 Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16649. Vitamin D vs broad spectrum phototherapy in the treatment of seasonal affective disorder. (Abstract)

Vitamin D vs broad spectrum phototherapy in the treatment of seasonal affective disorder. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is prevalent when vitamin D stores are typically low. Broad-spectrum light therapy includes wavelengths between 280-320 nm which allow the skin to produce vitamin D. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency might play a role in SAD. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a group of 15 subjects with SAD. Eight subjects (...) received 100,000 I.U. of vitamin D and seven subjects received phototherapy. At the onset of treatment and after 1 month of therapy subjects were administered the Hamilton Depression scale, the SIGH-SAD, and the SAD-8 depression scale. All subjects also had serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) measured before and 1 week after intervention therapy. All subjects receiving vitamin D improved in all outcome measures. The phototherapy group showed no significant change in depression scale measures

1999 The journal of nutrition, health & aging Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16650. Night blindness during pregnancy and subsequent mortality among women in Nepal: effects of vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation. (Abstract)

Night blindness during pregnancy and subsequent mortality among women in Nepal: effects of vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation. Night blindness due to vitamin A deficiency is common during pregnancy among women in Nepal. The authors assessed the risk of maternal death during and after a pregnancy with night blindness among women participating in a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation trial in Nepal from July 1994 to September 1997. Subjects (...) , 0.55), and the relative risk among women with or without night blindness in the vitamin A/beta-carotene group was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.91) and 0.18 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.36), respectively. Night-blind women were five times (95% CI: 2.20, 10.58) more likely to die from infections than were women who were not night blind. These findings show that night blindness during pregnancy is a risk factor of both short- and long-term mortality among women. Vitamin A/beta-carotene supplementation ameliorates

2000 American journal of epidemiology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

16651. Integration of vitamin A supplementation with the Expanded Programme on Immunization: lack of impact on morbidity or infant growth. (Abstract)

Integration of vitamin A supplementation with the Expanded Programme on Immunization: lack of impact on morbidity or infant growth. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from diarrheal disease, measles, and malaria. It has been proposed that vitamin A supplementation could be linked with childhood immunization programs to improve child health. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the impact of linking vitamin (...) A supplementation with the Expanded Programme on Immunization on morbidity and child growth. In West Java, Indonesia, 467 six-week-old infants were randomized to receive 7.5 mg retinol equivalent (RE), 15 mg RE, or placebo with childhood immunization contacts at 6, 10, and 14 wks and 9 mo of age. Child growth was assessed through anthropometry, and morbidity histories were obtained. Vitamin A supplementation had no apparent impact upon linear or ponderal growth or infectious disease morbidity in the first 15 mo

2001 Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

16652. Supplementing lactating women with puréed papaya and grated carrots improved vitamin A status in a placebo-controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. These findings reinforce the importance of plant food-based approaches in the control of vitamin A deficiency in low income countries. (...) Supplementing lactating women with puréed papaya and grated carrots improved vitamin A status in a placebo-controlled trial. Doubts have been raised about the effectiveness of carotene-containing foods in improving the vitamin A status of populations at risk. We investigated the effect of papaya and carrots on the vitamin A status of lactating women with 2- to 12-mo-old infants in ZIMBABWE: The women were randomly assigned to three supplementation groups and a placebo group, and received 6 mg

2001 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16653. Vitamin A supplements ameliorate the adverse effect of HIV-1, malaria, and diarrheal infections on child growth. (Abstract)

retinol or short duration of breastfeeding. The apparent lack of an overall effect of vitamin A on growth could be attributed to context-specific distribution of conditions that affect both growth and the response to supplementation, eg, baseline vitamin A status, deficiency of other nutrients (fat, zinc), and the presence of infectious diseases. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, malaria, and diarrheal disease adversely affect growth and are associated with increased prevalence of vitamin (...) A deficiency. We hypothesize that vitamin A supplementation could ameliorate the adverse effect of these infections on child growth.We conducted a randomized, clinical trial among 687 Tanzanian children who were 6 to 60 months of age and admitted to the hospital with pneumonia. Children were assigned to oral doses of 200 000 IU vitamin A (half that dose if <12 months) or placebo on the day of admission, a second dose on the following day, and third and fourth doses at 4 and 8 months after discharge from

2002 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: predicted high

16654. Effects of vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation on body weight of South African HIV-infected women. (Abstract)

was highest among those who were vitamin A-deficient or whose CD4+ count was < 200 cells/microL presupplementation. In populations for whom antiretroviral therapy is not readily available or accessible, the finding that vitamin A may improve postpartum weight lends some hope to a relatively inexpensive treatment which could be used for helping ameliorate some weight loss which is common during HIV infection. (...) Effects of vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation on body weight of South African HIV-infected women. Effects of vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation on maternal weight among HIV-1-seropositive South African women were examined. Three hundred twelve HIV-seropositive pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks gestation were studied as part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at the King Edward VIII Hospital in Durban, South Africa

2001 Journal of health, population, and nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

16655. Vitamin A, retinol binding protein and lipids in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

% showed increased atherogenic indicators and lower vitamin A/CHOL and vitamin A/TG ratios than those with good control of the illness.The IDDM children with poor metabolic control face a higher atherogenic risk and vitamin A 'relative deficiency' risk than those with good metabolic control of their illness. Relationships between retinol and RBP with atherogenic indicators were found. The results suggest that vitamin A therapeutic supplements in IDDM children may reduce or prevent atherogenic risk. (...) Vitamin A, retinol binding protein and lipids in type 1 diabetes mellitus. A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the effects of type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDDM) on plasma levels of vitamin A (retinol) and serum levels of retinol-binding protein (RBP) and their relationship with the atherogenic indicators.A total of 47 randomised IDDM children were recruited from those treated at the Endocrinology Unit of the University Hospital of Granada (Spain). They were matched for age and sex

2002 European journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16656. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of vitamin A and zinc supplementation in persons with tuberculosis in Indonesia: effects on clinical response and nutritional status. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of vitamin A and zinc supplementation in persons with tuberculosis in Indonesia: effects on clinical response and nutritional status. The results of cross-sectional studies indicate that micronutrient deficiencies are common in patients with tuberculosis. No published data exist on the effect of vitamin A and zinc supplementation on antituberculosis treatment.Our goal was to investigate whether vitamin A and zinc supplementation increases the efficacy (...) of antituberculosis treatment with respect to clinical response and nutritional status.In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis were divided into 2 groups. One group (n = 40) received 1500 retinol equivalents (5000 IU) vitamin A (as retinyl acetate) and 15 mg Zn (as zinc sulfate) daily for 6 mo (micronutrient group). The second group (n = 40) received a placebo. Both groups received the same antituberculosis treatment recommended by the World Health Organization

2002 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16657. Vitamin A supplementation and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 shedding in women: results of a randomized clinical trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vitamin A supplementation and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 shedding in women: results of a randomized clinical trial. Observational studies have associated vitamin A deficiency with vaginal shedding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected cells and mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. To assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation on vaginal shedding of HIV-1, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 6 weeks of daily oral vitamin A (10,000 IU of retinyl (...) A deficient at baseline. Vitamin A supplementation is unlikely to decrease the infectivity of women infected with HIV-1.

2002 The Journal of infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high

16658. The beneficial effects of weekly low-dose vitamin A supplementation on acute lower respiratory infections and diarrhea in Ecuadorian children. (Abstract)

-treated children 18 to 23 months of age than in children on placebo in this age group (point estimate: 0.26 [95% CI: 0.06-1.00]).Weekly low-dose (10 000 IU) vitamin A supplementation in a region of subclinical deficiency protected underweight children from ALRI and paradoxically increased ALRI in normal children with body weight over -1 SD. Protection from severe diarrhea was consistent with previous trials. Additional research is warranted to delineate potential beneficial and detrimental (...) The beneficial effects of weekly low-dose vitamin A supplementation on acute lower respiratory infections and diarrhea in Ecuadorian children. Previous studies of large-dose vitamin A supplementation on respiratory morbidity have produced conflicting results in a variety of populations. The influence of malnutrition has not been examined in the majority of these trials. We hypothesized that weekly low-dose vitamin A supplementation would prevent respiratory and diarrheal disease morbidity

1999 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: predicted high

16659. The effect of a biscuit with red palm oil as a source of beta-carotene on the vitamin A status of primary school children: a comparison with beta-carotene from a synthetic source in a randomised controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

oil (ie no trans fatty acids; rich source of antioxidants) make it an excellent alternative fortificant for addressing vitamin A deficiency. (...) The effect of a biscuit with red palm oil as a source of beta-carotene on the vitamin A status of primary school children: a comparison with beta-carotene from a synthetic source in a randomised controlled trial. To determine the effect of a biscuit with red palm oil as a source of beta-carotene on the vitamin A status of primary school children and to compare this with the effect of a biscuit with beta-carotene from a synthetic source.Randomised controlled trial.A rural community in KwaZulu

2001 European journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16660. Zinc supplementation might potentiate the effect of vitamin A in restoring night vision in pregnant Nepalese women. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Zinc supplementation might potentiate the effect of vitamin A in restoring night vision in pregnant Nepalese women. Zinc deficiency may result in abnormal dark adaptation or night blindness, a symptom primarily of vitamin A deficiency. During a placebo-controlled trial in Nepal, weekly vitamin A supplementation of women reduced but failed to eliminate the incidence of night blindness during pregnancy, suggesting a role for zinc.The study examined the efficacy of daily zinc supplementation (...) in restoring night vision of pregnant women who developed night blindness while routinely receiving either vitamin A, beta-carotene, or placebo in a field trial.Women (n = 202) who reported to be night blind during pregnancy were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner, stratified on vitamin A, beta-carotene, or placebo receipt, to receive 25 mg Zn or placebo daily for 3 wk. Thus, the 6 groups studied were as follows: beta-carotene + zinc, beta-carotene alone, vitamin A + zinc, vitamin A alone (vitamin

2001 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

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