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Urine Uric Acid

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1761. Urine stone risk factors in nephrolithiasis patients with and without bowel disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Urine stone risk factors in nephrolithiasis patients with and without bowel disease. The prevalence of nephrolithiasis among patients with bowel disease is higher than in the general population. We examined urine stone risk factors and clinical characteristics of these patients, contrasted with a large group of stone forming patients without systemic disease.A total of 180 patients with bowel disease were compared with a group of 2048 nephrolithiasis patients with calcium or uric acid stones (...) and without systemic diseases. Bowel diseases included inflammatory bowel disease with and without bowel resections, bowel resections from cancer or trauma, and bypass procedures for obesity or hypercholesterolemia. Urine stone risk factors, stone rates, stone compositions, and creatinine clearance were measured.Compared to ordinary stone forming patients, bowel patients formed stones higher in rate of recurrence and in uric acid content. Uric acid content was highest when colon surgery had occurred

2003 Kidney International

1762. Presence of lipids in urine, crystals and stones: implications for the formation of kidney stones. Full Text available with Trip Pro

urine, crystals of CaOx and CaP produced in the urine of healthy individuals, and urinary stones containing struvite, uric acid, CaOx and CaP crystals for the presence of membrane lipids were analyzed. Crystallization of CaOx monohydrate at Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG), dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine (DPPS), dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG), palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG) and dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG (...) ) was investigated to directly demonstrate that phospholipid assemblies can catalyze CaOx nucleation.Urine as well as CaOx and CaP crystals made in the urine and various types of urinary stones investigated contained some lipids. Urine of both CaOx and uric acid stone formers contained significantly more cholesterol, cholesterol ester and triglycerides than urine of healthy subjects. However, urine of CaOx stone formers contained more acidic phospholipids. The organic matrix of calcific stones contained

2002 Kidney International

1763. "Pink urine" in morbidly obese patients following gastric partitioning. Full Text available with Trip Pro

" was observed in 32% of the obese patients but in none of the nonobese patients; however, a pink sediment remained following centrifugation of urine collected postoperatively from all the obese patients. Microscopy of this sediment showed crystals of uric acid dihydrate; these were infrequent in the preoperative specimens but present in high concentration in the postoperative specimens, particularly those of "pink urine". X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the nature of the crystals. Preoperatively (...) the obese patients had high-normal serum levels of uric acid. Postoperatively in all the groups of patients the serum levels of uric acid decreased while the urine levels and the urinary clearance of uric acid increased; the last two values, however, were significantly greater, both preoperatively and postoperatively, in those who were morbidly obese. Compared with the patients who did not have "pink urine" the patients with "pink urine" were significantly more obese and had a significantly lower

1984 Canadian Medical Association Journal

1764. A simple method of selecting gout patients for treatment with uricosuric agents, using spot urine and blood samples. (Abstract)

A simple method of selecting gout patients for treatment with uricosuric agents, using spot urine and blood samples. To develop a simple means of selecting gout patients for treatment with uricosuric agents.In 124 gout patients, spot urine and blood were sampled before breakfast and after overnight fast (except water) on the day of 24 h urine collection. Spot urine uric acid/creatinine ratio (Ua/Cr mmol/mmol) and serum creatinine x Ua/Cr (Scr*Ua/Cr micromol/l) were calculated together with 24 h (...) urinary uric acid excretion/body surface (24 Ua/S). The patients were then classified either below or above 2.84 mmol/m2/day for 24 Ua/S.Classifications based on spot urine Ua/Cr (cut off value set at 0.34), spot urine Scr*Ua/Cr (cut off value set at 28.1), and a combination of spot urine Ua/Cr and Scr*Ua/Cr were found to be not significantly different in diagnostic accuracy for the detection of patients with 24 Ua/S below 2.84 mmol/m2 (77%, 81%, and 81%, respectively) and sensitivity (80%, 83

2002 Journal of Rheumatology

1765. Comparison between lemonade and potassium citrate and impact on urine pH and 24-hour urine parameters in patients with kidney stone formation. (Abstract)

. the results between the two groups were examined to determine whether differences existed in the urinary stone risk factors.Potassium citrate, but not lemonade, improved citrate levels and urinary ph to a significant degree. patients taking potassium citrate had a significantly decreased urine volume compared with their urine volume drinking lemonade. neither lemonade nor potassium citrate affected the uric acid levels to a significant degree.The results of our study have shown that lemonade did (...) Comparison between lemonade and potassium citrate and impact on urine pH and 24-hour urine parameters in patients with kidney stone formation. The past few decades have been notable for advances in minimally invasive techniques to treat kidney stones. Despite successful surgical management of calculi, the impact of diet on stone disease prevention remains an important factor. Dietary modifications can be applied to prevent stone recurrence in an economical manner that is acceptable to patients

2007 Urology

1766. Uric Acid

Uric Acid Uric Acid Produced by In partnership with User Top Links Menu Search User Top Links Search Uric Acid Test Also Known As Urate Formal Name Uric Acid This article was last reviewed on 25 October 2013. This article was last modified on 6 November 2017. At a Glance Why Get Tested? To detect high levels of uric acid, which could be a sign of the condition , or to monitor uric acid levels when undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy; to detect high levels of uric acid in the urine in order (...) acids ( , ). They enter the circulation from digestion of certain foods, drinks (alcoholic beverages like beer and wine) or from normal breakdown and turnover of cells in the body. Most uric acid is removed by the kidneys and disposed of in the urine; the remainder is excreted in the stools. If too much uric acid is produced or not enough is excreted, it can accumulate in the body and cause increased levels in the blood (hyperuricemia). The presence of excess uric acid can cause the condition called

2004 Lab Tests Online UK

1767. Acetazolamide is an effective adjunct for urinary alkalization in patients with uric acid and cystine stone formation recalcitrant to potassium citrate. (Abstract)

board-approved, retrospective chart review identified 12 patients at 2 sites who had been prescribed acetazolamide as a treatment adjunct to potassium citrate for uric acid or cystine stones from 1997 to 2007. We evaluated the urine studies, metabolic evaluations, surgical interventions, and stone recurrence or growth.The mean follow-up was 46.1 months (range 11-86). Ten patients (83%) were categorized as compliant. Of the 2 patients excluded from the study, 1 was noncompliant with the medication (...) Acetazolamide is an effective adjunct for urinary alkalization in patients with uric acid and cystine stone formation recalcitrant to potassium citrate. Acetazolamide has been proposed as a treatment adjunct for patients with cystine and uric acid stone formation recalcitrant to standard alkalization therapy. We evaluated the effect of acetazolamide in urinary alkalization in patients with uric acid and cystine stone formation recalcitrant to potassium citrate alone.An institutional review

2008 Urology

1768. Effects of statin treatment on uric acid homeostasis in patients with primary hyperlipidemia. (Abstract)

hyperlipidemia. A total of 180 patients were enrolled; patients were randomly assigned to 40 mg/d of either atorvastatin or simvastatin. Serum lipid and metabolic parameters were measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 weeks of treatment; random urine samples were simultaneously obtained for creatinine, sodium, and uric acid determinations.Baseline serum uric acid levels correlated positively with the body mass index, serum insulin, creatinine, and triglyceride levels and inversely with serum HDL cholesterol (...) Effects of statin treatment on uric acid homeostasis in patients with primary hyperlipidemia. Epidemiologic studies have shown that serum uric acid is a risk factor of coronary artery disease. In addition to fenofibrate, there is some evidence that atorvastatin may have a hypouricemic action, but the underlying mechanisms remain speculative.This randomized trial was conducted to investigate the effects of atorvastatin and simvastatin on uric acid homeostasis in patients treated for primary

2004 American heart journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1769. Disposition of uric acid upon administration of ofloxacin alone and in combination with other anti-tuberculosis drugs. (Abstract)

and the subjects were randomly allocated to each group. Uric acid concentration in urine samples excreted over 0-8 hr, were determined after coding the samples. There was significant decrease in the group receiving Z when compared to other groups. Though there was a decrease in uric acid excretion in the group receiving O, it was not statistically significant. Rifampicin and H seem to increase the uric acid excretion. The incidence of arthralgia was mainly due to Z and not due to either O or other drugs (...) Disposition of uric acid upon administration of ofloxacin alone and in combination with other anti-tuberculosis drugs. Disposition of uric acid upon administration of ofloxacin (O) alone and in combination with other anti-tuberculosis drugs, rifampicin (R), isoniazid (H) and pyrazinamide (Z) was studied. Twelve male healthy volunteers were investigated on four different occasions with the four drugs alone or in combinations. A partially balanced incomplete block design was adopted

2004 Indian journal of experimental biology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1770. Effects of Rebixiao granules on blood uric acid in patients with repeatedly attacking acute gouty arthritis. (Abstract)

Effects of Rebixiao granules on blood uric acid in patients with repeatedly attacking acute gouty arthritis. To observe the clinical effect of Rebixiao granule (RBXG) in treating repeatedly attacking acute gouty arthritis and through experimental study on blood uric acid to explore RBXG's therapeutic mechanism.Ninety repeatedly attacking acute gouty arthritis patients were divided into the treated group (n = 60) and control group (n = 30). The treated group was treated with RBXG (...) )was shown between the two groups. However, the cure rate of the treated group was 26.7% while that of the control group was 10.0%, with significant difference (P < 0.01) shown between them. The treated group had its blood uric acid lowered, which was significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of the control group. The animal experiment indicated that all the three groups treated with different dosages of RBXG, as well as the Ash bark and Smilax glabra rhizome groups had their blood uric acid content

2005 Chinese journal of integrative medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1771. Value of fractional uric acid excretion in differential diagnosis of hyponatremic patients on diuretics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Value of fractional uric acid excretion in differential diagnosis of hyponatremic patients on diuretics. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) is the most frequent cause of hyponatremia. Its diagnosis requires decreased serum osmolality, inappropriately diluted urine (e.g. >100 mOsm/kg), clinical euvolemia, and a urinary sodium (Na) excretion (U-Na) more than 30 mmol/liter. However, in hyponatremic patients taking diuretics, this definition is unreliable due to the natriuretic (...) effect of diuretics. Here, we examined the diagnostic potential of alternative laboratory measurements to diagnose SIAD, regardless of the use of diuretics.A total of 86 consecutive hyponatremic patients (serum Na <130 mmol/liter) was classified based on their history, clinical evaluation, osmolality, and saline response to isotonic saline into a SIAD and a non-SIAD group. U-Na, serum urate concentration, and fractional excretion (FE) of Na, urea, and uric acid (UA) were measured in all subjects

2008 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

1772. Uric acid crystals in the semen of a patient with symptoms of chronic prostatitis. (Abstract)

the symptoms.Study of chemical and morphological characteristics of crystals found in the semen using standard semen analysis and transrectal ultrasound. Analysis of serum, urine, and seminal plasma uric acid levels.Uric acid crystals were detected in semen. A transrectal ultrasound revealed the presence of microcalcifications in the prostate gland. After treatment with a low purine diet, the patient experienced considerable relief of the clinical symptoms. Determination of uric acid and creatinine levels (...) Uric acid crystals in the semen of a patient with symptoms of chronic prostatitis. To report the finding of red and brownish precipitates with morphology and chemistry compatible with uric acid crystals in semen in a patient with symptoms of chronic prostatitis.Case report.Academic clinical biochemistry and immunology laboratory.A 35-year-old man with clinical symptoms of prostatitis.Uric acid crystals were detected in the semen samples. Treatment with a low purine diet relieved

2006 Fertility and Sterility

1773. Uric acid correlates with the severity of histopathological parameters in IgA nephropathy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

with histopathological parameters in 202 patients with IgAN. Morphological changes in glomerular, tubulointerstitial and vascular tissue were semiquantitatively graded into three classes. Mesangial proliferation activity and the amount of inflammatory cells were also evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of Ki-67 (MIB-1), CD45 (LCA) and CD68 stainings. Serum uric acid, triglycerides and cholesterol, urine protein excretion (UPE), blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Smoking habits (...) Uric acid correlates with the severity of histopathological parameters in IgA nephropathy. Immunoglobulin-A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common chronic glomerulonephritis worldwide. Many clinical and histopathological risk factors for progression have been found previously. Recently, metabolic risk factors, such as hyperuricaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia, also have been associated with the progression of IgAN.In the present study we correlated clinical and metabolic risk factors

2005 Transplantation

1774. Uric acid nephrolithiasis: proton titration of an essential molecule? (Abstract)

Uric acid nephrolithiasis: proton titration of an essential molecule? The majority of uric acid nephrolithiasis in humans occurs in the absence of frank hyperuricosuria and is primarily a disease of excessively low urinary pH. Uric acid is substantially less soluble than urate salts so in low urine pH urate is protonated, thus favoring precipitation even under what is considered physiologic concentrations of total urinary uric acid/urate. This commentary examines the rationales behind (...) the existence of uric acid in urine and body fluids in vertebrate evolution.The purpose of uric acid in arthropod, avian and reptilian species is to enable nitrogen excretion in solid state without loss of water. The re-emergence of uric acid in higher primates as an end product of metabolism is intriguing since urea functions perfectly well as a nitrogenous waste. Uric acid must purvey important physiologic functions in primate biology. Numerous roles of uric acid as an antioxidant, immune signaling

2006 Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension

1775. Novel insights into the pathogenesis of uric acid nephrolithiasis. (Abstract)

Novel insights into the pathogenesis of uric acid nephrolithiasis. The factors involved in the pathogenesis of uric acid nephrolithiasis are well known. A low urinary pH is the most significant element in the generation of stones, with hyperuricosuria being a less common finding. The underlying mechanism(s) responsible for these disturbances remain poorly characterized. This review summarizes previous knowledge and highlights some recent developments in the pathophysiology of low urine pH (...) and hyperuricosuria.Epidemiological and metabolic studies have indicated an association between uric acid nephrolithiasis and insulin resistance. Some potential mechanisms include impaired ammoniagenesis caused by resistance to insulin action in the renal proximal tubule, or substrate competition by free fatty acids. The evaluation of a large Sicilian kindred recently revealed a putative genetic locus linked to uric acid stone disease. The identification of novel complementary DNA has provided an interesting insight

2004 Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension

1776. The metabolic syndrome and uric acid nephrolithiasis: novel features of renal manifestation of insulin resistance. Full Text available with Trip Pro

collection before and during the hyperinsulinemic phase of the clamp studies.For the non-stone former population, low insulin sensitivity measured as glucose disposal rate significantly correlated with low 24-hour urinary pH (r= 0. 35; P= 0.01). In addition to the previously described acidic urine pH and hypouricosuria, patients with recurrent uric acid nephrolithiasis were found to be severely insulin resistant (glucose disposal rate: uric acid stone-formers vs. normals; 4.1 +/- 1.3 vs. 6.9 +/- 2.1 mg (...) The metabolic syndrome and uric acid nephrolithiasis: novel features of renal manifestation of insulin resistance. Uric acid nephrolithiasis primarily results from low urinary pH, which increases the concentration of the insoluble undissociated uric acid, causing formation of both uric acid and mixed uric acid/calcium oxalate stones. These patients have recently been described as exhibiting features of insulin resistance. This study was designed to evaluate if insulin resistance is associated

2004 Kidney International

1777. Longitudinal study of urinary excretion of phosphate, calcium, and uric acid in mutant NHERF-1 null mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

the changes in the urinary excretion of phosphate, calcium, uric acid, and sodium in male and female wild-type and NHERF-1 null mice over a time period from 12 to 54 wk of age. Young male and female NHERF-1(-/-) mice demonstrated increased urinary excretion of phosphate and urine phosphate/creatinine ratios. There was an age-related decline in the phosphate/creatinine ratio in mutant mice such that there were no differences between wild-type and NHERF-1(-/-) by 24 to 30 wk of age despite the continued (...) presence of hypophosphatemia. Male and female NHERF-1 null mice also demonstrate increased urine calcium/creatinine and uric acid/creatinine ratios compared with wild-type controls. These studies indicate defects in the renal tubule transport of phosphate, calcium, and uric acid in NHERF-1(-/-) male and female mice that could account for the increased deposition of calcium in the papilla of null mice.

2006 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

1778. Type 2 diabetes increases the risk for uric acid stones. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Type 2 diabetes increases the risk for uric acid stones. An increased prevalence of nephrolithiasis has been reported in patients with diabetes. Because insulin resistance, characteristic of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, results in lower urine pH through impaired kidney ammoniagenesis and because a low urine pH is the main factor of uric acid (UA) stone formation, it was hypothesized that type 2 diabetes should favor the formation of UA stones. Therefore, the distribution

2006 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

1779. 24-h uric acid excretion and the risk of kidney stones. Full Text available with Trip Pro

24-h uric acid excretion and the risk of kidney stones. There is uncertainty about the relation between 24-h urinary uric acid excretion and the risk of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. In addition, the risk associated with different levels of other urinary factors needs clarification. We performed a cross-sectional study of 24-h urine excretion and the risk of kidney stone formation in 3350 men and women, of whom 2237 had a history of nephrolithiasis. After adjusting for other urinary factors (...) , urinary uric acid had a significant inverse association with stone formation in men, a marginal inverse association with risk in younger women, and no association in older women. The risk of stone formation in men and women significantly rose with increasing urine calcium and oxalate, and significantly decreased with increasing citrate and urine volume, with the change in risk beginning below the traditional normal thresholds. Other urinary factors were also associated with risk, but this varied

2007 Kidney International

1780. Uric Acid in Essential Hypertension in Children

Uric Acid in Essential Hypertension in Children Uric Acid in Essential Hypertension in Children - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Uric Acid in Essential Hypertension in Children The safety (...) by the investigational pharmacy. Subjects on allopurinol will receive 10 mg/kg divided bid (maximum of 400mg). Laboratory tests will be performed 4 to 7 days after starting the medication to screen for hepatic or bone marrow toxicity (AST, ALT, CBC) and serum uric acid. Evidence for toxicity will cause un-blinding and withdrawal from the study. The families will also be instructed to continue the daily blood pressure log started in the screening phase. Twenty-four-hour ABPM and end of phase laboratory tests

2006 Clinical Trials

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