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Urine Uric Acid

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1781. Uric acid nephrolithiasis: proton titration of an essential molecule? (Abstract)

Uric acid nephrolithiasis: proton titration of an essential molecule? The majority of uric acid nephrolithiasis in humans occurs in the absence of frank hyperuricosuria and is primarily a disease of excessively low urinary pH. Uric acid is substantially less soluble than urate salts so in low urine pH urate is protonated, thus favoring precipitation even under what is considered physiologic concentrations of total urinary uric acid/urate. This commentary examines the rationales behind (...) the existence of uric acid in urine and body fluids in vertebrate evolution.The purpose of uric acid in arthropod, avian and reptilian species is to enable nitrogen excretion in solid state without loss of water. The re-emergence of uric acid in higher primates as an end product of metabolism is intriguing since urea functions perfectly well as a nitrogenous waste. Uric acid must purvey important physiologic functions in primate biology. Numerous roles of uric acid as an antioxidant, immune signaling

2006 Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension

1782. Longitudinal study of urinary excretion of phosphate, calcium, and uric acid in mutant NHERF-1 null mice. (Full text)

the changes in the urinary excretion of phosphate, calcium, uric acid, and sodium in male and female wild-type and NHERF-1 null mice over a time period from 12 to 54 wk of age. Young male and female NHERF-1(-/-) mice demonstrated increased urinary excretion of phosphate and urine phosphate/creatinine ratios. There was an age-related decline in the phosphate/creatinine ratio in mutant mice such that there were no differences between wild-type and NHERF-1(-/-) by 24 to 30 wk of age despite the continued (...) presence of hypophosphatemia. Male and female NHERF-1 null mice also demonstrate increased urine calcium/creatinine and uric acid/creatinine ratios compared with wild-type controls. These studies indicate defects in the renal tubule transport of phosphate, calcium, and uric acid in NHERF-1(-/-) male and female mice that could account for the increased deposition of calcium in the papilla of null mice.

2006 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology PubMed abstract

1783. Type 2 diabetes increases the risk for uric acid stones. (Full text)

Type 2 diabetes increases the risk for uric acid stones. An increased prevalence of nephrolithiasis has been reported in patients with diabetes. Because insulin resistance, characteristic of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, results in lower urine pH through impaired kidney ammoniagenesis and because a low urine pH is the main factor of uric acid (UA) stone formation, it was hypothesized that type 2 diabetes should favor the formation of UA stones. Therefore, the distribution

2006 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology PubMed abstract

1784. Uric acid crystals in the semen of a patient with symptoms of chronic prostatitis. (Abstract)

the symptoms.Study of chemical and morphological characteristics of crystals found in the semen using standard semen analysis and transrectal ultrasound. Analysis of serum, urine, and seminal plasma uric acid levels.Uric acid crystals were detected in semen. A transrectal ultrasound revealed the presence of microcalcifications in the prostate gland. After treatment with a low purine diet, the patient experienced considerable relief of the clinical symptoms. Determination of uric acid and creatinine levels (...) Uric acid crystals in the semen of a patient with symptoms of chronic prostatitis. To report the finding of red and brownish precipitates with morphology and chemistry compatible with uric acid crystals in semen in a patient with symptoms of chronic prostatitis.Case report.Academic clinical biochemistry and immunology laboratory.A 35-year-old man with clinical symptoms of prostatitis.Uric acid crystals were detected in the semen samples. Treatment with a low purine diet relieved

2006 Fertility and Sterility

1785. Uric acid correlates with the severity of histopathological parameters in IgA nephropathy. (Full text)

with histopathological parameters in 202 patients with IgAN. Morphological changes in glomerular, tubulointerstitial and vascular tissue were semiquantitatively graded into three classes. Mesangial proliferation activity and the amount of inflammatory cells were also evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of Ki-67 (MIB-1), CD45 (LCA) and CD68 stainings. Serum uric acid, triglycerides and cholesterol, urine protein excretion (UPE), blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Smoking habits (...) Uric acid correlates with the severity of histopathological parameters in IgA nephropathy. Immunoglobulin-A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common chronic glomerulonephritis worldwide. Many clinical and histopathological risk factors for progression have been found previously. Recently, metabolic risk factors, such as hyperuricaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia, also have been associated with the progression of IgAN.In the present study we correlated clinical and metabolic risk factors

2005 Transplantation PubMed abstract

1786. Serum uric acid and target organ damage in primary hypertension. (Full text)

, untreated patients with essential hypertension. Left ventricular mass index and carotid intima-media thickness were assessed by ultrasound scan. Albuminuria was measured as the albumin to creatinine ratio in 3 nonconsecutive first morning urine samples. Overall, patients with target organ damage had significantly higher levels of serum uric acid as compared with those without it (presence versus absence of left ventricular hypertrophy, P=0.04; carotid abnormalities, P<0.05; microalbuminuria, P<0.004 (...) Serum uric acid and target organ damage in primary hypertension. The role of serum uric acid as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and renal morbidity is controversial. A better understanding of its relationship with preclinical organ damage may help clarify the mechanism(s) implicated in the development of early cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the association between uric acid and the presence and degree of target organ damage in 425 (265 males, 160 females) middle-aged

2005 Hypertension PubMed abstract

1787. Sleep-disordered breathing and uric acid in overweight and obese children and adolescents. (Abstract)

Sleep-disordered breathing and uric acid in overweight and obese children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine whether the severity of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) was associated with increased levels of uric acid (UA), both in serum and in urine, as a marker of tissue hypoxia, in a sample of overweight and obese subjects, irrespective of indexes of adiposity.Consecutive subjects underwent polysomnography, fasting blood sampling, and 24-h urine collection. Outcome (...) parameters were serum UA, UA excretion ([24-h urinary UA x serum creatinine]/urine creatinine) and urinary UA/creatinine ratio.A total of 93 subjects were included (44% boys; mean [+/- SD] age = 11.1 +/- 2.5; 73% obese). A fasting measurement of serum UA levels was available for 62 patients. The respiratory disturbance index was a significant covariate (beta = 0.09 +/- 0.03; p = 0.01) in the regression model for serum UA, controlling for sex (beta = 0.32 +/- 0.29; p = 0.3), puberty (beta = 0.87 +/- 0.34

2007 Chest

1788. The effects of eprosartan, an angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist, on uric acid excretion in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. (Abstract)

The effects of eprosartan, an angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist, on uric acid excretion in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. The effects of antihypertensive agents, including angiotensin II receptor antagonists, on urine uric acid excretion may have important clinical consequences. Therefore, the effects of single and repeated doses of eprosartan on uric acid excretion were evaluated in 57 male patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension in a double-blind (...) predose values in fractional excretion of uric acid (FEua), urine uric acid excretion, urine uric acid to creatinine (Uua/Ucr) ratios, or serum uric acid concentrations after single or repeated doses of eprosartan. Mean Uua/Ucr ratios for eprosartan doses of 50 mg, 100 mg, or 350 mg daily or 150 mg every 12 hours were comparable to those for placebo. Mean FEua values and Uua/Ucr ratios for eprosartan doses of 600 mg, 800 mg, or 1,200 mg daily also were comparable to those for placebo. Single

1998 Journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1789. Uric acid excretion increases during propofol anesthesia. (Abstract)

Uric acid excretion increases during propofol anesthesia. We compared the effect of propofol with that of sevoflurane anesthesia on uric acid (UA) excretion in ASA physical status I and II patients with normal renal function. A propofol group (n = 11) received propofol-nitrous oxide-fentanyl after induction of anesthesia by propofol, while a sevoflurane group (n = 12) received sevoflurane-nitrous oxide-fentanyl after induction of anesthesia by thiamylal. UA, creatinine (Cr), and urea nitrogen (...) concentrations in serum and urine were measured before induction of anesthesia, 1, 2, and 3 h after induction, and on Postoperative Day 1. N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, beta2-microglobulin concentrations, and pH in urine were also examined. Plasma clearance of UA (CUA) and Cr (CCr) were calculated. The hourly concentration and excretion of urine UA were significantly higher than those of the sevoflurane group (P < 0.01). Significant correlations were noted between the hourly urine volume and UA

1997 Anesthesia and analgesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1790. [Effects of allopurinol on uric acid metabolism and lipid peroxidation in ischemic heart disease patients with stable angina]. (Abstract)

and daily urine, lipid peroxidation, the antioxidative system and central hemodynamics were examined in all the examinees. The examination was performed on admission and every 10-14 days of their hospital stay. A combined therapy with erinit and allopurinol led to a significant decrease in serum and daily urinary levels of uric acid and lipid peroxidation antioxidative system and an improvement of central hemodynamics. It is concluded that it is useful to include allopurinol into the combined therapy (...) [Effects of allopurinol on uric acid metabolism and lipid peroxidation in ischemic heart disease patients with stable angina]. The study was undertaken to examine 20 healthy individuals and 60 IHD patients with stable angina of various functional classes. All the examinees were males. By the random sampling method, all the patients were divided into 2 groups: (1) 30 were on erinit and (2) 30 on erinit and allopurinol in conventional therapeutical doses. The level of uric acid in the serum

1993 Kardiologiia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1791. Effect of eprosartan and losartan on uric acid metabolism in patients with essential hypertension. (Abstract)

in hypertensive patients.Outpatient clinic.Following a 2- to 3-week single-blind placebo run-in period, 60 patients with sitting diastolic blood pressure > or = 95 and < or = 114 mmHg were randomized. Fifty-eight patients completed the study.Patients were randomized to receive losartan 50 mg or eprosartan 600 mg once daily for 4 weeks.The primary endpoint was the change in the ratio of urinary uric acid/creatinine in the period 0-4 h of a 24 h urine collection after 4 weeks of treatment. Secondary endpoints (...) Effect of eprosartan and losartan on uric acid metabolism in patients with essential hypertension. The influence of angiotensin II AT-1 receptor antagonists on uric acid metabolism, and the potential differences among them with regard to this effect, remains to be precisely established. This study was designed to compare the effects of losartan and eprosartan on uric acid metabolism in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension.Randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study

1999 Journal of hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1792. The effect of a vegetarian and different omnivorous diets on urinary risk factors for uric acid stone formation. (Abstract)

The effect of a vegetarian and different omnivorous diets on urinary risk factors for uric acid stone formation. About 10-15% of all urinary stones are composed of uric acid. A high urinary uric acid excretion, a low urine volume and an acidic urinary pH value are suggested to be the most important risk factors for uric acid stone formation.The effect of a vegetarian diet and different omnivorous diets on the risk of uric acid crystallization was investigated.Ten healthy male subjects ingested (...) a self-selected meat-containing diet (SD) for two weeks, and three different standardized diets for a period of 5 days each. The Westerntype diet (WD) was representative of the usual dietary habits,whereas the balanced omnivorous diet (OD) and the ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet (VD) were calculated according to the requirements.The risk of uric acid crystallization was highest on the ingestion of diets SD and WD, due to the high urinary uric acid excretion and the acidic urinary pH. The relative

2003 European journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1793. Influence of purine intake on uric acid excretion in infants fed soy infant formulas. (Abstract)

and Three compared the effect of a standard purine soy formula (STD Purine; 180 mg purines/L from RNA) and a reduced purine soy formula (Reduced Purine; 65 mg purines/L; 26 mg/L from RNA and 39 mg/L from ribonucleotides) on urinary uric acid excretion in infants. In Study Two, 11 infants ranging in age from 16 to 128 days of age were fed both formulas in a random crossover design. Complete 72-hour urine collections were done at the end of each 11-day feeding period. Urinary uric acid excretion (...) was expressed as mmol/day. In Study Three, 33 infants were enrolled before eight days of age and randomized to one of the formulas one week later. Spot urine samples were collected at 28 and/or 56 days of age and urinary uric acid concentration was expressed as mmol/mmol creatinine.In Study One, each of the feedings resulted in mean serum uric acid levels within normal reference ranges. Soy formula led to higher serum uric acid levels than human milk, and human milk to levels indistinguishable from cow milk

2000 Journal of the American College of Nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1794. Pathophysiologic basis for normouricosuric uric acid nephrolithiasis. (Full text)

titratable acidity and hypocitraturia. Despite their low baseline urinary pH, uric acid stone formers further acidify their urine after an acid load because of a severely impaired ammonia excretory response. Their characteristics are significantly different from normal volunteers and pure calcium stone formers. Patients with mixed uric acid/calcium stones exhibit intermediate characteristics.We propose that certain patients with normouricosuric uric acid nephrolithiasis have a renal acidification disease (...) . The primary defect lies in renal ammonium excretion, which may be linked to the insulin-resistant state. Although net acid excretion is maintained at the expense of increased titratable acidity and to some degree hypocitraturia, the compromise is acid urine pH and may result in uric acid nephrolithiasis.

2002 Kidney International PubMed abstract

1795. Uric acid nephrolithiasis: current concepts and controversies. (Abstract)

to the epidemiology, pathophysiology, associated medical conditions and management of uric acid stones.The incidence of uric acid stones varies between countries and accounts for 5% to 40% of all urinary calculi. Hyperuricuria, low urinary output and acidic urine are well known contributing factors. However, the most important factor for uric acid stone formation is persistently acidic urine. Gout and myeloproliferative disorders are associated with uric acid stones. Why most patients with gout present (...) with acidic urine yet only 20% have uric acid stone formation remains unclear. The pathophysiological basis for persistent urine acidity also remains unclear although various mechanisms have been proposed. Urinary alkalization with potassium citrate or sodium bicarbonate is a highly effective treatment, resulting in dissolution of existing stones and prevention of recurrence.Acidic urine is a prerequisite for uric acid stone formation and growth. Medical management with urinary alkalization for stone

2002 Journal of Urology

1796. Serum uric acid in hypertensive patients with and without peripheral arterial disease. (Abstract)

Serum uric acid in hypertensive patients with and without peripheral arterial disease. Uric acid is frequently elevated in hypertension. In addition to renal and metabolic disturbances, lower limb ischemia might contribute to hyperuricemia among hypertensives complicated by peripheral arterial disease (PAD).To test the hypothesis that uric acid status is related to lower limb function in hypertensives with PAD.Serum and 24-h urine uric acid levels and other risk factors were examined in 145 (...) hypertensives free of PAD and 166 hypertensives with PAD. Ankle/brachial index (ABI) and absolute claudication distance (in PAD) on a treadmill test (ACD) were assessed.In multiple regression analysis for serum uric acid in the total group, PAD emerged as an independent determinant (P=0.03) next to age (P=0.005), triglycerides (P=0.04), and insulin (P=0.02). Serum uric acid concentrations were higher in hypertensives with PAD (404+/-101 vs. 347+/-80 micromol/l, P<0.001) independent of components

2003 Atherosclerosis

1797. Simultaneous determination of uric acid metabolites allantoin, 6-aminouracil, and triuret in human urine using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (Full text)

Simultaneous determination of uric acid metabolites allantoin, 6-aminouracil, and triuret in human urine using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry Uric acid (UA) can be directly converted to allantoin enzymatically by uricase in most mammals except humans or by reaction with superoxide. UA can react directly with nitric oxide to generate 6-aminouracil and with peroxynitrite to yield triuret; both of these metabolites have been identified in biological samples. We now report a validated (...) high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of these urinary UA metabolites. Urine samples were diluted 10-fold, filtered and directly injected onto HPLC for LC-MS/MS analysis. The urinary metabolites of UA were separated using gradient HPLC. Identification and quantification of UA urinary metabolites was performed with electrospray in positive ion mode by selected-reaction monitoring (SRM). Correlation coefficients were 0.991-0.999 from

2008 Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences PubMed abstract

1798. Urine composition in type 2 diabetes: predisposition to uric acid nephrolithiasis. (Full text)

Urine composition in type 2 diabetes: predisposition to uric acid nephrolithiasis. Type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis in general and has been associated with uric acid stones in particular. The purpose of this study was to identify the metabolic features that place patients with type 2 diabetes at increased risk for uric acid nephrolithiasis. Three groups of individuals were recruited for this outpatient study: patients who have type 2 diabetes and are not stone formers (n (...) = 24), patients who do not have diabetes and are uric acid stone formers (UASF; n = 8), and normal volunteers (NV; n = 59). Participants provided a fasting blood sample and a single 24-h urine collection for stone risk analysis. Twenty-four-hour urine volume and total uric acid did not differ among the three groups. Patients with type 2 diabetes and UASF had lower 24-h urine pH than NV. Urine pH inversely correlated with both body weight and 24-h urine sulfate in all groups. Urine pH remained

2006 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

1799. Renal underexcretion of uric acid is present in patients with apparent high urinary uric acid output. (Abstract)

to creatinine ratio, and glomerular uric acid filtered load were calculated using 24-hour urine samples. After treatment with allopurinol to achieve similar glomerular filtered load of uric acid, patients were again compared with controls.Patients with gout showed lower uric acid clearance, fractional excretion of uric acid, excretion of uric acid per volume of glomerular filtration, and urinary uric acid to creatinine ratio than controls at baseline, when patients showed hyperuricemia. Although (...) Renal underexcretion of uric acid is present in patients with apparent high urinary uric acid output. To compare renal handling of uric acid in patients with primary gout with that of a control group.A case-control study of 100 patients with primary gout and 72 healthy controls was undertaken. Creatinine clearance, uric acid clearance, 24-hour uric acid urinary excretion, fractional excretion of uric acid, excretion of uric acid per volume of glomerular filtration, urinary uric acid

2002 Arthritis and Rheumatism

1800. Influence of four diets containing approximately 11% protein (dry weight) on uric acid, sodium urate, and ammonium urate urine activity product ratios of healthy beagles. (Abstract)

Influence of four diets containing approximately 11% protein (dry weight) on uric acid, sodium urate, and ammonium urate urine activity product ratios of healthy beagles. Urine activity product ratios of uric acid (APRua), sodium urate (APRna), and ammonium urate (APRau), and urinary excretion of 10 metabolites were determined in 24-hour urine samples produced by 6 healthy Beagles during periods of consumption of 4 diets containing approximately 11% protein (dry weight) and various protein (...) sources: a 72% moisture, casein-based diet; a 10% moisture, egg-based diet; a 72% moisture, chicken-based diet; and a 71% moisture, chicken-based, liver-flavored diet. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher APRua, APRna, and APRau were observed when dogs consumed the egg-based diet, compared with the other 3 diets; there were no differences in these ratios among the other 3 diets. Twenty-four-hour urinary excretions of chloride, potassium, phosphorus, and oxalic acid were significantly (P < 0.05) higher when

1995 American journal of veterinary research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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