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Urine Uric Acid

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81. The Effect of Uric Acid Lowering in Type 1 Diabetes

The Effect of Uric Acid Lowering in Type 1 Diabetes The Effect of Uric Acid Lowering in Type 1 Diabetes - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. The Effect of Uric Acid Lowering in Type 1 Diabetes (...) of Toronto Information provided by (Responsible Party): David Z.I. Cherney, University Health Network, Toronto Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are at high risk of developing kidney complications potentially leading to end stage renal disease. Uric acid (UA), the end product of purine metabolism, emerged as an important determinant of renal and vascular injury due to its ability activate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS

2015 Clinical Trials

82. Polymorphisms in Renal Ammonia Metabolism Genes Correlate With 24-Hour Urine pH (PubMed)

that variants in common genes involved in ammonia metabolism may substantively contribute to basal urine pH regulation. These variations might influence the likelihood of developing disease conditions associated with altered urine pH, such as uric acid or calcium phosphate kidney stones. (...) Polymorphisms in Renal Ammonia Metabolism Genes Correlate With 24-Hour Urine pH Urine pH is critical for net acid and solute excretion, but the genetic factors that contribute to its regulation are incompletely understood.We tested the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 16 genes related to ammonia (NH3) metabolism (15 biological candidates selected a priori, 1 selected from a previous genome-wide association study analysis) to that of 24-hour urine pH in 2493 individuals

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2017 Kidney international reports

83. Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations. (PubMed)

Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations. Some patients cannot effectively increase water intake and urine volume to prevent urinary stones. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, blocks water reabsorption in the collecting duct and should decrease urinary supersaturation of stone forming solutes, although this action has never been proved.We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo (...) ± 0.9 L, p <0.001). The majority of urinary solute excretion rates, including sodium and calcium, did not change significantly, although oxalate secretion increased slightly (from mean ± SD 15 ± 8 to 23 ± 8 mg per 24 hours, p = 0.009). Mean ± SD urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation (-0.01 ± 1.14 vs 0.95 ± 0.87 dG, p <0.001), calcium phosphate supersaturation (-1.66 ± 1.17 vs -0.13 ± 1.02 dG, p <0.001) and uric acid supersaturation (-2.05 ± 4.05 vs -5.24 ± 3.12 dG, p = 0.04) all dramatically

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2015 Journal of Urology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

84. Regulation of uric acid metabolism and excretion. (PubMed)

, proliferation and survival. Under physiological conditions the enzymes involved in the purine metabolism maintain in the cell a balanced ratio between their synthesis and degradation. In humans the final compound of purines catabolism is uric acid. All other mammals possess the enzyme uricase that converts uric acid to allantoin that is easily eliminated through urine. Overproduction of uric acid, generated from the metabolism of purines, has been proven to play emerging roles in human disease. In fact (...) Regulation of uric acid metabolism and excretion. Purines perform many important functions in the cell, being the formation of the monomeric precursors of nucleic acids DNA and RNA the most relevant one. Purines which also contribute to modulate energy metabolism and signal transduction, are structural components of some coenzymes and have been shown to play important roles in the physiology of platelets, muscles and neurotransmission. All cells require a balanced quantity of purines for growth

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2015 International journal of cardiology

85. Green tea polyphenols decreases uric acid level through xanthine oxidase and renal urate transporters in hyperuricemic mice. (PubMed)

Green tea polyphenols decreases uric acid level through xanthine oxidase and renal urate transporters in hyperuricemic mice. Green tea is a Chinese materia medica with the main functions of "inducing urination and quenching thirst". Green tea polyphenols (GTP) are generally acknowledged as the main active fraction with multiple pharmacological functions in green tea. However, the effect of GTP on hyperuricemia is not clear till now.The present study was carried out to investigate the effect (...) of GTP on serum level of uric acid in potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemic mice, and explore the underlying mechanisms from two aspects of production and excretion of uric acid.PO and GTP were intragastricly administered to mice for consecutive 7 days. Serum level of uric acid, and xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity in serum and liver were examined. Simultaneously, expression of XOD protein in liver was analyzed by Western blot assay. Expressions of urate transporters including urate-anion

2015 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

86. Assessment of urinary inhibitor or promoter activity in uric acid nephrolithiasis. (PubMed)

Assessment of urinary inhibitor or promoter activity in uric acid nephrolithiasis. We assessed decreased inhibitor activity or increased promoter activity in the urine of idiopathic uric acid stone formers compared to nonstone formers independent of urinary pH.A total of 30 idiopathic uric acid stone formers, and 9 obese and 12 lean nonstone formers collected 24-hour urine while on a metabolic diet. Three urine aliquots per subject were used to assess spontaneous nucleation (de novo crystal (...) formation), crystal growth using a 0.1 mg/ml anhydrous uric acid seed and steady-state uric acid solubility (the maximum amount of uric acid dissolvable in urine) using a 5 mg/ml uric acid seed. All experiments were performed for 6 hours at a constant pH of 5.0. Uric acid concentration was measured in filtered aliquots at 0, 3 and 6 hours.At baseline 24-hour urinary pH was significantly lower and uric acid saturation was significantly higher in idiopathic uric acid stone formers. No significant

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2015 Journal of Urology

87. Heat Stress Nephropathy From Exercise-Induced Uric Acid Crystalluria: A Perspective on Mesoamerican Nephropathy. (PubMed)

concentration and acidification. Uric acid is generated during heat stress, in part consequent to nucleotide release from muscles. We hypothesize that working in the sugarcane fields may result in cyclic uricosuria in which uric acid concentrations exceed solubility, leading to the formation of dihydrate urate crystals and local injury. Consistent with this hypothesis, we present pilot data documenting the common presence of urate crystals in the urine of sugarcane workers from El Salvador. High end (...) -of-workday urinary uric acid concentrations were common in a pilot study, particularly if urine pH was corrected to 7. Hyperuricemia may induce glomerular hypertension, whereas the increased urinary uric acid may directly injure renal tubules. Thus, MeN may result from exercise and heat stress associated with dehydration-induced hyperuricemia and uricosuria. Increased hydration with water and salt, urinary alkalinization, reduction in sugary beverage intake, and inhibitors of uric acid synthesis should

2015 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

88. Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Arhalofenate for Preventing Flares and Reducing Serum Uric Acid in Gout Patients

Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Arhalofenate for Preventing Flares and Reducing Serum Uric Acid in Gout Patients Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Arhalofenate for Preventing Flares and Reducing Serum Uric Acid in Gout Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number (...) of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Arhalofenate for Preventing Flares and Reducing Serum Uric Acid in Gout Patients The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02063997 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted

2014 Clinical Trials

89. Toxicity of Perirenal Fat in Overweight or Obese Subjects: A Pathophysiological Link Between Uric Acid Stones and Renal Ammonium Formation

Identifier: NCT02561858 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : September 28, 2015 Last Update Posted : March 12, 2018 Sponsor: Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice Information provided by (Responsible Party): Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Patients who are overweight or obese, diabetic or not, share with those who are suffering from uric stones the same way to remove abnormal acidity of the body in urine, ie a kidney ammoniogenesis (...) default. This results in an overly acidic urine pH which is directly pathogenic in people predisposed to develop uric stones because the precipitation of urate soluble uric acid is accelerated in acid medium. Excess visceral fat, particularly perirenal, this defect may promote formation of renal ammonium. Indeed, the perirenal fat is adjacent to the renal cortex and shares with it a common arterial supply via the plexus Turner. Adipokines and fatty acids of the perirenal fat are predisposed to gain

2015 Clinical Trials

90. Correlation of serum uric acid with bone mineral density and fragility fracture in patients with primary osteoporosis: a single-center retrospective study of 253 cases (PubMed)

January 2011 to May 2012 at the Shanghai First People's Hospital.Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis showed that serum uric acid positively correlated with the lumbar spine BMD (P<0.05); serum uric acid negatively correlated with urine calcium/creatinine ratio, but positively correlated with blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 [OH] D) (P<0.05); the serum uric acid in postmenopausal women with the history of fragility fracture was significantly lower than that in women without (...) Correlation of serum uric acid with bone mineral density and fragility fracture in patients with primary osteoporosis: a single-center retrospective study of 253 cases This study aimed to investigate the correlation of serum uric acid with bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fracture in primary osteoporosis (PO) patients.A retrospective analysis of biochemical parameters including bone turnover markers and bone density was done in patients (n=253) received initial treatment for PO from

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2015 International journal of clinical and experimental medicine

91. Use of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound to Study Relationship between Serum Uric Acid and Renal Microvascular Perfusion in Diabetic Kidney Disease (PubMed)

Use of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound to Study Relationship between Serum Uric Acid and Renal Microvascular Perfusion in Diabetic Kidney Disease To investigate the relationship between uric acid and renal microvascular perfusion in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) method.79 DKD patients and 26 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Renal function and urine protein markers were tested. DKD patients were subdivided into two groups including a normal serum uric acid (...) (SUA) group and a high SUA group. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) was performed, and low acoustic power contrast-specific imaging was used for quantitative analysis.Normal controls (NCs) had the highest levels of AUC, AUC1, and AUC2. Compared to the normal SUA DKD group, high SUA DKD patients had significantly higher IMAX, AUC, and AUC1 (P < 0.05). DKD patients with low urinary uric acid (UUA) excretion had significantly higher AUC2 compared to DKD patients with normal UUA (P < 0.05

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2015 BioMed research international

92. Uric Acid Nephropathy (Diagnosis)

at the glomerulus. An active anion-exchange process in the early proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs most of it. Most urinary uric acid appears to be derived from tubular secretion, possibly from the S2 segment of the proximal tubule. Overall, 98-100% of filtered urate is reabsorbed; 6-10% is secreted, ultimately appearing in the final urine. Several factors influence the renal handling of urate. Many medications can affect the renal transport of uric acid through effects of proximal tubular absorption (...) calculi in the United States, also result from uric acid precipitation in the collecting system. Uric acid stones are related to uric acid exceeding its solubility in the urine; thus, patients with hyperuricosuria have an increased risk of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Urine oversaturation with uric acid and subsequent crystal formation is determined largely by urinary pH. Individuals who form uric acid stones tend to excrete less ammonium, which contributes directly to low urinary pH. In addition

2014 eMedicine.com

93. Uric Acid Nephropathy (Treatment)

, urinary excretion of hypoxanthine and xanthine increases. Hypoxanthine is highly soluble and does not cause clinical problems. Xanthine is less soluble than uric acid, and precipitated xanthine can be found in the urine of persons taking allopurinol. However, these precipitates do not correlate with renal failure, although well-documented cases of xanthine nephropathy do exist. Allopurinol has been used extensively in the prevention of acute uric acid nephropathy in patients with malignancy who (...) . If the patient is well hydrated and not maintaining the expected urine output, diuretics should be initiated. If the urine output remains low, adjust the fluid intake to match the output in order to avoid fluid overload. Although evidence confirming its role is lacking, urinary alkalinization should, theoretically, increase uric acid solubility. In animal studies, high tubular flow rates were the most important factor in preventing uric acid and urate crystallization, with urinary alkalinization playing only

2014 eMedicine.com

94. Uric Acid Nephropathy (Overview)

at the glomerulus. An active anion-exchange process in the early proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs most of it. Most urinary uric acid appears to be derived from tubular secretion, possibly from the S2 segment of the proximal tubule. Overall, 98-100% of filtered urate is reabsorbed; 6-10% is secreted, ultimately appearing in the final urine. Several factors influence the renal handling of urate. Many medications can affect the renal transport of uric acid through effects of proximal tubular absorption (...) calculi in the United States, also result from uric acid precipitation in the collecting system. Uric acid stones are related to uric acid exceeding its solubility in the urine; thus, patients with hyperuricosuria have an increased risk of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Urine oversaturation with uric acid and subsequent crystal formation is determined largely by urinary pH. Individuals who form uric acid stones tend to excrete less ammonium, which contributes directly to low urinary pH. In addition

2014 eMedicine.com

95. Uric Acid Stones (Follow-up)

processing > Uric Acid Stones Follow-up Updated: Jun 11, 2018 Author: Sahar Fathallah-Shaykh, MD; Chief Editor: Craig B Langman, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Uric Acid Stones Follow-up Further Outpatient Care The child should continue a low-purine diet if prescribed. Continue Bicitra (2-6 mEq/kg/d) for urinary alkalinization. Parents can be provided urine dipsticks to monitor urine pH level and specific gravity to assess the adequacy of treatment. Urine pH levels should (...) be maintained above 7. Urine specific gravity should be maintained below 1.01. Fluid intake should be sufficient to maintain urine output of 30 mL/kg/24h or more. Allopurinol is continued to lower uric acid production if prescribed. Children with urinary tract uric acid stones and/or urinary tract anatomic abnormalities or a previous urinary tract infection may require urinary tract infection uroprophylaxis. Next: Further Inpatient Care See the list below: Inpatient care is indicated for management of renal

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

96. Uric Acid Stones (Treatment)

Stones Treatment & Management Updated: Jun 11, 2018 Author: Sahar Fathallah-Shaykh, MD; Chief Editor: Craig B Langman, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Uric Acid Stones Treatment Medical Care The primary treatments are to alkalinize (citrate or bicarbonate) and dilute (large water intake) the urine. Sodium urate is 15 times more soluble than uric acid. At a urine pH level of 6.8, 10 times as much sodium urate as uric acid is present. At a urine pH level of 7.8, 100 times as much (...) if necessary. A urine Gram stain may guide in the selection of antibiotic coverage. Consultation with a pediatric urologist should be obtained because surgery may be necessary to provide drainage. A child with acute pain and large stones (>0.3 cm) is likely to require lithotripsy or surgical stone removal. Analgesics and adequate hydration should be provided. For smaller stones or incidental stones, allowing time for the stone to pass is appropriate. The primary treatment for uric acid stones includes

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

97. Uric Acid Stones (Overview)

precipitation in metastable urine concentrates (see ). Uric acid stones. The terms gouty nephropathy, urate nephropathy, and uric acid nephropathy are used to describe renal insufficiency due to uric acid precipitation within the renal tubules. Uric acid urolithiasis or uric acid kidney stones refer to development of a stone or calculus composed of significant amounts of urate in the renal pelvis, ureter, or bladder. Next: Pathophysiology Uric acid is a weak acid, with an ionization constant of acid (pK (...) in urine exceeds its solubility at the urine pH, uric acid changes from a compound dissolved in solution to an insoluble precipitate. Urate stones are formed by 1 of 3 general mechanisms: overproduction, increased tubular secretion, or decreased tubular reabsorption. Uric acid results as a relatively insoluble end-product of purine metabolism. The concentration of uric acid in plasma depends on dietary ingestion, de novo purine synthesis, and uric acid elimination by the kidneys and intestine. Normal

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

98. Uric Acid Stones (Diagnosis)

precipitation in metastable urine concentrates (see ). Uric acid stones. The terms gouty nephropathy, urate nephropathy, and uric acid nephropathy are used to describe renal insufficiency due to uric acid precipitation within the renal tubules. Uric acid urolithiasis or uric acid kidney stones refer to development of a stone or calculus composed of significant amounts of urate in the renal pelvis, ureter, or bladder. Next: Pathophysiology Uric acid is a weak acid, with an ionization constant of acid (pK (...) in urine exceeds its solubility at the urine pH, uric acid changes from a compound dissolved in solution to an insoluble precipitate. Urate stones are formed by 1 of 3 general mechanisms: overproduction, increased tubular secretion, or decreased tubular reabsorption. Uric acid results as a relatively insoluble end-product of purine metabolism. The concentration of uric acid in plasma depends on dietary ingestion, de novo purine synthesis, and uric acid elimination by the kidneys and intestine. Normal

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

99. Urine metabolic profiles in paediatric asthma. (PubMed)

to explore the different types of metabolite profile in paediatric asthma. Additionally, we employed a comprehensive strategy to elucidate the relationship between significant metabolites and asthma-related genes.We identified 51 differential metabolites mainly related to dysfunctional amino acid, carbohydrate and purine metabolism. A combination of eight candidate metabolites, including uric acid, stearic acid, threitol, acetylgalactosamine, heptadecanoic acid, aspartic acid, xanthosine and hypoxanthine (...) Urine metabolic profiles in paediatric asthma. Asthma is a global problem and complex disease suited for metabolomic profiling. This study explored the candidate biomarkers specific to paediatric asthma and provided insights into asthmatic pathophysiology.Children (aged 6-11 years) meeting the criteria for healthy control (n = 29), uncontrolled asthma (n = 37) or controlled asthma (n = 43) were enrolled. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed on urine samples of the patients

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2019 Respirology

100. Mechanisms for Falling Urine pH With Age in Stone Formers. (PubMed)

Mechanisms for Falling Urine pH With Age in Stone Formers. One of the main functions of the kidney is to excrete an acid load derived from both dietary and endogenous sources, thus maintaining body fluid pH. Urine pH is of particular interest in stone formers, as it determines the presence of either calcium phosphate or uric acid in stones. Others have noted in epidemiologic studies a rise in incidence of low pH-dependent uric acid stones with age, coinciding with a decrease in the incidence (...) determinants of urine pH such as urinary buffers, estimates of glomerular filtration, and dietary acid load, but these accounted for a small fraction of the pH fall. GI Anion absorption was the strongest predictor of urine pH in all age groups as we have previously reported in middle-aged normal men and women. However, we found that despite a decreasing urine pH, GI Anion absorption increases monotonically with age. In fact, after adjustment for GI Anion absorption urine pH declines more markedly

2019 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

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