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Vitamin B12 Deficiency

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61. What dose of vitamin D should be prescribed for the treatment of vitamin D deficiency?

What dose of vitamin D should be prescribed for the treatment of vitamin D deficiency? application/msword

2017 Specialist Pharmacy Services

62. Efficacy of Long-Term Oral Vitamin B12 Supplementation after Total Gastrectomy: Results from a Prospective Study (PubMed)

Efficacy of Long-Term Oral Vitamin B12 Supplementation after Total Gastrectomy: Results from a Prospective Study Vitamin B12 (VB12) deficiency is a common complication after total gastrectomy which may be associated with megaloblastic anemia and potentially irreversible neurologic symptoms. Intramuscular supplementation of VB12 has been considered the standard treatment, although it is associated with high costs and patient discomfort.We performed a prospective uncontrolled study

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2017 GE Portuguese journal of gastroenterology

63. Vitamin B12 deficiency among adult diabetic patients in Uganda: relation to glycaemic control and haemoglobin concentration (PubMed)

Vitamin B12 deficiency among adult diabetic patients in Uganda: relation to glycaemic control and haemoglobin concentration Vitamin B12 deficiency is highly prevalent among adult individuals with diabetes yet screening is infrequent in Uganda. There are currently no published data regarding the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and its associated factors among adult individuals with diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at describing the prevalence and factors associated (...) with vitamin B12 deficiency among this patient population in a resource constrained setting in sub-Saharan Africa.In this cross-sectional study, 280 eligible study participants attending the outpatient diabetic clinic at Mulago national referral and teaching hospital in Kampala, Uganda were enrolled. Their socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire.The majority of the study participants were female (68.9 %), with a median age of 50 (IQR: 40-58) years

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2016 Journal of diabetes and metabolic disorders

64. Metabolic network rewiring of propionate flux compensates vitamin B12 deficiency in C. elegans (PubMed)

Metabolic network rewiring of propionate flux compensates vitamin B12 deficiency in C. elegans Metabolic network rewiring is the rerouting of metabolism through the use of alternate enzymes to adjust pathway flux and accomplish specific anabolic or catabolic objectives. Here, we report the first characterization of two parallel pathways for the breakdown of the short chain fatty acid propionate in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic interaction mapping, gene co-expression analysis, pathway (...) intermediate quantification and carbon tracing, we uncover a vitamin B12-independent propionate breakdown shunt that is transcriptionally activated on vitamin B12 deficient diets, or under genetic conditions mimicking the human diseases propionic- and methylmalonic acidemia, in which the canonical B12-dependent propionate breakdown pathway is blocked. Our study presents the first example of transcriptional vitamin-directed metabolic network rewiring to promote survival under vitamin deficiency. The ability

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2016 eLife

65. Biochemistry, function, and deficiency of vitamin B12 in Caenorhabditis elegans (PubMed)

Biochemistry, function, and deficiency of vitamin B12 in Caenorhabditis elegans Caenorhabditis elegans is a nematode that has been widely used as an animal for investigation of diverse biological phenomena. Vitamin B12 is essential for the growth of this worm, which contains two cobalamin-dependent enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase. A full complement of gene homologs encoding the enzymes associated with the mammalian intercellular metabolic processes of vitamin B12 (...) is identified in the genome of C elegans However, this worm has no orthologs of the vitamin B12-binders that participate in human intestinal absorption and blood circulation. When the worm is treated with a vitamin B12-deficient diet for five generations (15 days), it readily develops vitamin B12 deficiency, which induces worm phenotypes (infertility, delayed growth, and shorter lifespan) that resemble the symptoms of mammalian vitamin B12 deficiency. Such phenotypes associated with vitamin B12 deficiency

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2016 Experimental Biology and Medicine

66. Parkinson's Disease and Homocysteine: A Community-Based Study in a Folate and Vitamin B12 Deficient Population (PubMed)

Parkinson's Disease and Homocysteine: A Community-Based Study in a Folate and Vitamin B12 Deficient Population Background. Homocysteine (Hcy) levels were higher in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This could be partially explained by levodopa treatment. Whether untreated PD patients have higher Hcy levels is contradictory. Methods. A community-based study was conducted using a two-stage approach for subjects ≥ 55 years to find PD patients in 3 towns of Lüliang City. Blood samples were (...) Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12 between cases and controls (P > 0.05). In univariate and multivariate analysis, there was significant inverse relation between PD and current smoking (P < 0.05). No other factor was significant statistically. Conclusions. The prevalence of PD was comparable to earlier studies in China. Hyperhomocysteinemia was not a risk factor of PD, as well as folate and vitamin B12 deficiency.

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2016 Parkinson's disease

67. Pseudo-Foster Kennedy Syndrome as a Rare Presentation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency (PubMed)

Pseudo-Foster Kennedy Syndrome as a Rare Presentation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Pseudo-Foster Kennedy syndrome is a triad consisting of ipsilateral optic atrophy, contralateral optic disc edema, and ipsilateral anosmia in the absence of an intracranial mass. Vitamin B12 plays an important role in DNA synthesis, and its deficiency causes peripheral neuropathy, myeloneuropathy, and, very rarely, optic neuropathy.In this study, we describe a 34-year-old male who presented with progressive loss (...) of visual acuity and field. Fundoscopy showed optic disc edema with telangiectasia in the right eye, while the left eye had optic disc atrophy. We ruled out nearly all possible and common causes of optic neuropathy, and vitamin B12 deficiency was finally diagnosed. After treatment with vitamin B12, the patient improved.Demyelinating disease, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, autoimmune disease, and hereditary optic neuropathy could cause optic

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2016 Iranian Red Crescent medical journal

68. Vitamin B12 deficiency in metformin-treated type-2 diabetes patients, prevalence and association with peripheral neuropathy (PubMed)

Vitamin B12 deficiency in metformin-treated type-2 diabetes patients, prevalence and association with peripheral neuropathy The association between long-term metformin use and low vitamin B12 levels has been proven. However, the prevalence estimates of metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency showed considerable variation among the studies. The potential of the deficiency to cause or worsen peripheral neuropathy in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients has been investigated with conflicting (...) results. The aim of the study was to investigate: 1) the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in T2DM patients on metformin; 2) the association between vitamin B12 and peripheral neuropathy; 3) and the risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency in these patients.In this cross-sectional study, consecutive metformin-treated T2DM patients attending diabetes clinics of two public hospitals in South Africa were approached for participation. Participation included measuring vitamin B12 levels and assessing

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2016 BMC pharmacology & toxicology

69. Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on olfactory function. (PubMed)

Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on olfactory function. Vitamin B12 plays a major role in the maintenance of central and peripheral nervous systems. Vitamin B12 deficiency may affect the spinal cord, brain, optic nerve, and peripheral nerve functions; however, the effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on olfactory function has not been studied, so our study aimed to investigate that.Thirty-nine patients with low vitamin B12 levels and 34 controls were included in the study. All participants had (...) detailed otorhinolaryngological examinations and laboratory tests. The Sniffin' Stick test was used for analysis of olfactory function. The 2 groups were compared for smell test results. Correlations of smell test results with demographic and laboratory data were investigated in the vitamin B12-deficient group.The threshold discrimination identification scores were (mean ± standard deviation) 28.04 ± 5.58 and 35.10 ± 2.84 in the vitamin B12-deficient and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001

2016 International forum of allergy & rhinology

70. Association between metformin and vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Association between metformin and vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Metformin is the most widely used oral hypoglycaemic drug, but it may lower B12 status, which could have important clinical implications. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between metformin use and vitamin B12 deficiency in persons with type 2 diabetes.Electronic database searches were undertaken (1st January 1957-1st July 2013 (...) ) using the Cochrane library, Scopus, CINAHL, Grey literature databases, Pub Med Central, NICE Clinical Guidelines UK, and ongoing clinical trials. Included studies were of any study design, with data from patients with type 2 diabetes of any age or gender, taking any dose or duration of metformin. Planned primary outcomes were serum vitamin B12 levels, % prevalence or incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency and risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.Twenty-six papers were included in the review. Ten out of 17

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2016 Diabetes & metabolism

71. Mathematical Modeling of Glutathione Status in Type 2 Diabetics with Vitamin B12 Deficiency (PubMed)

Mathematical Modeling of Glutathione Status in Type 2 Diabetics with Vitamin B12 Deficiency Deficiencies in vitamin B12 and glutathione (GSH) are associated with a number of diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus. We tested newly diagnosed Indian diabetic patients for correlation between their vitamin B12 and GSH, and found it to be weak. Here we seek to examine the theoretical dependence of GSH on vitamin B12 with a mathematical model of 1-carbon metabolism due to Reed and co-workers. We (...) . The model suggests that the lack of vitamin B12-GSH correlation is explained by suppression of activity in the trans-sulfuration pathway that limits the synthesis of cysteine and GSH from homocysteine. We hypothesize this "cysteine-block" is an essential consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. It can be clinically relevant to appreciate that these secondary effects of vitamin B12 deficiency could be central to its pathophysiology.

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2016 Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

72. Prevalence of Relative Deficiencies in Testosterone and Vitamin B12 Among Patients Referred for Chronic Orchialgia: Implications for Management (PubMed)

Prevalence of Relative Deficiencies in Testosterone and Vitamin B12 Among Patients Referred for Chronic Orchialgia: Implications for Management Chronic testicular pain (CTP) is a complex pain syndrome that is widely variable in presentation and etiology. Many cases of CTP are thought to be associated with neuropathy and recent data suggest an inflammation-mediated process is more common among patients with CTP. Deficiencies in vitamin B12 and testosterone are common in chronic pain syndromes (...) may play a role in CTP. A retrospective review of men treated for CTP by a single provider over a 2-year period was performed. Patients with serum screening of testosterone and B12 were selected. Patients with total testosterone below 300 ng/dl, free testosterone below 46 pg/ml, or B12 below 400 pg/ml were deemed deficient and offered repletion. Efficacy of treatment was measured based on patient report with a minimum follow-up of either 3 months or resolution of pain symptoms. One hundred

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2016 American journal of men's health

73. Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Vitamin B12 Deficiency Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Vitamin B12 Deficiency Vitamin B12 (...) Deficiency Aka: Vitamin B12 Deficiency , Pernicious Anemia , B12 Deficiency , Cobalamin Deficiency , Cyanocobalamin Deficiency From Related Chapters II. Epidemiology U.S.: 6% in patients under age 60 years (20% in those over age 60 years) Latin America: 40% Kenya: 70% East India: 70-80% III. Pathophysiology See Symptoms may lag Vitamin B12 Deficiency for as many as 10 years until vast hepatic stores are exhausted IV. Causes: Vitamin B12 Deficiency See Decreased intrinsic factor Atrophic Rouz-en-Y

2018 FP Notebook

74. Vitamin B12 deficiency results in severe oxidative stress, leading to memory retention impairment in Caenorhabditis elegans (PubMed)

Vitamin B12 deficiency results in severe oxidative stress, leading to memory retention impairment in Caenorhabditis elegans Oxidative stress is implicated in various human diseases and conditions, such as a neurodegeneration, which is the major symptom of vitamin B12 deficiency, although the underlying disease mechanisms associated with vitamin B12 deficiency are poorly understood. Vitamin B12 deficiency was found to significantly increase cellular H2O2 and NO content in Caenorhabditis elegans (...) and significantly decrease low molecular antioxidant [reduced glutathione (GSH) and L-ascorbic acid] levels and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities, indicating that vitamin B12 deficiency induces severe oxidative stress leading to oxidative damage of various cellular components in worms. An NaCl chemotaxis associative learning assay indicated that vitamin B12 deficiency did not affect learning ability but impaired memory retention ability, which decreased to approximately 58

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2016 Redox biology

75. Reversible Vitamin B12 Deficiency Presenting with Acute Dementia, Paraparesis, and Normal Hemoglobin (PubMed)

Reversible Vitamin B12 Deficiency Presenting with Acute Dementia, Paraparesis, and Normal Hemoglobin Vitamin B12 is essential for neurological function and its deficiency is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders. We report the case of a previously healthy 53-year-old male patient presenting with delirium and multiple neurological findings. Complete blood analysis indicated megaloblastic anemia. All infectious causes were excluded owing to negative cultures (blood and urine). Tests (...) for human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, and toxoplasma were also negative. Metabolic workup showed severe vitamin B12 deficiency, decreased reticulocyte count, and increased direct bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase. Intramuscular injection of cobalamin was started, and the patient showed significant improvement.

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2016 Case reports in neurological medicine

76. SERUM VITAMIN B12, IRON AND FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCIES IN OBESE INDIVIDUALS SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT BARIATRIC TECHNIQUES (PubMed)

SERUM VITAMIN B12, IRON AND FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCIES IN OBESE INDIVIDUALS SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT BARIATRIC TECHNIQUES Different surgical techniques to combat obesity combine malabsorption with restrictive procedures and can lead to metabolic problems, such as micronutrient deficiencies.Assess vitamin B12, iron and folic acid deficiencies associated with the lifestyle of obese individuals having been submitted to different bariatric techniques.A retrospective analysis was performed using (...) for 90.9% of the overall sample (both techniques). Gastric banding was performed more (68.9%), but greater nutrient deficiencies were found following gastric bypass. Iron was the most prevalent deficiency (21.3%), followed by vitamin B12 (16.9%) and folic acid (4.5%). Mild to moderate alcohol intake, adherence to the diet and the use of multivitamins reduced the frequency, but did not avoid micronutrient deficiency.Vitamin B12, iron and folic acid deficiencies were found in the first and second year

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2016 Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva : ABCD

77. Severe but Not Moderate Vitamin B12 Deficiency Impairs Lipid Profile, Induces Adiposity, and Leads to Adverse Gestational Outcome in Female C57BL/6 Mice (PubMed)

Severe but Not Moderate Vitamin B12 Deficiency Impairs Lipid Profile, Induces Adiposity, and Leads to Adverse Gestational Outcome in Female C57BL/6 Mice Vitamin B12 deficiency is widely prevalent in women of childbearing age, especially in developing countries. In the present study, through dietary restriction, we have established mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiencies to elucidate the impact on body composition, biochemical parameters, and reproductive performance. Female (...) weanling C57BL/6 mice were fed for 4 weeks: (a) control AIN-76A diet, (b) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severe deficiency group, as pectin inhibits vitamin B12 absorption), or (c) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderate deficiency group as cellulose does not interfere with vitamin B12 absorption). After confirming deficiency, the mice were mated with male colony mice and maintained on their respective diets throughout pregnancy

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2016 Frontiers in nutrition

78. Nitrous oxide misuse and vitamin B12 deficiency (PubMed)

Nitrous oxide misuse and vitamin B12 deficiency A 36-year-old man presented to hospital with a 5-week history of ascending limb paraesthesiae and balance difficulties. He had no medical or travel history of note, but admitted habitual nitrous oxide (N2O) inhalation. Neurological examination revealed a sensory ataxia with pseudoathetosis in the upper limbs and reduced vibration sensation to the hips bilaterally. Significant investigation results included a low serum vitamin B12 concentration (...) , mild macrocytosis and raised serum homocysteine concentration. T2 MRI of the spinal cord demonstrated increased signal extending from C1 to T11 in keeping with a longitudinal myelitis. The patient was diagnosed with a myeloneuropathy secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency, resulting from heavy N2O inhalation. He was treated with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections and received regular physiotherapy. At discharge, he was able to mobilise short distances with the aid of a zimmer frame

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2016 BMJ case reports

79. Biomarkers and Algorithms for the Diagnosis of Vitamin B12 Deficiency (PubMed)

Biomarkers and Algorithms for the Diagnosis of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl, B12) is an indispensable water-soluble micronutrient that serves as a coenzyme for cytosolic methionine synthase (MS) and mitochondrial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM). Deficiency of Cbl, whether nutritional or due to inborn errors of Cbl metabolism, inactivate MS and MCM leading to the accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA), respectively. In conjunction with total B12 (...) and its bioactive protein-bound form, holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC), Hcy, and MMA are the preferred serum biomarkers utilized to determine B12 status. Clinically, vitamin B12 deficiency leads to neurological deterioration and megaloblastic anemia, and, if left untreated, to death. Subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency (usually defined as a total serum B12 of <200 pmol/L) presents asymptomatically or with rather subtle generic symptoms that oftentimes are mistakenly ascribed to unrelated disorders

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2016 Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences

80. Delayed auditory conduction in diabetes: is metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency responsible? (PubMed)

Delayed auditory conduction in diabetes: is metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency responsible? The present study aims to evaluate the functional integrity of the auditory pathway in patients with diabetes taking metformin. A further aim is to assess its association with vitamin B12 deficiency induced by metformin. Thirty diabetics taking metformin and 30 age-matched non-diabetic controls were enrolled. Stimulus-related potentials and vitamin B12 levels were evaluated in all the subjects (...) . The diabetics showed deficient vitamin B12 levels and delayed wave III latency and III-V interpeak latency in the right ear and delayed Na and Pa wave latencies in the left ear compared with the controls. The dose and duration of metformin showed no association with the stimulusrelated potentials. Therefore, although vitamin B12 levels were deficient and auditory conduction impairment was present in the diabetics on metformin, this impairment cannot be attributed to the vitamin B12 deficiency.

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2016 Functional Neurology

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