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Urine Uric Acid

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81. Regulation of uric acid metabolism and excretion. (PubMed)

, proliferation and survival. Under physiological conditions the enzymes involved in the purine metabolism maintain in the cell a balanced ratio between their synthesis and degradation. In humans the final compound of purines catabolism is uric acid. All other mammals possess the enzyme uricase that converts uric acid to allantoin that is easily eliminated through urine. Overproduction of uric acid, generated from the metabolism of purines, has been proven to play emerging roles in human disease. In fact (...) Regulation of uric acid metabolism and excretion. Purines perform many important functions in the cell, being the formation of the monomeric precursors of nucleic acids DNA and RNA the most relevant one. Purines which also contribute to modulate energy metabolism and signal transduction, are structural components of some coenzymes and have been shown to play important roles in the physiology of platelets, muscles and neurotransmission. All cells require a balanced quantity of purines for growth

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2015 International journal of cardiology

82. Heat Stress Nephropathy From Exercise-Induced Uric Acid Crystalluria: A Perspective on Mesoamerican Nephropathy. (PubMed)

concentration and acidification. Uric acid is generated during heat stress, in part consequent to nucleotide release from muscles. We hypothesize that working in the sugarcane fields may result in cyclic uricosuria in which uric acid concentrations exceed solubility, leading to the formation of dihydrate urate crystals and local injury. Consistent with this hypothesis, we present pilot data documenting the common presence of urate crystals in the urine of sugarcane workers from El Salvador. High end (...) -of-workday urinary uric acid concentrations were common in a pilot study, particularly if urine pH was corrected to 7. Hyperuricemia may induce glomerular hypertension, whereas the increased urinary uric acid may directly injure renal tubules. Thus, MeN may result from exercise and heat stress associated with dehydration-induced hyperuricemia and uricosuria. Increased hydration with water and salt, urinary alkalinization, reduction in sugary beverage intake, and inhibitors of uric acid synthesis should

2015 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

83. Green tea polyphenols decreases uric acid level through xanthine oxidase and renal urate transporters in hyperuricemic mice. (PubMed)

Green tea polyphenols decreases uric acid level through xanthine oxidase and renal urate transporters in hyperuricemic mice. Green tea is a Chinese materia medica with the main functions of "inducing urination and quenching thirst". Green tea polyphenols (GTP) are generally acknowledged as the main active fraction with multiple pharmacological functions in green tea. However, the effect of GTP on hyperuricemia is not clear till now.The present study was carried out to investigate the effect (...) of GTP on serum level of uric acid in potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemic mice, and explore the underlying mechanisms from two aspects of production and excretion of uric acid.PO and GTP were intragastricly administered to mice for consecutive 7 days. Serum level of uric acid, and xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity in serum and liver were examined. Simultaneously, expression of XOD protein in liver was analyzed by Western blot assay. Expressions of urate transporters including urate-anion

2015 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

84. Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations. (PubMed)

Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations. Some patients cannot effectively increase water intake and urine volume to prevent urinary stones. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, blocks water reabsorption in the collecting duct and should decrease urinary supersaturation of stone forming solutes, although this action has never been proved.We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo (...) ± 0.9 L, p <0.001). The majority of urinary solute excretion rates, including sodium and calcium, did not change significantly, although oxalate secretion increased slightly (from mean ± SD 15 ± 8 to 23 ± 8 mg per 24 hours, p = 0.009). Mean ± SD urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation (-0.01 ± 1.14 vs 0.95 ± 0.87 dG, p <0.001), calcium phosphate supersaturation (-1.66 ± 1.17 vs -0.13 ± 1.02 dG, p <0.001) and uric acid supersaturation (-2.05 ± 4.05 vs -5.24 ± 3.12 dG, p = 0.04) all dramatically

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2015 Journal of Urology

85. Use of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound to Study Relationship between Serum Uric Acid and Renal Microvascular Perfusion in Diabetic Kidney Disease (PubMed)

Use of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound to Study Relationship between Serum Uric Acid and Renal Microvascular Perfusion in Diabetic Kidney Disease To investigate the relationship between uric acid and renal microvascular perfusion in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) method.79 DKD patients and 26 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Renal function and urine protein markers were tested. DKD patients were subdivided into two groups including a normal serum uric acid (...) (SUA) group and a high SUA group. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) was performed, and low acoustic power contrast-specific imaging was used for quantitative analysis.Normal controls (NCs) had the highest levels of AUC, AUC1, and AUC2. Compared to the normal SUA DKD group, high SUA DKD patients had significantly higher IMAX, AUC, and AUC1 (P < 0.05). DKD patients with low urinary uric acid (UUA) excretion had significantly higher AUC2 compared to DKD patients with normal UUA (P < 0.05

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2015 BioMed research international

86. Correlation of serum uric acid with bone mineral density and fragility fracture in patients with primary osteoporosis: a single-center retrospective study of 253 cases (PubMed)

January 2011 to May 2012 at the Shanghai First People's Hospital.Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis showed that serum uric acid positively correlated with the lumbar spine BMD (P<0.05); serum uric acid negatively correlated with urine calcium/creatinine ratio, but positively correlated with blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 [OH] D) (P<0.05); the serum uric acid in postmenopausal women with the history of fragility fracture was significantly lower than that in women without (...) Correlation of serum uric acid with bone mineral density and fragility fracture in patients with primary osteoporosis: a single-center retrospective study of 253 cases This study aimed to investigate the correlation of serum uric acid with bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fracture in primary osteoporosis (PO) patients.A retrospective analysis of biochemical parameters including bone turnover markers and bone density was done in patients (n=253) received initial treatment for PO from

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2015 International journal of clinical and experimental medicine

87. 100% uric Acid stone formers: what makes them different? (PubMed)

100% uric Acid stone formers: what makes them different? To identify what risk factors on 24-hour urinalysis, if any, predispose patients to have higher percentages of uric acid (UA) stone composition in their stones, with specific emphasis on patients with pure UA stones.We retrospectively identified 308 patients from review of a kidney stone analysis database. Patients were grouped according to the percentage UA composition: 10%-20%, 30%-50%, 60%-90%, and 100% UA. Data were extracted from 24 (...) -hour urine collections and serum chemistries. Patients taking allopurinol, citrates, or thiazide diuretics were excluded.The percentage UA stone composition increased as patients became older (P = .05) or heavier (P <.001). Gender did not impact the percentage of UA in stones. Although a higher serum UA level was associated with higher UA stone composition (P <.0006), urinary UA levels did not correlate (P = .1). In contrast, urinary pH correlated significantly with higher UA stone composition (P

2015 Urology

88. Endoscopic and Histologic Findings in a Cohort of Uric Acid and Calcium Oxalate Stone Formers. (PubMed)

Endoscopic and Histologic Findings in a Cohort of Uric Acid and Calcium Oxalate Stone Formers. To characterize the endoscopic and histologic renal papillary lesions in a cohort of uric acid (UA) stone formers (SF).Data were prospectively obtained during percutaneous nephrolithotomy between 2009 and 2013. Renal papillae were endoscopically analyzed to quantitate surface area occupied by plaque or plug, and biopsies were obtained. UA SF were compared with non-SF controls and patients with >50 (...) % calcium oxalate (CaOx) in the absence of UA.There were 23 UA SF; of which 19 stones (83%) were admixed with CaOx and 4 (17%) were pure. Compared with CaOx SF and controls, UA SF had a higher prevalence of diabetes and obesity, greater serum creatinine and UA levels, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and urine pH, and elevated UA supersaturation. Characteristics of UA SF were compared with 95 CaOx SF and 19 controls. Overall, 23 (100%) UA SF had endoscopic plaque and 13 (57%) plugs

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2015 Urology

89. The Effect of Uric Acid Lowering in Type 1 Diabetes

The Effect of Uric Acid Lowering in Type 1 Diabetes The Effect of Uric Acid Lowering in Type 1 Diabetes - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. The Effect of Uric Acid Lowering in Type 1 Diabetes (...) of Toronto Information provided by (Responsible Party): David Z.I. Cherney, University Health Network, Toronto Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are at high risk of developing kidney complications potentially leading to end stage renal disease. Uric acid (UA), the end product of purine metabolism, emerged as an important determinant of renal and vascular injury due to its ability activate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS

2015 Clinical Trials

90. Ertugliflozin l-pyroglutamic acid (Steglatro) - Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2

Ertugliflozin l-pyroglutamic acid (Steglatro) - Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 30 Churchill Place ? Canary Wharf ? London E14 5EU ? United Kingdom An agency of the European Union Telephone +44 (0)20 3660 6000 Facsimile +44 (0)20 3660 5520 Send a question via our website www.ema.europa.eu/contact © European Medicines Agency, 2018. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. 25 January 2018 EMA/86938/2018 Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) Assessment report (...) of Diabetes ECG electrocardiogram ECHA European Chemicals Agency eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate ER excluding rescue ERA Environmental risk assessment ESI-MS electrospray positive ionization mass spectra FA Focus area FAS full analysis set FeCl 3 Iron (III) chloride Fpen Market penetration factor FPG fasting plasma glucose GAD glutamic acid decarboxylase GC gas chromatography GMP good manufacturing practice HCTZ hydrochlorothiazide HDL-C high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol HDPE high density

2018 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

91. Ertugliflozin l-pyroglutamic acid / metformin hydrochloride (Segluromet) - Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2

Ertugliflozin l-pyroglutamic acid / metformin hydrochloride (Segluromet) - Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 30 Churchill Place ? Canary Wharf ? London E14 5EU ? United Kingdom An agency of the European Union Telephone +44 (0)20 3660 6000 Facsimile +44 (0)20 3660 5555 Send a question via our website www.ema.europa.eu/contact © European Medicines Agency, 2018. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. 25 January 2018 EMA/86928/2018 Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (...) Ertu/Met ertugliflozin/metformin Ertu/Met pool pooled safety data from placebo-controlled ertugliflozin add-on metformin phase III studies ESFA European Food Safety Authority ESI-MS electrospray positive ionization mass spectra FA Focus area FAS full analysis set Assessment report EMA/86928/2018 Page 5/159 FDA Food and Drug Administration FDC fixed-dose combination FeCl 3 Iron (III) chloride Fpen Market penetration factor FPG fasting plasma glucose GAD glutamic acid decarboxylase GC gas

2018 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

92. Ertugliflozin l-pyroglutamic acid / sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate (Steglujan) - Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2

Ertugliflozin l-pyroglutamic acid / sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate (Steglujan) - Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 30 Churchill Place ? Canary Wharf ? London E14 5EU ? United Kingdom An agency of the European Union Telephone +44 (0)20 3660 6000 Facsimile +44 (0)20 3660 5555 Send a question via our website www.ema.europa.eu/contact © European Medicines Agency, 2018. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. 25 January 2018 EMA/86941/2018 Committee for Medicinal Products (...) Concentration L-PGA L-pyroglutamic acid LS least-squares MACE major adverse cardiovascular event MAR missing at random MNAR missing-not-at-random assumption MCAR missing completely at random MedDRA Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities mFAS modified FAS NDA New Drug Application NIR near infrared NMR nuclear magnetic resonance NMT not more than NOEC No Observed Effect Concentration PA polyamide PAR proven acceptable ranges PAT process analytical technology PD pharmacodynamic(s) PDLC pre-defined limit

2018 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

93. Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Arhalofenate for Preventing Flares and Reducing Serum Uric Acid in Gout Patients

Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Arhalofenate for Preventing Flares and Reducing Serum Uric Acid in Gout Patients Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Arhalofenate for Preventing Flares and Reducing Serum Uric Acid in Gout Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number (...) of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Arhalofenate for Preventing Flares and Reducing Serum Uric Acid in Gout Patients The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02063997 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted

2014 Clinical Trials

94. Urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, citrate, oxalate, and uric acid by healthy schoolchildren using a 12-h collection protocol. (PubMed)

Urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, citrate, oxalate, and uric acid by healthy schoolchildren using a 12-h collection protocol. Although we do not have reliable data for the true prevalence of urolithiasis during childhood, the number of patients seen in outpatient clinics and admitted for stone-related problems is steadily increasing worldwide. As for most pediatric patients a metabolic disease is the reason for stone development, because a high number of patients have severely (...) recurrent urolithiasis, early and proper diagnostic evaluation is necessary to begin adequate and preventive treatment. However, diagnostic evaluation, especially in infants and younger children, is not always easy, and frequently a diagnosis is made late. Diagnostic evaluation should start with repeated urine analysis; but how and which urine should be collected and analyzed? What is the best and most accurate method for urine collection? In a paper published in a recent issue of Pediatric Nephrology

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2014 Pediatric Nephrology

95. Urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, citrate, oxalate, and uric acid by healthy schoolchildren using a 12-h collection protocol. (PubMed)

Urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, citrate, oxalate, and uric acid by healthy schoolchildren using a 12-h collection protocol. Improving knowledge about normal urine composition in children is important for early prevention of lithiasis. We describe urinary excretion values of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphate (P), citrate (Cit), uric acid (Ur), and oxalate (Ox) in healthy children with and without a family history of lithiasis, using a 12-h urine collection (...) to an increased risk of lithiasis was more common in children with a family history.We report data from urine samples collected by using a simplified collection protocol. The observed differences between children with and without a family history of lithiasis could justify that in population studies aimed at setting reference values, the former are excluded.

2014 Pediatric Nephrology

96. Uric acid and allograft loss from interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy: post hoc analysis from the angiotensin II blockade in chronic allograft nephropathy trial. (PubMed)

of interstitium or ESRD from interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) in the Angiotensin II Blockade for Chronic Allograft Nephropathy (ABCAN) Trial participants. Subjects underwent uric acid, iothalamte GFR, and urine albumin to creatinine (ACR) measurements annually for 5 years in addition to an allograft biopsy at baseline and 5 years.Baseline uric acid was 5.57±1.48 mg/dL; male sex, higher BMI, diuretic use, and lower GFR were associated with higher uric acid, whereas older age, less than 3 HLA (...) Uric acid and allograft loss from interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy: post hoc analysis from the angiotensin II blockade in chronic allograft nephropathy trial. Uric acid has been linked to the progression of native kidney disease. Studies evaluating its contribution to allograft function in kidney transplant recipients, among whom hyperuricemia is common, have yielded mixed results.We evaluated the association between baseline uric acid and the primary composite outcome of doubling

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2014 Transplantation

97. Serum uric acid level is associated with the development of microalbuminuria in Korean men. (PubMed)

Serum uric acid level is associated with the development of microalbuminuria in Korean men. Elevated serum uric acid (UA) could be a risk factor for hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. In addition, elevated serum UA may be associated with impaired renal function. However, it is unclear whether elevated serum UA is a cause of microalbuminuria or not. Therefore, we performed a prospective cohort study of the temporal relationship between baseline elevated serum UA (...) and the development of microalbuminuria in Korean men.A microalbuminuria-free cohort of 1743 healthy Korean men, who had their urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) calculated for a medical check-up programme in 2005, was followed until 2010. Microalbuminuria was defined as a urine albumin-creatinine ratio between 30 and 300 μg/mg. Cox proportional hazards model was performed.During 5884.6 person-years of follow-up, 96 incident cases of microalbuminuria developed between 2006 and 2010. After adjusting

2014 European journal of clinical investigation

98. Uric Acid Nephropathy (Diagnosis)

at the glomerulus. An active anion-exchange process in the early proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs most of it. Most urinary uric acid appears to be derived from tubular secretion, possibly from the S2 segment of the proximal tubule. Overall, 98-100% of filtered urate is reabsorbed; 6-10% is secreted, ultimately appearing in the final urine. Several factors influence the renal handling of urate. Many medications can affect the renal transport of uric acid through effects of proximal tubular absorption (...) calculi in the United States, also result from uric acid precipitation in the collecting system. Uric acid stones are related to uric acid exceeding its solubility in the urine; thus, patients with hyperuricosuria have an increased risk of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Urine oversaturation with uric acid and subsequent crystal formation is determined largely by urinary pH. Individuals who form uric acid stones tend to excrete less ammonium, which contributes directly to low urinary pH. In addition

2014 eMedicine.com

99. Uric Acid Nephropathy (Treatment)

, urinary excretion of hypoxanthine and xanthine increases. Hypoxanthine is highly soluble and does not cause clinical problems. Xanthine is less soluble than uric acid, and precipitated xanthine can be found in the urine of persons taking allopurinol. However, these precipitates do not correlate with renal failure, although well-documented cases of xanthine nephropathy do exist. Allopurinol has been used extensively in the prevention of acute uric acid nephropathy in patients with malignancy who (...) . If the patient is well hydrated and not maintaining the expected urine output, diuretics should be initiated. If the urine output remains low, adjust the fluid intake to match the output in order to avoid fluid overload. Although evidence confirming its role is lacking, urinary alkalinization should, theoretically, increase uric acid solubility. In animal studies, high tubular flow rates were the most important factor in preventing uric acid and urate crystallization, with urinary alkalinization playing only

2014 eMedicine.com

100. Uric Acid Nephropathy (Overview)

at the glomerulus. An active anion-exchange process in the early proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs most of it. Most urinary uric acid appears to be derived from tubular secretion, possibly from the S2 segment of the proximal tubule. Overall, 98-100% of filtered urate is reabsorbed; 6-10% is secreted, ultimately appearing in the final urine. Several factors influence the renal handling of urate. Many medications can affect the renal transport of uric acid through effects of proximal tubular absorption (...) calculi in the United States, also result from uric acid precipitation in the collecting system. Uric acid stones are related to uric acid exceeding its solubility in the urine; thus, patients with hyperuricosuria have an increased risk of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Urine oversaturation with uric acid and subsequent crystal formation is determined largely by urinary pH. Individuals who form uric acid stones tend to excrete less ammonium, which contributes directly to low urinary pH. In addition

2014 eMedicine.com

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