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Viral Pneumonia

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1. Pneumonia severity index in viral community acquired pneumonia in adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pneumonia severity index in viral community acquired pneumonia in adults. Pneumonia severity index (PSI) is an important scoring system that can assess the severity of community acquired pneumonia and determine admission status. However, there is a lack of research on whether this scoring system can be applied to viral community acquired pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of PSI in viral community acquired pneumonia. This retrospective cohort study included (...) 1,434 adult patients (aged ≥18 years) who were admitted to the emergency department of a university hospital during 2013-2015 because of community-acquired pneumonia. Viral infections were diagnosed by multiplex PCR. Patients diagnosed with non-viral community-acquired pneumonia were included in the control group (N = 1,173). The main outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to calculate the risk of death. Respiratory viruses were detected in 261

2019 PLoS ONE

2. Comparison of viral infection in healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison of viral infection in healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Although viruses are known to be the second most common etiological factor in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), the respiratory viral profile of the patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) has not yet been elucidated. We investigated the prevalence and the clinical impact of respiratory virus infection in adult patients with HCAP.Patients admitted with HCAP or CAP (...) , between January and December 2016, to a tertiary referral hospital in Korea, were prospectively enrolled, and virus identification was performed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Among 452 enrolled patients (224 with HCAP, 228 with CAP), samples for respiratory viruses were collected from sputum or endotracheal aspirate in 430 (95.1%) patients and from nasopharyngeal specimens in 22 (4.9%) patients. Eighty-seven (19.2%) patients had a viral infection, and the proportion

2018 PLoS ONE

3. YKL-40 levels are associated with disease severity and prognosis of viral pneumonia, but not available in bacterial pneumonia in children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

YKL-40 levels are associated with disease severity and prognosis of viral pneumonia, but not available in bacterial pneumonia in children. Viral pneumonia is the main type of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. YKL-40, a chitinase-like protein, is regarded as a biomarker of the degree of inflammation.Children who were diagnosed with CAP, including viral pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia, and dual infection, were included in the cohort study. The pathogenic diagnosis depended on PCR (...) initial admission levels to day 5 post-admission were correlated with disease severity. The multiple logistic analysis indicated the decreased extent of serum YKL-40 level as an independent prognostic predictor of severe cases in patients with viral pneumonia.Reductions in serum YKL-40 levels on day 5 after receiving therapy is a possible prognostic biomarker for children with viral pneumonia.

2018 BMC Pediatrics

4. Effectiveness of influenza and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines against influenza-related outcomes including pneumonia and acute exacerbation of cardiopulmonary diseases: Analysis by dominant viral subtype and vaccine matching. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effectiveness of influenza and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines against influenza-related outcomes including pneumonia and acute exacerbation of cardiopulmonary diseases: Analysis by dominant viral subtype and vaccine matching. Influenza and pneumonia are leading causes of morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Although vaccination is a main strategy to prevent these infectious diseases, concerns remain with respect to vaccine effectiveness.During three influenza seasons (2014-2015 (...) , 2015-2016 and 2016-2017), we evaluated the effectiveness of the influenza and pneumococcal vaccines against pneumonia and acute exacerbation of cardiopulmonary diseases among the elderly aged ≥65 years with influenza-like illness (ILI). Demographic and clinical data were collected prospectively.Among 2,119 enrolled cases, 1,302 (61.4%) and 871 (41.1%) received the influenza vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23), respectively. During an A/H3N2-dominant season with poor

2018 PLoS ONE

5. Pure viral sepsis secondary to Community-Acquired Pneumonia in adults: risk and prognostic factors. (Abstract)

Pure viral sepsis secondary to Community-Acquired Pneumonia in adults: risk and prognostic factors. We investigated the risk and prognostic factors of pure viral sepsis in adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), using the Sepsis-3 definition. Pure viral sepsis was found in 3% of all patients admitted to the emergency department with a diagnosis of CAP (138 out of 4,028), 19% of all CAP patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (138 out of 722) and 61% of all patients (...) with a diagnosis of viral CAP (138 out of 225). Our data indicate that males and patients aged ≥65 years are at increased risk of viral sepsis.© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

2019 Journal of Infectious Diseases

6. Procalcitonin to distinguish viral from bacterial pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (Abstract)

Procalcitonin to distinguish viral from bacterial pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Because of the diverse etiologies of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and the limitations of current diagnostic modalities, serum procalcitonin levels have been proposed as a novel tool to guide antibiotic therapy. Outcome data from procalcitonin-guided therapy trials have shown similar mortality, but the essential question is whether the sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin levels (...) enable the practitioner to distinguish bacterial pneumonia, which requires antibiotic therapy, from viral pneumonia, which does not. In this meta-analysis of 12 studies of 2,408 patients with CAP, that included etiologic diagnoses and sufficient data to enable analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of serum procalcitonin were 0.55 (95% CI = 0.37, 0.71; I2 = 95.5%) and 0.76 (95% CI = 0.62, 0.86; I2 = 94.1%), respectively. Thus, a procalcitonin level is unlikely to provide reliable evidence either

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

7. Combination of clinical symptoms and blood biomarkers can improve discrimination between bacterial or viral community-acquired pneumonia in children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Combination of clinical symptoms and blood biomarkers can improve discrimination between bacterial or viral community-acquired pneumonia in children. Differentiating bacterial from viral pneumonia is important for guiding targeted management and judicious use of antibiotics. We assessed if clinical characteristics and blood inflammatory biomarkers could be used to distinguish bacterial from viral pneumonia.Western Australian children (≤17 years) hospitalized with radiologically-confirmed (...) community-acquired pneumonia were recruited and clinical symptoms and management data were collected. C-reactive protein (CRP), white cell counts (WCC) and absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) were measured as part of routine care. Clinical characteristics and biomarker levels were compared between cases with definite bacterial pneumonia (clinical empyema and/or bacteria detected in blood or pleural fluid), presumed viral pneumonia (presence of ≥1 virus in nasopharyngeal swab without criteria for definite

2019 BMC pulmonary medicine

8. Population-based Incidence of Childhood Pneumonia Associated With Viral Infections in Bangladesh. (Abstract)

Population-based Incidence of Childhood Pneumonia Associated With Viral Infections in Bangladesh. The contribution of respiratory viruses to childhood pneumonia in tropical low- and middle-income countries is poorly understood. We used population-based respiratory illness surveillance in children 5 years of age or younger in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to characterize these illnesses.We conducted weekly home visits to children who were referred to clinic for fever or respiratory symptoms. Standardized (...) with eligible illnesses, including 6345 pneumonia episodes (incidence of 36 episodes/100 child-years). Annual incidence of pneumonia/100 child-years ranged from 88.3 for children 0-6 months of age to 13.1 for those 36-60 months of age. Of 1248 pneumonia visits with laboratory testing, 803 (64%) had detection of viral pathogens, including 274 respiratory syncytial virus (22% of pneumonia visits with laboratory testing; incidence 7.9/100 child-years), 244 adenovirus (19%; 7.0/100 child-years), 198 human

2019 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

9. Viral Pathogen Detection by Metagenomics and Pan Viral Group PCR in Children with Pneumonia Lacking Identifiable Etiology. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Viral Pathogen Detection by Metagenomics and Pan Viral Group PCR in Children with Pneumonia Lacking Identifiable Etiology. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of pediatric hospitalization. Pathogen identification fails in approximately 20% of children but is critical for optimal treatment and prevention of hospital-acquired infections. We used two broad-spectrum detection strategies to identify pathogens in test-negative children with CAP and asymptomatic (...) controls.Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs from 70 children <5 years with CAP of unknown etiology and 90 asymptomatic controls were tested by next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq) and pan viral group (PVG) PCR for 19 viral families. Association of viruses with CAP was assessed by adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals controlling for season and age group.RNA-seq/PVG PCR detected previously missed, putative pathogens in 34% of patients. Putative viral pathogens included human parainfluenza

2017 Journal of Infectious Diseases

10. Secondary organizing pneumonia following viral pneumonia caused by severe influenza B: a case report and literature reviews. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Secondary organizing pneumonia following viral pneumonia caused by severe influenza B: a case report and literature reviews. Some reported that organizing pneumonia (OP) may occur after influenza A infections including swine-origin influenza A (H1N1). However, OP associated with influenza B infection has never been reported. We report the first case of secondary OP associated with viral pneumonia caused by influenza B.A 23-year old woman was diagnosed as viral pneumonia caused by type B (...) influenza. Despite of antiviral therapy, abnormal chest shadows were not improved. Bronchoscopy and transbronchial lung biopsy showed organizing pneumonia due to viral pneumonia caused by influenza B. Corticosteroid therapy was started at 30 mg daily (0.5 mg/kg), and the dose was reduced to 25, 20, 15 or 10 mg per day every month with symptomatic and radiological resolution. Even after corticosteroid therapy was discontinued, we did not confirm disease recurrence.Physicians should be aware

2017 BMC Infectious Diseases

11. Assessing the diagnostic accuracy of PCR-based detection of <i>Streptococcus pneumoniae</i> from nasopharyngeal swabs collected for viral studies in Canadian adults hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia: a Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS) Netw Full Text available with Trip Pro

Assessing the diagnostic accuracy of PCR-based detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae from nasopharyngeal swabs collected for viral studies in Canadian adults hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia: a Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS) Netw Detection and serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae are important to assess the impact of pneumococcal vaccines. This study describes the diagnostic accuracy of PCR-based detection of S. pneumoniae directly from nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs (...) collected for respiratory virus studies.Active surveillance for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalised adults was performed from December 2010 to 2013. Detection of pneumococcal CAP (CAPSpn) was performed by urine antigen detection (UAD), identification of S. pneumoniae in sputum or blood cultures. S. pneumoniae was detected in NP swabs using lytA and cpsA real-time PCR, and serotyping was performed using conventional and real-time multiplex PCRs. For serotyping, the Quellung reaction, PCR

2017 BMJ open

12. Viral infection in community acquired pneumonia patients with fever: a prospective observational study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Viral infection in community acquired pneumonia patients with fever: a prospective observational study Patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by viruses can develop severe complications, which result in hospitalization and death. The purpose of this study was to analyse the aetiology, incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of CAP patients with fever during non-pandemics, and then to provide theoretical basis for accurate diagnosis and treatment in CAP patients.An (...) with fever. Among them, 23.4% were viral-positive by mPCR, with influenza virus most prominent followed by picornavirus. Strong variation in seasonal distribution was shown in viral infections, with peak months from December to February. Patients with influenza infection were likely to be taken to emergency rooms and have respiratory failure with higher creatinine kinase levels and lower white blood cell counts. Streptococcus pneumoniae followed by haemophilus influenzae were the most common bacteria

2018 Journal of thoracic disease

13. Corrigendum: Elucidation of Bacterial Pneumonia-Causing Pathogens in Patients with Respiratory Viral Infection Full Text available with Trip Pro

Corrigendum: Elucidation of Bacterial Pneumonia-Causing Pathogens in Patients with Respiratory Viral Infection This corrects the article on p. 358 in vol. 80, PMID: 28905531.Copyright©2018. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases.

2018 Tuberculosis and respiratory diseases

14. Application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by avian influenza A (H7N9) viral pneumonia: national data from the Chinese multicentre collaboration Full Text available with Trip Pro

Application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by avian influenza A (H7N9) viral pneumonia: national data from the Chinese multicentre collaboration 29310581 2018 05 02 2018 12 02 1471-2334 18 1 2018 01 08 BMC infectious diseases BMC Infect. Dis. Application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by avian influenza A (H7N9) viral pneumonia: national data (...) Female Hemorrhage etiology Hospitals Humans Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype isolation & purification Influenza, Human complications diagnosis virology Male Middle Aged Partial Thromboplastin Time Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated etiology Pneumonia, Viral complications diagnosis Retrospective Studies Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome diagnosis etiology therapy Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Avian influenza A (H7N9) Complications Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) Mortality 2017 08

2018 BMC infectious diseases

15. Role of viral and bacterial pathogens in causing pneumonia among Western Australian children: a case-control study protocol. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Role of viral and bacterial pathogens in causing pneumonia among Western Australian children: a case-control study protocol. Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. Introduction of the conjugate Haemophilus influenzae B and multivalent pneumococcal vaccines in developed countries including Australia has significantly reduced the overall burden of bacterial pneumonia. With the availability of molecular diagnostics, viruses are frequently detected in children (...) with pneumonia either as primary pathogens or predispose to secondary bacterial infection. Many respiratory pathogens that are known to cause pneumonia are also identified in asymptomatic children, so the true contribution of these pathogens to childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains unclear. Since the introduction of pneumococcal vaccines, very few comprehensive studies from developed countries have attempted to determine the bacterial and viral aetiology of pneumonia. We aim to determine

2018 BMJ open

17. An international perspective on hospitalized patients with viral community-acquired pneumonia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

An international perspective on hospitalized patients with viral community-acquired pneumonia. Who should be tested for viruses in patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP), prevalence and risk factors for viral CAP are still debated. We evaluated the frequency of viral testing, virus prevalence, risk factors and treatment coverage with oseltamivir in patients admitted for CAP.Secondary analysis of GLIMP, an international, multicenter, point-prevalence study of hospitalized adults (...) with CAP. Testing frequency, prevalence of viral CAP and treatment with oseltamivir were assessed among patients who underwent a viral swab. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to evaluate risk factors.553 (14.9%) patients with CAP underwent nasal swab. Viral CAP was diagnosed in 157 (28.4%) patients. Influenza virus was isolated in 80.9% of cases. Testing frequency and viral CAP prevalence were inhomogeneous across the participating centers. Obesity (OR 1.59, 95%CI: 1.01-2.48; p = 0.043

2018 European journal of internal medicine

18. Influenza and Viral Pneumonia. (Abstract)

Influenza and Viral Pneumonia. Influenza and other respiratory viruses are commonly identified in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and in immunocompromised patients with pneumonia. Clinically, it is difficult to differentiate viral from bacterial pneumonia. Similarly, the radiological findings of viral infection are nonspecific. The advent of polymerase chain reaction testing has enormously facilitated the identification of respiratory viruses, which has (...) important implications for infection control measures and treatment. Currently, treatment options for patients with viral infection are limited, but there is ongoing research on the development and clinical testing of new treatment regimens and strategies.Published by Elsevier Inc.

2018 Clinics in Chest Medicine

19. Pneumonia (community-acquired): antimicrobial prescribing

Society [BTS] guideline on community-acquired pneumonia in adults, 2009). The main bacterial pathogen is Streptococcus pneumoniae (NICE clinical knowledge summaries [CKS] on chest infections in adults, 2015), however Mycoplasma pneumoniae occurs in outbreaks approximately every 4 years in the UK and is much more common in school-aged children (BTS 2009). Although bacterial infection is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, viral infection causes approximately 13% of cases in adults (...) pneumonia can be caused by a viral infection, it is difficult to distinguish this from a bacterial infection. Based on the high mortality rate, the committee agreed that all people with community-acquired pneumonia should be offered an antibiotic. The committee was aware that the NICE guideline on pneumonia in adults (2014) recommends antibiotic treatment as soon as possible, and within 4 hours for people admitted to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia. The committee agreed that this was also

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

20. A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)

1,18* , Yong-Yan Wang 6,7* , Xing-Huan Wang 1,2* , for the Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University Novel Coronavirus Management and Research Team, Evidence-Based Medicine Chapter of China International Exchange and Promotive Association for Medical and Health Care (CPAM) Abstract In December 2019, a new type viral pneumonia cases occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province; and then named “2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)” by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 12 January 2020. For it is a never been (...) A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version) POSITION ARTICLE AND GUIDELINE Open Access A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version) Ying-Hui Jin 1 , Lin Cai 2 , Zhen-Shun Cheng 3 , Hong Cheng 4 , Tong Deng 1,5 , Yi-Pin Fan 6,7 , Cheng Fang 1 , Di Huang 1 , Lu-Qi Huang 6,7 , Qiao Huang 1 , Yong Han 2 ,BoHu 8 , Fen Hu 8

2020 Covid-19 Ad hoc guidelines

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