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Urine Uric Acid

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281. Paediatric Urology

Subureteric injection of bulking materials 47 3M.3.2.2 Open surgical techniques 48 3M.3.2.3 Laparoscopy 48 3M.3.3 Recommendations for the management of vesicoureteric reflux in childhood 49 3N URINARY STONE DISEASE 51 3N.1 Epidemiology, aetiology and pathophysiology 51 3N.2 Classification systems 51 3N.2.1 Calcium stones 51 3N.2.2 Uric acid stones 52 3N.2.3 Cystine stones 53 3N.2.4 Infection stones (struvite stones) 53 3N.3 Diagnostic evaluation 53 3N.3.1 Imaging 55 3N.3.2 Metabolic evaluation 55 3N.4 (...) Recommendations for the treatment of acute scrotum in children 15 3E HYPOSPADIAS 15 3E.1 Epidemiology, aetiology and pathophysiology 15 3E.1.1 Risk factors 15 3E.2 Classification systems 15 3E.3 Diagnostic evaluation 16 3E.4 Disease management 16 3E.4.1 Age at surgery 16 3E.4.2 Penile curvature 17 3E.4.3 Preservation of the well-vascularised urethral plate 17 3E.4.4 Re-do hypospadias repairs 17 3E.4.5 Urethral reconstruction 18 3E.4.6 Urine drainage and wound dressing 18 3E.4.7 Outcome 18 3E.5 Follow-up 19 3E

2015 European Association of Urology

283. Dapagliflozin (Farxiga)

and insulin analogues, meglitinides and sulfonylureas (SU) may be associated with hypoglycemia and weight gain. Amylin mimetics, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, biguanides, bile acid sequestrants, and GLP-1 receptor agonists may be associated with intolerable gastrointestinal side effects, and pancreatitis and allergic reactions have been reported with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP4] inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists. Further, progressive ß-cell dysfunction may lead to secondary treatment failure (...) in the kidney, dapagliflozin reduces renal glucose reabsorption, resulting in glycuresis over a 24-hour Reference ID: 3426720Clinical Review Frank Pucino, PharmD, MPH NDA 202293; FARXIGA (dapagliflozin) 24 dosing interval. Dapagliflozin does not inhibit other glucose transporters important for glucose transport in the gut (e.g., SGLT1) and peripheral tissues. 4.4.2 Pharmacodynamics In patients with T2DM, approximately 70 grams of glucose may be excreted in the urine per day following 10 mg daily doses

2014 FDA - Drug Approval Package

284. Reasanz - serelaxin

4/112 List of abbreviations AA Aldosterone antagonists ACE Angiotensin converting enzyme AE Adverse event AHF Acute Heart Failure AR Assessment report ARB Angiotensin receptor blocker Asp Aspartate, Aspartic acid AUC Area under the concentration-time curve AUC0-t AUCinf BET Area under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to time t, using the linear trapezoidal rule. Concentrations below the LLOQ are set to zero and therefore excluded from the calculation. Actual sample collection (...) P450 DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure DDI Drug-drug interactions DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid DO Dissolved oxygen DP Drug product DRE Disease-related event DS Drug substance E. coli Escherichia coli ECG Electrocardiogram eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay EMA European Medicines Agency ERK1/2 Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases ET Endothelin ET-1 Endothelin isoform 1 ETA Endothelial endothelin type A receptor ETB Endothelial endothelin type B receptor FDA

2014 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

285. Deltyba - delamanid

Balance 132 7. Recommendations following re-examination 136 Assessment report EMA/CHMP/125521/2013 Page 3/140 List of abbreviations E Adverse event FB Acid-fast bacilli PTT Activated partial thromboplastin time UC Area under the concentration-time curve ID Twice daily DISC Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium FU Colony forming units HMP Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use L Total body clearance of drug from plasma max Maximum drug concentration LT Dose-limiting toxicity M Drug (...) and the majority of the safety pharmacology studies conducted by the applicant were reported to be GLP compliant. The safety studies that were not conducted to GLP were conducted to an appropriate scientific standard. 2.3.2. Pharmacology Primary pharmacodynamic studies The pharmacological mode of action of delamanid involves inhibition of the synthesis of the mycobacterial cell wall components, methoxy-mycolic and keto-mycolic acid. This is observed at lower IC 50 values than that of isoniazid (INH). However

2014 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

286. Treatment Strategies for Patients with Renal Colic

Treatment Strategies for Patients with Renal Colic TITLE: Treatment Strategies for Patients with Renal Colic: A Review of the Comparative Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness DATE: 17 November 2014 CONTEXT AND POLICY ISSUES Urinary track calculi or urinary stones, formed from crystalized chemicals in the urine such as calcium oxalate, uric acid and cystine, occur in one of ten Canadians in their lifetime. 1 The obstruction of the urinary tract by calculi at the narrowest anatomical areas leads

2014 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

288. Acofide (acotiamide hydrochloride hydrate)

burning; and there is no evidence of structural disease (including at upper endoscopy) that is likely to explain the symptoms.” The cause of FD is not fully elucidated. The current assumption is that the symptoms are caused by the involvement of multiple factors including abnormal gastric emptying, gastric dysrhythmia, gastric hypersensitivity, hypersensitivity and motility disorder of the small intestine, impaired postprandial relaxation of the gastric fundus, vagus nerve disorder, enhanced acid (...) by elementary analysis, ultraviolet spectroscopy, infrared spectrophotometry (IR), water content, hydrochloric acid content, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry ( 1 H-, 13 C-NMR), mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. 2.A.(1).2) Manufacturing process The drug substance is manufactured using ***************************************, ********************************, and ***************************** as the starting materials through ** **** processes and ** **** processes. The processes

2013 Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan

289. Topiloric/Uriadec (topiroxostat)

for the indications and dosage and administration as shown below. [Indication] Gout, hyperuricaemia [Dosage and administration] The usual adult initial dosage is 20 mg/dose of topiroxostat orally administered twice daily in the morning and evening. Thereafter, the dose should be gradually increased, as needed, while monitoring blood uric acid levels. The usual maintenance dosage should be 60 mg/dose twice daily. The dose may be adjusted according to the patient’s condition, up to 80 mg/dose twice daily. 4 Review (...) of topiroxostat orally administered twice daily in the morning and evening. Thereafter, the dosage should be gradually increased, as needed, while monitoring blood uric acid levels. The usual maintenance dosage should be 60 mg/dose twice daily. The dose may be adjusted according to the patient’s condition, up to 80 mg/dose twice daily. II. Summary of the Submitted Data and Outline of Review by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) A summary of the submitted data and an outline of the review

2013 Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan

290. Effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor on proximal tubular function and injury in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. (Full text)

C:creatinine ratio (UCCR), urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR), fractional excretion of phosphate (FEPO4) and fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA) were measured at baseline and study end.Baseline characteristics were comparable between treatment groups. After 12 weeks, dapagliflozin-treated versus standard-treated patients showed reductions in HbA1c (-0.75 ± 0.21 versus -0.70 ± 0.25%; P = 0.882). There were significant between-group differences in the reduction in UACR {-23.3 [95% confidence interval (...) for the biomarkers of kidney injury in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.Our objective was to demonstrate the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on proximal tubular injury and function in patients with T2DM.T2DM patients with persistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels >7% were randomly assigned to either dapagliflozin 10 mg/day (n = 28) or standard treatment (n = 29) for 12 weeks. Proximal tubular injury biomarkers, including urine kidney injury molecule-1:creatinine ratio (UKIM1CR), urine cystatin

2019 Clinical kidney journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

291. High-Resistant Starch, Low-Protein Flour Intervention on Patients With Early Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy: A Randomized Trial. (Abstract)

); however, it did not change the interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) concentration.Twelve-week intervention with high-RS, low-protein flour improved the blood glucose and blood lipid levels, decreased the serum uric acid (UA) and urine β2-MG, and enhanced the ability to prevent antioxidative stress in patients with early DN.Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. (...) flour intake led to a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, and triglycerides levels (P < .05 for all). The changes in serum uric acid (UA) and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) level were observed after high-RS, low-protein flour intervention (uric acid [mean ± standard deviation]: -24.7 ± 38.5 μmol/L, P = .001; β2-MG: 0.5 ± 0.9 mg/L, P = 0.018). In addition, high-RS, low-protein flour intake increased serum superoxide dismutase level by 10.1 ± 27.7 U/mL (P < .05

2019 Journal of Renal Nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

292. Benzbromarone as a possible cause of acute kidney injury in patients with urolithiasis: Two case reports. (Full text)

after benzbromarone administration. Ultrasound showed multiple small stones in both kidneys, and the 24-hour urine uric acid level was 3128 mg. In case 2, a 17-year-old male student presented with AKI after self-administration of 50 mg of benzbromarone. His Scr increased to 6.8 mg/dL on day 3 after benzbromarone administration. Ultrasound showed multiple stones in the left kidney.Both patients underwent renal biopsy, with findings of acute tubular interstitial nephropathy in case 1 and acute tubular

2019 Medicine PubMed abstract

293. Hyperuricemia and its related histopathological features on renal biopsy. (Full text)

at the time of the kidney biopsy were collected from Renal Treatment System (RTS) database, including age, gender, serum uric acid (UA), glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum creatinine (Cr), urea, albumin (Alb), 24 h urine protein quantitation (24 h-u-pro) and blood pressure (BP). Pathological morphological changes were evaluated by two pathologists independently. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 21.0.Among 1070 patients, 429 had IgA nephropathy (IgAN), 641 had non-IgAN. The incidence of HUA (...) Hyperuricemia and its related histopathological features on renal biopsy. Hyperuricemia (HUA) is very common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). HUA is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and accelerates the progression of CKD. Our study aimed to explore the relationship between baseline serum uric acid levels and renal histopathological features.One thousand seventy patients receiving renal biopsy in our center were involved in our study. The baseline characteristics

2019 BMC Nephrology PubMed abstract

294. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Tolerability of Concomitant Administration of Verinurad and Febuxostat in Healthy Male Volunteers. (Full text)

. Twenty-three subjects were randomized and received once-daily doses of verinurad (or placebo) or febuxostat alone (days 1-7 and days 15-21), or verinurad + febuxostat on days 8-14. For combinations, subjects received verinurad 10 mg + febuxostat 40 mg or verinurad 2.5 mg + febuxostat 80 mg. Plasma/serum and urine samples were analyzed for verinurad, febuxostat, and uric acid. Safety was assessed by adverse events and laboratory tests. Febuxostat 40 mg had no effect on plasma exposure of verinurad 10 (...) Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Tolerability of Concomitant Administration of Verinurad and Febuxostat in Healthy Male Volunteers. Verinurad (RDEA3170) is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor in development for treatment of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. This phase 1, single-blind, multiple-dose, drug-drug interaction study evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics, and safety/tolerability of verinurad in combination with febuxostat in healthy male volunteers

2019 Clinical pharmacology in drug development Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

295. Soft Drink Consumption During and Following Exercise in the Heat Elevates Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury. (Full text)

. 5 (4) ng/dl, P < 0.04] and after correcting for urine flow rate [6 (7) (ng/dl)/(ml/min) vs. 4 (4) (ng/dl)/(ml/min), P = 0.03]. Changes in serum uric acid from preexercise were greater in the Soft Drink trial than the Water trial at postexercise ( P < 0.01) and 24 h ( P = 0.05). There were greater increases from preexercise in serum copeptin, a stable marker of vasopressin, at postexercise in the Soft Drink trial ( P < 0.02) than the Water trial. These findings indicate that consuming a soft

2019 American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

296. Plasma metabolites and lipids associate with kidney function and kidney volume in hypertensive ADPKD patients early in the disease course. (Full text)

q-value < 0.05. Specific significant metabolites, including pseudo-uridine, indole-3-lactate, uric acid, isothreonic acid, and creatinine, have been previously shown to accumulate in plasma and/or urine in both diabetic and cystic renal diseases with advanced renal insufficiency.This study identifies metabolic derangements in early ADPKD which may be prognostic for ADPKD disease progression.HALT Progression of Polycystic Kidney Disease (HALT PKD) Study A; Clinical www.clinicaltrials.gov

2019 BMC Nephrology PubMed abstract

297. Evaluation of the chemical composition of nephrolithiasis using dual-energy CT in Southern Chinese gout patients. (Full text)

Evaluation of the chemical composition of nephrolithiasis using dual-energy CT in Southern Chinese gout patients. A study to evaluate the prevalence of uric acid (UA) nephrolithiasis with dual-energy CT (DECT) and explore the risk factors for kidney stones in primary gout patients.Eighty-four consecutive gout patients underwent urinary tract ultrasonography or DECT to confirm the existence of kidney stones. Urine and blood samples were also taken for laboratory analysis.Forty-one subjects (48.8 (...) %) patients presented hypomagnesuria. Forty-three (51.8%) patients had low urine volume. Unduly acidic urine (UAU) was present in 36 patients (44.4%). Hyperuricosuria was only found in ten (12.2%) patients. In comparison to the non-lithiasic group, the lithiasic group was more likely to have a UAU. Binary logistic regression showed that female gender was a protective factor, while disease duration of gout and low urine pH were risk factors for nephrolithiasis.Our results indicated that nephrolithiasis

2019 BMC Nephrology PubMed abstract

298. An evidence-based narrative review of the emergency department evaluation and management of rhabdomyolysis. (Abstract)

of muscle cells leading to the release of numerous intracellular molecules, including potassium, calcium, phosphate, uric acid, and creatinine kinase. There are a number of potential etiologies, including exertion, extreme temperature changes, ischemia, infections, immobility, drugs, toxins, endocrine causes, autoimmune reactions, trauma, or genetic conditions. Findings can include myalgias, muscle weakness, or dark-colored urine, but more often include non-specific symptoms. The diagnosis is often (...) determined with an elevated creatinine kinase greater than five times the upper-limit of normal. Severe disease may result in renal failure, electrolyte derangements, liver disease, compartment syndrome, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Treatment includes addressing the underlying etiology, as well as aggressive intravenous hydration with a goal urine output of 300 mL/h. Bicarbonate, mannitol, and loop diuretics do not possess strong evidence for improved outcomes. Renal replacement therapy

2019 American Journal of Emergency Medicine

299. Effects of ChondroT on potassium Oxonate-induced Hyperuricemic mice: downregulation of xanthine oxidase and urate transporter 1. (Full text)

, the effect of ChondroT was evaluated on xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity in vitro. The anti-hyperuricemic effect of ChondroT was also studied in potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemic model mice. Uric acid (UA) and XOD were evaluated in the serum, urine, and liver of the mice. In addition, we measured serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels as well as mRNA expression of the mouse urate transporter 1 (mURAT1) to evaluate kidney function and urate excretion in hyperuricemic

2019 BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine PubMed abstract

300. Modification of lifestyle and nutrition interventions for management of early chronic kidney disease

therapy. Once blood pressure is controlled, low-dose acetylsalicylic acid therapy should be considered. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Early Chronic Kidney Disease July 2012 Page 20 of 50 SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 1. An RCT of different levels of fluid intake ( 3L/day) on CKD progression in patients with stage 1-3 CKD. 2. A study of the impact of moderation of alcohol intake on CKD progression in patients (...) . Conservative treatment with ketoacid and amino acid supplemented low-protein diets in chronic renal failure. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1980; 33: 1667-72. 24. Maschio G, Oldrizzi L, Tessitore N et al. Effects of dietary protein and phosphorus restriction on the progression of early renal failure. Kidney International. 1982; 22: 371-6. 25. Maschio G, Oldrizzi L, Tessitore N et al. Early dietary protein and phosphorus restriction is effective in delaying progression of chronic renal failure

2013 KHA-CARI Guidelines

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