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Urine Uric Acid

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281. Reasanz - serelaxin

4/112 List of abbreviations AA Aldosterone antagonists ACE Angiotensin converting enzyme AE Adverse event AHF Acute Heart Failure AR Assessment report ARB Angiotensin receptor blocker Asp Aspartate, Aspartic acid AUC Area under the concentration-time curve AUC0-t AUCinf BET Area under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to time t, using the linear trapezoidal rule. Concentrations below the LLOQ are set to zero and therefore excluded from the calculation. Actual sample collection (...) P450 DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure DDI Drug-drug interactions DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid DO Dissolved oxygen DP Drug product DRE Disease-related event DS Drug substance E. coli Escherichia coli ECG Electrocardiogram eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay EMA European Medicines Agency ERK1/2 Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases ET Endothelin ET-1 Endothelin isoform 1 ETA Endothelial endothelin type A receptor ETB Endothelial endothelin type B receptor FDA

2014 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

282. Deltyba - delamanid

Balance 132 7. Recommendations following re-examination 136 Assessment report EMA/CHMP/125521/2013 Page 3/140 List of abbreviations E Adverse event FB Acid-fast bacilli PTT Activated partial thromboplastin time UC Area under the concentration-time curve ID Twice daily DISC Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium FU Colony forming units HMP Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use L Total body clearance of drug from plasma max Maximum drug concentration LT Dose-limiting toxicity M Drug (...) and the majority of the safety pharmacology studies conducted by the applicant were reported to be GLP compliant. The safety studies that were not conducted to GLP were conducted to an appropriate scientific standard. 2.3.2. Pharmacology Primary pharmacodynamic studies The pharmacological mode of action of delamanid involves inhibition of the synthesis of the mycobacterial cell wall components, methoxy-mycolic and keto-mycolic acid. This is observed at lower IC 50 values than that of isoniazid (INH). However

2014 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

284. Dapagliflozin (Farxiga)

and insulin analogues, meglitinides and sulfonylureas (SU) may be associated with hypoglycemia and weight gain. Amylin mimetics, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, biguanides, bile acid sequestrants, and GLP-1 receptor agonists may be associated with intolerable gastrointestinal side effects, and pancreatitis and allergic reactions have been reported with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP4] inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists. Further, progressive ß-cell dysfunction may lead to secondary treatment failure (...) in the kidney, dapagliflozin reduces renal glucose reabsorption, resulting in glycuresis over a 24-hour Reference ID: 3426720Clinical Review Frank Pucino, PharmD, MPH NDA 202293; FARXIGA (dapagliflozin) 24 dosing interval. Dapagliflozin does not inhibit other glucose transporters important for glucose transport in the gut (e.g., SGLT1) and peripheral tissues. 4.4.2 Pharmacodynamics In patients with T2DM, approximately 70 grams of glucose may be excreted in the urine per day following 10 mg daily doses

2014 FDA - Drug Approval Package

285. Sonidegib (Odomzo)

have been exposed to ODOMZO during pregnancy, either directly or through seminal fluid, to contact the Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation at 1-888-669-6682. Blood Donation ? Advise patients not to donate blood or blood products while taking ODOMZO and for 20 months after stopping treatment. Musculoskeletal Adverse Reactions Advise patients to contact their healthcare provider immediately for new or worsening signs or symptoms of muscle toxicity, dark urine, decreased urine output (...) , or the inability to urinate [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Administration Instructions Advise patients to take ODOMZO on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. Lactation Advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with ODOMZO and for up to 20 months after the last dose [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)]. Reference ID: 3796270

2014 FDA - Drug Approval Package

286. Prevention of Recurrent Kidney Stones

with residual or recurrent struvite stones in whom surgical options have been exhausted, AUA cites acetohydroxamic acid as a treatment option. AUA recommends potassium citrate for patients with uric acid and cystine stones in order to raise urinary pH to an optimal level. Prevention of Recurrent Kidney Stones ACP (2014) Recommendation 1 : The ACP recommends management with increased fluid intake spread throughout the day to achieve at least 2 L of urine per day to prevent recurrent nephrolithiasis. ( Grade (...) animal protein. ( Expert Opinion ) Clinicians should counsel patients with uric acid stones or calcium stones and relatively high urinary uric acid to limit intake of non-dairy animal protein. ( Expert Opinion ) Clinicians should counsel patients with cystine stones to limit sodium and protein intake. ( Expert Opinion ) Pharmacologic Therapies Clinicians should offer thiazide diuretics to patients with high or relatively high urine calcium and recurrent calcium stones. ( Standard; Evidence Strength

2015 National Guideline Clearinghouse (partial archive)

287. Urolithiasis

characteristics may provide information on the type of stone. Oral chemolitholysis is based on alkalinisation of urine by application of alkaline citrate or sodium bicarbonate [78, 80]. The pH should be adjusted to 7.0-7,2. Within this range, chemolysis is more effective at a higher pH, which might lead to calcium phosphate stone formation. Monitoring of radiolucent stones during therapy is the domain of US, however, repeat NCCT might be necessary. In the case of uric acid obstruction of the collecting system (...) related to calcium stones 44 4.6.1 Hyperparathyroidism 44 4.6.2 Granulomatous diseases 45 4.6.3 Primary hyperoxaluria 45 4.6.4 Enteric hyperoxaluria 45 4.6.5 Renal tubular acidosis 45 4.6.6 Nephrocalcinosis 47 Diagnosis 47 4.7 Uric acid and ammonium urate stones 47 4.7.1 Diagnosis 47 4.7.2 Interpretation of results 47 4.7.3 Specific treatment 48 4.8 Struvite and infection stones 48 4.8.1 Diagnosis 48 4.8.2 Specific treatment 49 4.8.3 Recommendations for therapeutic measures of infection stones

2015 European Association of Urology

288. Paediatric Urology

Subureteric injection of bulking materials 47 3M.3.2.2 Open surgical techniques 48 3M.3.2.3 Laparoscopy 48 3M.3.3 Recommendations for the management of vesicoureteric reflux in childhood 49 3N URINARY STONE DISEASE 51 3N.1 Epidemiology, aetiology and pathophysiology 51 3N.2 Classification systems 51 3N.2.1 Calcium stones 51 3N.2.2 Uric acid stones 52 3N.2.3 Cystine stones 53 3N.2.4 Infection stones (struvite stones) 53 3N.3 Diagnostic evaluation 53 3N.3.1 Imaging 55 3N.3.2 Metabolic evaluation 55 3N.4 (...) Recommendations for the treatment of acute scrotum in children 15 3E HYPOSPADIAS 15 3E.1 Epidemiology, aetiology and pathophysiology 15 3E.1.1 Risk factors 15 3E.2 Classification systems 15 3E.3 Diagnostic evaluation 16 3E.4 Disease management 16 3E.4.1 Age at surgery 16 3E.4.2 Penile curvature 17 3E.4.3 Preservation of the well-vascularised urethral plate 17 3E.4.4 Re-do hypospadias repairs 17 3E.4.5 Urethral reconstruction 18 3E.4.6 Urine drainage and wound dressing 18 3E.4.7 Outcome 18 3E.5 Follow-up 19 3E

2015 European Association of Urology

290. Benzbromarone as a possible cause of acute kidney injury in patients with urolithiasis: Two case reports. Full Text available with Trip Pro

after benzbromarone administration. Ultrasound showed multiple small stones in both kidneys, and the 24-hour urine uric acid level was 3128 mg. In case 2, a 17-year-old male student presented with AKI after self-administration of 50 mg of benzbromarone. His Scr increased to 6.8 mg/dL on day 3 after benzbromarone administration. Ultrasound showed multiple stones in the left kidney.Both patients underwent renal biopsy, with findings of acute tubular interstitial nephropathy in case 1 and acute tubular

2019 Medicine

291. High-Resistant Starch, Low-Protein Flour Intervention on Patients With Early Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy: A Randomized Trial. (Abstract)

); however, it did not change the interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) concentration.Twelve-week intervention with high-RS, low-protein flour improved the blood glucose and blood lipid levels, decreased the serum uric acid (UA) and urine β2-MG, and enhanced the ability to prevent antioxidative stress in patients with early DN.Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. (...) flour intake led to a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, and triglycerides levels (P < .05 for all). The changes in serum uric acid (UA) and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) level were observed after high-RS, low-protein flour intervention (uric acid [mean ± standard deviation]: -24.7 ± 38.5 μmol/L, P = .001; β2-MG: 0.5 ± 0.9 mg/L, P = 0.018). In addition, high-RS, low-protein flour intake increased serum superoxide dismutase level by 10.1 ± 27.7 U/mL (P < .05

2019 Journal of Renal Nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

292. Hyperuricemia and its related histopathological features on renal biopsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

at the time of the kidney biopsy were collected from Renal Treatment System (RTS) database, including age, gender, serum uric acid (UA), glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum creatinine (Cr), urea, albumin (Alb), 24 h urine protein quantitation (24 h-u-pro) and blood pressure (BP). Pathological morphological changes were evaluated by two pathologists independently. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 21.0.Among 1070 patients, 429 had IgA nephropathy (IgAN), 641 had non-IgAN. The incidence of HUA (...) Hyperuricemia and its related histopathological features on renal biopsy. Hyperuricemia (HUA) is very common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). HUA is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and accelerates the progression of CKD. Our study aimed to explore the relationship between baseline serum uric acid levels and renal histopathological features.One thousand seventy patients receiving renal biopsy in our center were involved in our study. The baseline characteristics

2019 BMC Nephrology

293. Evaluation of the chemical composition of nephrolithiasis using dual-energy CT in Southern Chinese gout patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of the chemical composition of nephrolithiasis using dual-energy CT in Southern Chinese gout patients. A study to evaluate the prevalence of uric acid (UA) nephrolithiasis with dual-energy CT (DECT) and explore the risk factors for kidney stones in primary gout patients.Eighty-four consecutive gout patients underwent urinary tract ultrasonography or DECT to confirm the existence of kidney stones. Urine and blood samples were also taken for laboratory analysis.Forty-one subjects (48.8 (...) %) patients presented hypomagnesuria. Forty-three (51.8%) patients had low urine volume. Unduly acidic urine (UAU) was present in 36 patients (44.4%). Hyperuricosuria was only found in ten (12.2%) patients. In comparison to the non-lithiasic group, the lithiasic group was more likely to have a UAU. Binary logistic regression showed that female gender was a protective factor, while disease duration of gout and low urine pH were risk factors for nephrolithiasis.Our results indicated that nephrolithiasis

2019 BMC Nephrology

294. Effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor on proximal tubular function and injury in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

C:creatinine ratio (UCCR), urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR), fractional excretion of phosphate (FEPO4) and fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA) were measured at baseline and study end.Baseline characteristics were comparable between treatment groups. After 12 weeks, dapagliflozin-treated versus standard-treated patients showed reductions in HbA1c (-0.75 ± 0.21 versus -0.70 ± 0.25%; P = 0.882). There were significant between-group differences in the reduction in UACR {-23.3 [95% confidence interval (...) for the biomarkers of kidney injury in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.Our objective was to demonstrate the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on proximal tubular injury and function in patients with T2DM.T2DM patients with persistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels >7% were randomly assigned to either dapagliflozin 10 mg/day (n = 28) or standard treatment (n = 29) for 12 weeks. Proximal tubular injury biomarkers, including urine kidney injury molecule-1:creatinine ratio (UKIM1CR), urine cystatin

2019 Clinical kidney journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

295. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Tolerability of Concomitant Administration of Verinurad and Febuxostat in Healthy Male Volunteers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Twenty-three subjects were randomized and received once-daily doses of verinurad (or placebo) or febuxostat alone (days 1-7 and days 15-21), or verinurad + febuxostat on days 8-14. For combinations, subjects received verinurad 10 mg + febuxostat 40 mg or verinurad 2.5 mg + febuxostat 80 mg. Plasma/serum and urine samples were analyzed for verinurad, febuxostat, and uric acid. Safety was assessed by adverse events and laboratory tests. Febuxostat 40 mg had no effect on plasma exposure of verinurad 10 (...) Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Tolerability of Concomitant Administration of Verinurad and Febuxostat in Healthy Male Volunteers. Verinurad (RDEA3170) is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor in development for treatment of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. This phase 1, single-blind, multiple-dose, drug-drug interaction study evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics, and safety/tolerability of verinurad in combination with febuxostat in healthy male volunteers

2019 Clinical pharmacology in drug development Controlled trial quality: uncertain

296. Soft Drink Consumption During and Following Exercise in the Heat Elevates Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. 5 (4) ng/dl, P < 0.04] and after correcting for urine flow rate [6 (7) (ng/dl)/(ml/min) vs. 4 (4) (ng/dl)/(ml/min), P = 0.03]. Changes in serum uric acid from preexercise were greater in the Soft Drink trial than the Water trial at postexercise ( P < 0.01) and 24 h ( P = 0.05). There were greater increases from preexercise in serum copeptin, a stable marker of vasopressin, at postexercise in the Soft Drink trial ( P < 0.02) than the Water trial. These findings indicate that consuming a soft

2019 American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

297. Plasma metabolites and lipids associate with kidney function and kidney volume in hypertensive ADPKD patients early in the disease course. Full Text available with Trip Pro

q-value < 0.05. Specific significant metabolites, including pseudo-uridine, indole-3-lactate, uric acid, isothreonic acid, and creatinine, have been previously shown to accumulate in plasma and/or urine in both diabetic and cystic renal diseases with advanced renal insufficiency.This study identifies metabolic derangements in early ADPKD which may be prognostic for ADPKD disease progression.HALT Progression of Polycystic Kidney Disease (HALT PKD) Study A; Clinical

2019 BMC Nephrology

298. Effects of ChondroT on potassium Oxonate-induced Hyperuricemic mice: downregulation of xanthine oxidase and urate transporter 1. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, the effect of ChondroT was evaluated on xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity in vitro. The anti-hyperuricemic effect of ChondroT was also studied in potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemic model mice. Uric acid (UA) and XOD were evaluated in the serum, urine, and liver of the mice. In addition, we measured serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels as well as mRNA expression of the mouse urate transporter 1 (mURAT1) to evaluate kidney function and urate excretion in hyperuricemic

2019 BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

299. An evidence-based narrative review of the emergency department evaluation and management of rhabdomyolysis. (Abstract)

of muscle cells leading to the release of numerous intracellular molecules, including potassium, calcium, phosphate, uric acid, and creatinine kinase. There are a number of potential etiologies, including exertion, extreme temperature changes, ischemia, infections, immobility, drugs, toxins, endocrine causes, autoimmune reactions, trauma, or genetic conditions. Findings can include myalgias, muscle weakness, or dark-colored urine, but more often include non-specific symptoms. The diagnosis is often (...) determined with an elevated creatinine kinase greater than five times the upper-limit of normal. Severe disease may result in renal failure, electrolyte derangements, liver disease, compartment syndrome, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Treatment includes addressing the underlying etiology, as well as aggressive intravenous hydration with a goal urine output of 300 mL/h. Bicarbonate, mannitol, and loop diuretics do not possess strong evidence for improved outcomes. Renal replacement therapy

2019 American Journal of Emergency Medicine

300. Aubagio (teriflunomide)

of abbreviations 4-TFMA: 4-trifluoro-methylaniline A782068: 2-cyano-3-hydroxy-pent -2-enoic acid-(4’-trifluoromethylphenyl)-amide A813226: 2-cyano-ethanoic acid-(4’-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-amide AE: adverse event AESI: adverse events of special interest ALT: alanine aminotransferase ARR: annualised relapse rate AST: aspartate aminotransferase BCRP: breast cancer resistant protein BCS: Biopharmaceutics Classification System BfArM: Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices BOD: burden of disease BP: blood (...) containing 14 mg of teriflunomide as active substance. The composition is described in section 6.1. of the SmPC. The medicinal product is packed in aluminium-aluminium blisters inserted in wallets and packed in cartons. Assessment report EMA/529295/2013 Page 9/150 2.2.2. Active Substance The chemical name of teriflunomide is (Z)-2-Cyano-3-hydroxy-but-2-enoic acid-(4- trifluoromethylphenyl) amide with molecular formula C 12 H 9 F 3 N 2 O 2 and relative molecular mass 270.2 g/mol. Its structural formula

2013 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

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