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Visual Fixation

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1. Quantification of Visual Fixation in Multiple Sclerosis. (PubMed)

Quantification of Visual Fixation in Multiple Sclerosis. Eye movement abnormalities are common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and infrared oculography is a noninvasive method for quantification. This study aims to describe and classify abnormalities of visual fixation and their clinical relevance in MS.A validated standardized infrared oculography protocol, Demonstrate Eye Movement Networks with Saccades, was used for quantifying gaze stability during a fixation task in MS patients and healthy (...) controls. Saccadic intrusions, gaze drift, and stability of fixation around the drift line were used to subclassify MS patients by performing receiver operating characteristic analyses of different parameters. The relationship between the presence of abnormalities of fixation and visual functioning was analyzed using logistic regression models, which was adjusted for possible confounders.This cross-sectional study included 213 subjects with MS and 57 healthy controls. Square wave jerk abnormalities

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2019 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

2. Visual Fixation Assessment in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness Based on Brain-Computer Interface (PubMed)

Visual Fixation Assessment in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness Based on Brain-Computer Interface Visual fixation is an item in the visual function subscale of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). Sometimes clinicians using the behavioral scales find it difficult to detect because of the motor impairment in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs). Brain-computer interface (BCI) can be used to improve clinical assessment because it directly detects the brain response (...) to an external stimulus in the absence of behavioral expression. In this study, we designed a BCI system to assist the visual fixation assessment of DOC patients. The results from 15 patients indicated that three showed visual fixation in both CRS-R and BCI assessments and one did not show such behavior in the CRS-R assessment but achieved significant online accuracy in the BCI assessment. The results revealed that electroencephalography-based BCI can detect the brain response for visual fixation. Therefore

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2018 Neuroscience bulletin

3. Visual Fixation Instability in Multiple Sclerosis Measured Using SLO-OCT. (PubMed)

Visual Fixation Instability in Multiple Sclerosis Measured Using SLO-OCT. Precise measurements of visual fixation and its instability were recorded during optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a marker of neural network dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS), which could be used to monitor disease progression or response to treatment.A total of 16 MS patients and 26 normal subjects underwent 30 seconds of scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO)-based eye tracking during OCT scanning of retinal (...) layer thickness. Study groups consisted of normal eyes, MS eyes without prior optic neuritis (MS wo ON), and MS eyes with prior optic neuritis (MS + ON). Kernel density estimation quantified fixation instability from the distribution of fixation points on the retina. In MS wo ON eyes, fixation instability was compared to other measures of visual and neurologic function.Fixation instability was increased in MS wo ON eyes (0.062 deg2) compared to normal eyes (0.030 deg2, P = 0.015). A further increase

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

4. Visual Fixation and Scan Patterns of Dentists Viewing Dental Periapical Radiographs: An Eye Tracking Pilot Study. (PubMed)

Visual Fixation and Scan Patterns of Dentists Viewing Dental Periapical Radiographs: An Eye Tracking Pilot Study. The visual search patterns of dentists and the areas that attract their attention when interpreting dental periapical radiographs are currently unknown. This research identifies areas and patterns of visual fixation when observing dental periapical radiographs.In an observational study using eye tracking technology and a convenience sample of 44 observers, the interpretations of 4 (...) dental periapical radiographs were recorded using Camtasia Software (TechSmith, Okemos, MI) with a gaze tracking "bubble" denoting where within the radiograph the observers' eyes gazed. The recorded observations included the scanning pattern, the area of first fixation, and revisits of areas. Also noted was whether the area of first fixation or revisit was radiopaque, radiolucent, or of normal radiodensity and whether it was a coronal or radicular area.The first fixation is more likely to be an area

2018 Journal of Endodontics

5. Visual acuity, endothelial cell density and polymegathism after iris-fixated lens implantation (PubMed)

Visual acuity, endothelial cell density and polymegathism after iris-fixated lens implantation The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual acuity as well as endothelial cell density (ECD) and polymegathism after iris-fixated lens (Artiflex® AC 401) implantation for correction of moderate to high myopia.In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 55 eyes from 29 patients undergoing iris-fixated lens implantation for correction of myopia (-5.00 to -15.00 D) from 2007 to 2014 were (...) evaluated. Uncorrected visual acuity, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, refraction, ECD and polymegathism (coefficient of variation [CV] in the sizes of endothelial cells) were measured preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively.In the sixth month of follow-up, the uncorrected vision acuity was 20/25 or better in 81.5% of the eyes. The best-corrected visual acuity was 20/30 or better in 96.3% of the eyes, and more than 92% of the eyes had a refraction score of ±1 D from the target refraction

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2018 Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)

6. Visualization of 14CO2 gas fixation by plants (PubMed)

Visualization of 14CO2 gas fixation by plants Using the real-time radioisotope imaging system (RRIS), we present the carbon dioxide gas fixation process of a soybean plant applying the 14C-labeled gas. When 14CO2 gas was supplied to the selected mature leaf, the fixed carbon, photosynthate, was transferred and accumulated to the younger leaves preferentially within 24 h. When 14CO2 gas was supplied to the younger leaves, fixed carbon was hardly moved. In the case of the pods, fixed 14CO2 gas

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2018 Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

7. Selective modulation of visual sensitivity during fixation (PubMed)

Selective modulation of visual sensitivity during fixation During periods of steady fixation, we make small-amplitude ocular movements, termed microsaccades, at a rate of 1-2 every second. Early studies provided evidence that visual sensitivity is reduced during microsaccades-akin to the well-established suppression associated with larger saccades. However, the results of more recent work suggest that microsaccades may alter retinal input in a manner that enhances visual sensitivity to some (...) , while sensitivity is enhanced most for stimuli of 1-2 cycles/°, spatial frequencies at which we are already most sensitive in the absence of eye movements. We present a model in which the tuning of suppression and facilitation is explained by delayed lateral inhibition between spatial frequency channels. Our data show that eye movements actively modulate visual sensitivity even during fixation: the detectability of images at different spatial scales can be increased or decreased depending on when

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2018 Journal of neurophysiology

8. Visual Search in Amblyopia: Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements and Suboptimal Sampling Strategies. (PubMed)

Visual Search in Amblyopia: Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements and Suboptimal Sampling Strategies. Microsaccades shift the image on the fovea and counteract visual fading. They are also thought to serve as an optimal sampling strategy while viewing complex visual scenes. The goal of our study was to assess visual search in amblyopic children.Twenty-one amblyopic children with varying severity of amblyopia and 10 healthy controls were recruited. Eye movements were recorded using infrared video (...) -oculography during amblyopic and fellow eye viewing while the subjects performed (1) visual fixation, (2) exploration of a blank scene, and (3) visual search task (spot the difference between two images). The number of correctly identified picture differences and reaction time were recorded. Microsaccade, saccades, and intersaccadic drifts were analyzed in patients without latent nystagmus (LN). Slow phase velocities were computed for patients with LN.Both patients with and without LN were able to spot

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

9. The area of fixation covaries with short-term changes in visual acuity after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment in patients with diabetic macular oedema. (PubMed)

The area of fixation covaries with short-term changes in visual acuity after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment in patients with diabetic macular oedema. Diabetic maculopathy can be treated with intravitreal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. However, the therapy is not effective in all patients, and it would be desirable to have parameters for differentiating patients who will benefit from treatment from those who will not. Retinal fixation has (...) been shown to be impaired in patients with low visual acuity (VA) secondary to macular disease, but the changes in fixational eye movements after anti-VEGF treatment for diabetic maculopathy have not been investigated.Retinal fixation was studied in 29 patients with diabetic macular oedema before three monthly anti-VEGF injections, and 1 and 4 months after the last injection. The change in VA was correlated with changes in area, frequency, amplitude and total number of fixational saccades.During

2018 Acta ophthalmologica

10. Beyond fixation durations: Recurrence quantification analysis reveals spatiotemporal dynamics of infant visual scanning. (PubMed)

Beyond fixation durations: Recurrence quantification analysis reveals spatiotemporal dynamics of infant visual scanning. Standard looking-duration measures in eye-tracking data provide only general quantitative indices, while details of the spatiotemporal structuring of fixation sequences are lost. To overcome this, various tools have been developed to measure the dynamics of fixations. However, these analyses are only useful when stimuli have high perceptual similarity and they require (...) the previous definition of areas of interest (AOIs). Although these methods have been widely applied in adult studies, relatively little is known about the temporal structuring of infant gaze-foraging behaviors such as variability of scanning over time or individual scanning patterns. Thus, to shed more light on the spatiotemporal characteristics of infant fixation sequences we apply for the first time a new methodology for nonlinear time-series analysis-the recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). We

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2018 Journal of vision

11. Retrospective Study of Visual Outcomes and Complications After Sutureless, Flapless, and Glueless Intrascleral Fixation of Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens in Children and Young Adults. (PubMed)

Retrospective Study of Visual Outcomes and Complications After Sutureless, Flapless, and Glueless Intrascleral Fixation of Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens in Children and Young Adults. To evaluate the visual outcomes and complications after sutureless, flapless, and glueless intrascleral fixation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) in patients between the ages of 5 and 20 years.Children with gross subluxated lenses and aphakia following intracapsular cataract extraction (...) with inadequate posterior capsular support underwent intrascleral fixation of a standard three-piece posterior chamber IOL without sutures, flaps, or glue. A retrospective study of 15 eyes of 11 patients with a mean follow-up period of 6 months was performed. The main outcome measures were improvement in visual acuity (best corrected [BCVA] and uncorrected [UCVA]) and early and late postoperative complications.Preoperative to postoperative mean UCVA changed from 1.34 ± 0.35 to 0.36 ± 0.18 logarithm

2017 Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus

12. Medications influencing central cholinergic pathways affect fixation stability, saccadic response time and associated eye movement dynamics during a temporally-cued visual reaction time task. (PubMed)

Medications influencing central cholinergic pathways affect fixation stability, saccadic response time and associated eye movement dynamics during a temporally-cued visual reaction time task. Anticholinergic medications largely exert their effects due to actions on the muscarinic receptor, which mediates the functions of acetylcholine in the peripheral and central nervous systems. In the central nervous system, acetylcholine plays an important role in the modulation of movement.This study (...) investigated the effects of over-the-counter medications with varying degrees of central anticholinergic properties on fixation stability, saccadic response time and the dynamics associated with this eye movement during a temporally-cued visual reaction time task, in order to establish the significance of central cholinergic pathways in influencing eye movements during reaction time tasks.Twenty-two participants were recruited into the placebo-controlled, human double-blind, four-way crossover

2017 Psychopharmacology

13. Metrics and Acquisition Modes for Fixation Stability as a Visual Function Biomarker. (PubMed)

Metrics and Acquisition Modes for Fixation Stability as a Visual Function Biomarker. To compare different metrics and acquisition modes of fixation stability as a new visual function biomarker in a large cohort of patients with ABCA4-related Stargardt disease from the multicenter prospective ProgStar study.Fixation was tested during a separate fixation exam and also dynamically during a sensitivity exam, using fundus-tracking microperimetry (Nidek MP-1). Fixation data were analyzed using (...) the bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA), the 2/4 degree method, and the Fujii classification.In a total of 235 patients, the mean BCEA was larger when measured during the sensitivity exam (418 eyes; 12.5 vs. 4.6 deg2 during the fixation task in 427 eyes). Correlations between the two tests were generally weak. Fixation stability during the sensitivity test was significantly correlated with visual acuity. Comparing the BCEA values and the corresponding Fujii categories for these eyes revealed ranges

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2017 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

14. Transfer of an induced preferred retinal locus of fixation to everyday life visual tasks. (PubMed)

Transfer of an induced preferred retinal locus of fixation to everyday life visual tasks. Subjects develop a preferred retinal locus of fixation (PRL) under simulation of central scotoma. If systematic relocations are applied to the stimulus position, PRLs manifest at a location in favor of the stimulus relocation. The present study investigates whether the induced PRL is transferred to important visual tasks in daily life, namely pursuit eye movements, signage reading, and text reading (...) . In addition, retention of the behavior was also studied. Results showed that the PRL position was transferred to the pursuit task and that the vertical location of the PRL was maintained on the text reading task. However, when reading signage, a function-driven change in PRL location was observed. In addition, retention of the PRL position was observed over weeks and months. These results indicate that PRL positions can be induced and may further transferred to everyday life visual tasks, without

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2017 Journal of vision

15. FEATURES OF THE MACULA AND CENTRAL VISUAL FIELD AND FIXATION PATTERN IN PATIENTS WITH RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. (PubMed)

FEATURES OF THE MACULA AND CENTRAL VISUAL FIELD AND FIXATION PATTERN IN PATIENTS WITH RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. To evaluate macular features and fixation pattern in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) compared with healthy controls, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and MP-1 microperimetry.Eighty-one eyes of 81 patients with RP and 90 eyes of 90 healthy subjects were assessed. The central foveal thickness, subfoveal choroidal thickness, ellipsoid zone length, and the mean (...) retinal sensitivities and fixation characteristics were evaluated by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and MP-1 microperimetry.Compared with healthy subjects, patients with central macular thinning had lower best corrected visual acuity, central foveal thickness, ellipsoid zone length, retinal sensitivity, and visual field than patients with cystoid macular edema or no macular change (all P < 0.001). Correlations between fixation characteristics and best corrected visual acuity, central

2017 Retina

16. Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Femoral Tunnel Visualization for Button Fixation (PubMed)

Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Femoral Tunnel Visualization for Button Fixation Arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) remains one of the most commonly performed procedures in orthopaedic surgery. We describe a technique to visualize the button being advanced through the femoral tunnel using an arthroscope placed in the anteromedial portal. Looking into the femoral tunnel in line with the sutures, this technique allows the surgeon to directly visualize (...) the femoral button as it traverses the femoral tunnel and confirms that it is engaged over the femoral cortex. Certain complications can arise, however, with the use of a suspensory fixation with a button on the femoral cortex. This method can decrease operative time and complication rates.

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2017 Arthroscopy techniques

17. Equal Primary Fixation of Resurfacing Stem, but Inferior Cup Fixation With Anterolateral vs Posterior Surgical Approach. A 2-Year Blinded Randomized Radiostereometric and Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Study of Metal-on-Metal Hip Resurfacing Arthroplast

Equal Primary Fixation of Resurfacing Stem, but Inferior Cup Fixation With Anterolateral vs Posterior Surgical Approach. A 2-Year Blinded Randomized Radiostereometric and Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Study of Metal-on-Metal Hip Resurfacing Arthroplast The anterolateral (AntLat) surgical approach may spare the blood supply to the femoral head and improve the accuracy of cup positioning in metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Thereby, potentially lessen complications such as avascular (...) head necrosis, femoral neck narrowing and fracture, improve implant fixation, and lessen periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD) loss.Between November 2008 and January 2012, a randomized clinical trial was performed at Aarhus University Hospital. A total of 49 patients (28 males) were allocated to metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty by the AntLat (n = 25) or the posterior (Post; n = 24) surgical approach. Patients were followed with radiostereometric analysis, measurements

2017 EvidenceUpdates

18. A comparative retrospective study of locking plate fixation versus a dedicated external fixator of 3- and 4-part proximal humerus fractures: Results after 5 years. (PubMed)

or external fixation system for a type III-IV proximal humerus fracture.Sixty-nine patients went surgery for type III-IV PHF between January 2011 and January 2014. According to the Neer classification, fractures were classified as type III in 50 cases (72,46%) and type IV in 19 cases (24,56%). 45 patients were treated with plates (65%) and 24 external fixators (35%). The patients' mean age was 62 years (range, 31-87 y). At five years, 60 patients (86,9%) were assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS (...) A comparative retrospective study of locking plate fixation versus a dedicated external fixator of 3- and 4-part proximal humerus fractures: Results after 5 years. Fractures of the proximal humerus (PHF) represent a common injury among orthopedic department; especially for three- and four-part fractures no consensus about the best treatment is still achieved. The aim of our study was to compare clinical and radiological outcomes in patients alternatively treated with plates and screws

2019 Injury

19. Double on-lay fixation using all suture-type anchor for subpectoral biceps tenodesis has favorable functional outcomes and leads to less cosmetic deformities than single on-lay fixation. (PubMed)

all-suture type anchor and arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Single and double anchor on-lay fixations were performed in 69 patients (group A) and 61 patients (group B), respectively. In 16 patients of group A and 36 patients of group B, a metallic wire was embedded at tenodesis site and difference of wire location pre-and postoperatively was measured using simple radiography.In both groups, the mean visual analogue scale (VAS) score during motion, the mean UCLA and constant scores significantly (...) Double on-lay fixation using all suture-type anchor for subpectoral biceps tenodesis has favorable functional outcomes and leads to less cosmetic deformities than single on-lay fixation. This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes between single on-lay and double on-lay subpectoral biceps tenodesis (SPBT) using all-suture type anchor in patients with concomitant long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) lesions and rotator cuff tears.The study included 130 patients who underwent SPBT using

2019 Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy

20. Comparative effectiveness of all levels miniplate fixation versus a modified hybrid fixation in cervical expansive open-door laminoplasty. (PubMed)

of 67 patients who underwent EOLP from July 2015 to June 2016 were retrospectively analyzed, with 33 in the modified group and 34 in the all miniplate group based on their surgical approaches. Laminae were kept open with alternate levels miniplate and anchor fixation in the modified group, while with all levels miniplate fixation in the all miniplate group. Medical costs and clinical results including Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores and occurrences (...) Comparative effectiveness of all levels miniplate fixation versus a modified hybrid fixation in cervical expansive open-door laminoplasty. In this study, we first reported of a modified hybrid fixation method in expansive open-door laminoplasty (EOLP) in order to reduce medical costs. The purpose of the present study is to compare the surgical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of the modified fixation with all levels miniplate fixation in EOLP for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy.Data

2019 Medicine

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