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Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency is common, and the incidence increases with age. Most people with vitamin B12 deficiency are treated in primary care with intramuscular (IM) vitamin B12. Doctors may not be prescribing oral vitamin B12 formulations because they may be unaware of this option or have concerns regarding its effectiveness.To assess the effects of oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular (...) by Cochrane. Our primary outcomes were serum vitamin B12 levels, clinical signs and symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency, and adverse events. Secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life, acceptability to patients, haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume, total homocysteine and serum methylmalonic acid levels, and socioeconomic effects. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for important outcomes. We did not perform meta-analyses due to the small number of included trials
Fortification of staple foods with vitamin A for vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A deficiency is a significant public health problem in many low- and middle-income countries, especially affecting young children, women of reproductive age, and pregnant women. Fortification of staple foods with vitamin A has been used to increase vitamin A consumption among these groups.To assess the effects of fortifying staple foods with vitamin A for reducing vitamin A deficiency and improving health-related (...) the studies were conducted in low- and upper-middle income countries where vitamin A deficiency was a public health issue. One of the included trials did not contribute data to the outcomes of interest.Three trials compared provision of staple foods fortified with vitamin A versus unfortified staple food, five trials compared provision of staple foods fortified with vitamin A plus other micronutrients versus unfortified staple foods, and two trials compared provision of staple foods fortified with vitamin
Prophylactic vitamin K for the prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in preterm neonates. Vitamin K is necessary for the synthesis of coagulation factors. Term infants, especially those who are exclusively breast fed, are deficient in vitamin K and consequently may have vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB). Preterm infants are potentially at greater risk for VKDB because of delayed feeding and subsequent delay in the colonization of their gastrointestinal system with vitamin K producing (...) microflora, as well as immature hepatic and hemostatic function. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of vitamin K prophylaxis in the prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in preterm infants.We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 11), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 5 December 2016), Embase (1980 to 5 December 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 5 December 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases
Vitamin B12 deficiencyVitamin B12 deficiency - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Vitamin B12 deficiency Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: June 2018 Summary Classically presents with megaloblastic anaemia, but can also present with peripheral neuropathy and neuropsychiatric complaints. Older people, patients with chronic malabsorption, patients with a history of gastric resection or bypass (...) , and those taking certain medicines (metformin, proton-pump inhibitors) are at risk. Early diagnosis is critical in preventing and halting the progression of neurological disorders such as peripheral neuropathy and dementia. Methylmalonic acid and homocysteine levels may help to diagnose vitamin B12 deficiency at an early, asymptomatic state. Cause of vitamin B12 deficiency should be searched for once a diagnosis is confirmed. Treatment with high-dose oral vitamin B12 therapy may be as effective
Vitamin D deficiencyVitamin D deficiency - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Vitamin D deficiency Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: July 2018 Summary The most common nutritional deficiency worldwide, characterised by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D <50 nanomol/L (<20 nanograms/mL). Vitamin D insufficiency is regarded as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level between 52 and 72 nanomol/L (21 and 29 nanograms (...) /mL). Main causes include sun avoidance, using sun protection, increased skin pigmentation, inadequate dietary and supplemental vitamin D intake, malabsorption syndromes, obesity, and medication use. Acquired and inherited disorders that either reduce or prevent the metabolism of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D also present with biochemical and skeletal abnormalities seen with vitamin D deficiency, but in a more severe form. Most patients are asymptomatic. Severe, prolonged vitamin
Vitamin B3 deficiencyVitamin B3 deficiency - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Vitamin B3 deficiency Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: January 2018 Summary Traditionally caused by consuming a diet mainly composed of corn and maize. Severe deficiency leads to pellagra, which is characterised by dermatitis, dementia, diarrhoea, and eventually death. Lean meat, poultry, fish, and peanuts are rich (...) in vitamin B3 (niacin); milk and eggs are rich sources of tryptophan, the precursor of niacin. Deficiency of vitamins B2 (riboflavin) and/or B6 (pyridoxine) reduces the synthesis of niacin from tryptophan and may lead to secondary vitamin B3 deficiency. Rare in developed countries, although there are still outbreaks in Africa, India, and China, particularly in refugees and displaced people. In developed countries, deficiency is most commonly associated with chronic alcohol abuse, GI malabsorption
Vitamin B1 deficiencyVitamin B1 deficiency - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Vitamin B1 deficiency Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: May 2018 Summary The underlying cause of several clinical syndromes, including Wernicke's encephalopathy, wet beriberi, and dry beriberi, rather than a single clinical condition or diagnosis. Clinical presentation depends on the chronicity of the vitamin B1 (...) (thiamine) deficiency. As signs and symptoms are non-specific, the presence of risk factors raises suspicion of the diagnosis. Risk factors include alcohol dependence, malabsorption, and a diet low in thiamine (e.g., based on polished rice). As there is no rapid diagnostic test for the condition, presumptive treatment should be commenced immediately if vitamin B1 deficiency is suspected. Untreated vitamin B1 deficiency in the form of Wernicke's encephalopathy can result in the need for institutional
Vitamin C deficiencyVitamin C deficiency - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Vitamin C deficiency Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: December 2017 Summary Scurvy is a rare disorder, with epidemics typically affecting populations subject to famine or displacement during wartime. Most key clinical manifestations are related to impaired collagen synthesis. These include bleeding complications (...) (spontaneous petechiae and ecchymoses), friable gingiva and loose teeth, bone pain, and joint effusions. Other complications include heart failure, encephalopathy, and entrapment neuropathies. If not treated promptly, scurvy can be fatal. Complete recovery is anticipated in most patients. Definition Scurvy is a life-threatening condition due to dietary vitamin C deficiency. Those affected are mostly refugees or victims of famine, alcoholics, older people, fad dieters, or children with autism
High frequency of vitamin D deficiency in current pregnant Japanese women associated with UV avoidance and hypo-vitamin D diet. As a consequence of indoor occupations and reduced exposure to sunlight, concerns have been raised that vitamin D deficiency is widespread in developed countries. Vitamin D is known to be associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality in various diseases.To investigate the serum vitamin D status and its relation with life-style factors in pregnant Japanese (...) of vitamin D resulted in an elevation of 1 ng/mL in serum 25(OH)D levels.These findings indicate that vitamin D deficiency is very severe in Japanese pregnant women, especially those rarely exposed to sunlight. The benefits of UV rays should also be informed of when its risk is alerted, and clinicians should propose the adequate UV exposure level.
Which oral vitamin D dosing regimens correct deficiency in pregnancy? Which oral vitamin D dosing regimens correct deficiency in pregnancy? – SPS - Specialist Pharmacy Service – The first stop for professional medicines advice Menu · · Published 23rd January 2019, updated 23rd January 2019 · UKMi This UKMi Q&A evaluates the available evidence at the time of publication to address issues associated with vitamin D dosing in pregnancy Attachments · Word · 150 KB Regional Medicines Information
Risk factors for vitamin A and vitamin D deficiencies in children younger than 5 years in the occupied Palestinian territory: a cross-sectional study. Vitamin A and vitamin D are essential for a child's growth and development. However, research on micronutrients in the occupied Palestinian territory is scarce. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and risk factors of vitamin A and vitamin D deficiencies in children living in the occupied Palestinian territory.The Palestinian (...) Micronutrient Survey in 2013 measured concentrations of vitamin A in 1054 children (569 children in the West Bank and 485 children in the Gaza Strip) and vitamin D in 150 children (75 children in the West Bank and 75 children in the Gaza Strip). Risk factors for deficiency were assessed in children aged 6-59 months using χ2 tests and logistic regression with each of the outcome variables of vitamin A and vitamin D deficiencies. A child was considered deficient if serum concentrations were less than 1·05
Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D3 on Hospital Length of Stay in Critically Ill Patients With Vitamin D Deficiency: The VITdAL-ICU Randomized Clinical Trial PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?
Does vitamin D supplementation reduce falls outcomes among community dwelling older adults at risk of socioeconomic vulnerability and at risk of or with established vitamin D deficiency: a systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears