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Urine Uric Acid

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261. Jinarc - tolvaptan

of Admin. Doses (mg/kg) or Concentration Gender/ No. per Group Noteworthy Findings GLP Compliance Report No. DBA/2Jcl (Normal Controls) Control M/9 from 4weeks of age to 20 weeks of age, subsequently, left kidney volume was maintained constant to the end of study (29weeks of age); by the end of the study (20 weeks of age) the maximal left kidney volume was 702 mm 3 in OPC-41061- treated pcy mice compared to 354 mm 3 in normal controls and 1113 mm 3 in pcy control mice. Increased urine volume (...) and decreased urine osmolality were observed during the study in the OPC-41061-treated mice. OPC-41061 significantly decreased urine albumin excretion compared to pcy controls. BUN tended to increase in pcy control and OPC-41061-treated mice during the study, compared to normal mice. Urinary AVP levels in pcy control mice and OPC-41061-treated mice were generally similar throughout the study, and the levels were higher than normal control mice. Plasma electrolytes and osmolality were similar for pcy control

2015 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

262. Genvoya - elvitegravir / cobicistat / emtricitabine / tenofovir alafenamide

of Product Characteristics STB elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (coformulated; Stribild) TAF tenofovir alafenamide TAF fumarate tenofovir alafenamide fumarate TAM thymidine analogue mutation TDF tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread) TFV tenofovir TFV DP tenofovir diphosphate TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TVD emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (coformulated; Truvada) UACR urine albumin to creatinine ratio UGT uridine diphosphate (...) glucuronosyltransferase UPCR urine protein to creatinine ratio UPLC Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography USP/NF United States Pharmacopoeia/National Formulary UV Ultraviolet XRPD X-Ray (Powder) Diffraction Assessment report EMA/688326/2015 Page 7/159 1. Background information on the procedure 1.1. Submission of the dossier The applicant Gilead Sciences International Ltd submitted on 28 November 2014 an application for Marketing Authorisation to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for Genvoya, through

2015 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

263. Raxone - idebenone

in the relative frequency worldwide. All of the three main primary LHON mutations result in amino acid changes in complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In LHON patients, this change leads to a defect in complex I and disrupts the electron transport chain. However, the mutations are not always associated with a measurable respiratory chain abnormality. Experimental evidence connects complex I dysfunction to elevated levels of oxidative stress, reduced mitochondrial (...) structure: The structure of the active substance has been confirmed by IR, MS, NMR ( 13 C and 1 H), X-ray crystallography, and UV, all of which support the chemical structure. It appears as a yellow-orange crystalline, non-hygroscopic powder. It is insoluble in water and freely soluble in ethanol. No dissociation constant has been calculated because idebenone has neither basic nor acidic function. Its logP oct/wat was found to be 3.93 at 25°C. Idebenone is achiral. Two structurally distinct crystal

2015 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

264. Heart failure - chronic

factors and to exclude with similar presentations. Possible tests include: Chest X-ray. Blood tests such as urea and electrolytes, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), full blood count, thyroid function tests, liver function tests, HbA1c, and fasting lipids. Urine dipstick for blood and protein. Lung function tests (peak flow and/or spirometry). Assess for and manage any underlying where appropriate. People with heart failure due to valve disease should be referred for specialist assessment

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

265. Effects of antioxidant-rich foods on altitude-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in elite endurance athletes: A randomized controlled trial. (Full text)

(23 ± 5 years), ingested antioxidant-rich foods (n = 16), (> doubling their usual intake), or eucaloric control foods (n = 15) during a 3-week altitude training camp (2320 m). Fasting blood and urine samples were collected 7 days pre-altitude, after 5 and 18 days at altitude, and 7 days post-altitude. Change over time was compared between the groups using mixed models for antioxidant capacity [uric acid-free (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)], oxidative stress (8-epi-PGF2α

2019 PLoS ONE Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

266. Biochemical metabolic levels and vitamin D receptor FokⅠ gene polymorphisms in Uyghur children with urolithiasis. (Full text)

) and serum chlorine (Cl) (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88-0.97) were related to Uyghur children urolithiasis risk. A multiple logistic regression model showed CO2CP (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.09-1.26), levels of uric acid (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.01) and serum sodium (Na) (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82-0.99) were associated with pediatric urolithiasis. The risk of urolithiasis was increased with the F versus f allele overall (OR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.01-2.00) and for males (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02-2.27). However, metabolic (...) levels did not differ by FokⅠ genotypes. In our population, CO2CP and levels of uric acid and serum Na as well as polymorphism of the F allele of the VDR FokⅠ may provide important clues to evaluate the risk of urolithiasis in Uyghur children.

2019 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

267. CUA guideline on the evaluation and medical management of the kidney stone patient

, Grade C Recommendation): 14-20 • Children ( 5.8 serum bicarbonate serum potassium Pure apatite stone Hypocitraturia Serum electrolytes Urine pH Ammonium chloride load test* Potassium citrate *Optional; PTH: parathyroid hormone; ?: high; ?N: at the high end of normal range; : low.CUAJ • November-December 2016 • Volume 10, Issues 11-12 E354 dion et al. Focus of treatment for uric acid stones should, therefore, primarily be to correct urine pH above 5.5 and increase urine volume rather than institute (...) excretion. This results in unbuffered hydrogen ions and a lowering of the urinary pH. 134 Based on the num- ber of metabolic syndrome traits, the risk of stone formation may go up two-fold. 135 Dietary and medical prophylaxis options are shown in Fig. 2. In patients with uric acid stones, alkalinization of the urine targeting a urine pH of 6.5 is the first-line therapy. Allopurinol may be used as adjunctive therapy in patients with hyperuricemia or hyperuricosuria (Level of Evidence 1-3, Grade B

2016 Canadian Urological Association

268. Can a Spot Urine Replace or Improve 24 Hour Urine Collections in Kidney Stone Patients

.), different crystals may precipitate. Therefore therapy is tailored to the individual, based on stone composition and the results of the 24-hour urine collection. The majority of the stones are calcium based (calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate) while the remaining are comprised of uric acid, struvite, cystine or other substances. While some stones can pass spontaneously, the majority will require some form of treatment, and more than 50% will require surgical intervention. Until the 1980s, treatment (...) : All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Sampling Method: Non-Probability Sample Study Population Patients receiving care at Vancouver General Hospital for their kidney stone disease. Criteria Inclusion Criteria: Patients who have been diagnosed as having calcium based urinary stones at least 19 years of age do not have any additional serious disease Exclusion Criteria: Patients who do not have calcium based urinary stones (such as: uric acid, cystine, struvite) less than 19 years of age have a serious

2010 Clinical Trials

269. Management of Ureteral Calculi

to SWL and may be better served by ureteroscopic management. 12 Moreover, in the case of cystine and calcium oxalate monohydrate, the frag- ments created by SWL may be large which can result in poor clearance. Uric acid stones, while fragile in the face of SWL, present a challenge with respect to localization for SWL treatment. Either the use of ultrasound or pyelography (IVP or retrograde) is required to target the stone. In addition, follow-up cannot be completed in the conventional fashion (...) with plain radiography, and requires the use of either ultra- sound or, more often, CT scanning to ensure the patient is successfully treated. In many instances the exact stone composition will not be known prior to treatment, or in the case of recurrent stone formers, it may have changed over time. 13 Non-contrast CT scans using dual energy can distinguish some types of stones in vivo. Uric acid stones can be differentiated from calcium stones; however, there is significant overlap in the attenua- tion

2015 Canadian Urological Association

270. Polycythaemia/erythrocytosis

but clinically normal haemoglobin. JAK2 V617F mutation — positive finding is definitive for polycythaemia vera. Negative finding does not rule it out as around 5% of cases involve other mutations. Serum uric acid (optional) — frequently elevated in polycythaemia vera. Abdominal ultrasound — to detect splenomegaly (suggestive of polycythaemia vera) where physical examination is equivocal. Differential diagnosis What else might it be? The differential diagnoses of polycythaemia vera include: Essential (...) , leading to secondary erythrocytosis. Examine the digits, measure oxygen saturation, and listen to the chest — clubbing of digits, oxygen saturation <92% in room air, and/or abnormal heart or breath sounds may suggest secondary erythrocytosis caused by underlying cardiopulmonary disease. Carry out urine dipstick analysis to identify possible renal causes of secondary erythrocytosis. Consider . Take blood samples (without a tourniquet if possible) for haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV

2018 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

271. Measurement of Reactive Oxygen Species, Reactive Nitrogen Species, and Redox-Dependent Signaling in the Cardiovascular System

investigators and clinical researchers avoid experimental error and ensure high-quality measurements of these important biological species. Introduction Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are produced in virtually all eukaryotic cells. These molecules regulate several physiological processes including proliferation, migration, hypertrophy, differentiation, cytoskeletal dynamics, and metabolism, but when available in excess, they react with lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids (...) Free radical; neutral form of hydroxide ion (HO − ) Superoxide anion Free radical; dioxide (1-); product of 1 e − reduction of dioxygen O 3 Ozone Trioxygen; an allotrope of oxygen OCl − Hypochloride anion Salt of hypochlorous acid ROOH Hydroperoxide Organic peroxide, protonated peroxyl radical ROO· Peroxyl radical Free radical; lipid peroxyl radical when R is a lipid carbon RO· Alkoxyl radical Free radical; lipid alkoxyl radical when R is a lipid carbon Reactive nitrogen species ·NO Nitric oxide

2016 American Heart Association

272. Screening and Management of Lipids

- treated patients results in a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular events. Therefore niacin should not be used in conjunction with statins for reduction in cardiovascular events. Rare cases of rhabdomyolysis have been associated with concomitant use of statins and niacin in doses > 1 g. Niacin patients should have baseline ALT and glucose and uric acid, with follow up ALT at 3 months or at dose escalations, and periodically thereafter. Niacin is available over the counter (OTC) as a dietary (...) controlled trials; B=controlled trials, no randomization; C=observational trials; D=opinion of expert panel. 2 UMHS Lipid Therapy Guideline, May 2014 Table 1. Secondary Causes of Hyperlipidemia Secondary Cause Elevated LDL-C Elevated Triglycerides Diet Saturated or trans fats, weight gain, anorexia Weight gain, very low-fat diets, high intake of refined carbohydrates, excessive alcohol intake Drugs Diuretics, cyclosporine, glucocorticoids, amiodarone Oral estrogens, glucocorticoids, bile acid

2016 University of Michigan Health System

273. Surgical Management of Stones: AUA/Endourology Society Guideline

or distal ureteral stones who require intervention (who were not candidates for or who failed MET), clinicians should recommend URS as first-line therapy. For patients who decline URS, clinicians should offer SWL. (Index Patients 2,3,5,6) Strong Recommendation; Evidence Level Grade B 12. URS is recommended for patients with suspected cystine or uric acid ureteral stones who fail MET or desire intervention. Expert Opinion 13. Routine stenting should not be performed in patients undergoing SWL. (Index (...) ' published in 2014. 6 The surgical management of patients with various stones is described below and divided into 13 respective patient profiles. Index Patients 1-10 are non-morbidly obese; non-pregnant adults (≥ 18 years of age) with stones not thought to be composed of uric acid or cystine; normal renal, coagulation and platelet function; normally positioned kidneys; intact lower urinary tracts without ectopic ureters; no evidence of sepsis; and no anatomic or functional obstruction distal to the stone

2016 American Urological Association

275. Contrast-induced Nephropathy

bicarbonate versus N-acetylcysteine plus IV saline; 8 RCTs comparing a statin versus IV saline; 5 RCTs comparing a statin plus N-acetylcysteine versus N-acetylcysteine; 6 RCTs comparing statin versus statin, statin by dose, or statins plus other agents; 5 RCTs comparing an adenosine antagonist versus IV saline; 6 RCTs investigating hemodialysis or hemofiltration versus IV saline; 6 RCTs comparing ascorbic acid versus IV saline, and 3 RCTs comparing ascorbic acid to N-acetylcysteine. Although we found many (...) of CIN (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.27). The SOE was low for a clinically important reduction in CIN that was not statistically significant when comparing IV sodium bicarbonate with IV saline in patients receiving LOCM (RR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.33 to 1.25). The SOE was low for a clinically important reduction in CIN that was not statistically significant when comparing ascorbic acid with IV saline (RR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.48 to 1.01). The SOE was low that use of hemodialysis versus IV saline to prevent CIN

2016 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

276. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease in Adult Males in Vojvodina: A Cross-sectional Study (Full text)

, based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), and exploring the determinants and awareness of CKD.This cross-sectional study included 3060 male examinees from the general population, over 18 years of age, whose eGFR and ACR were calculated, first morning urine specimen examined, arterial blood pressure measured and body mass index calculated. Standard biochemistry methods determined creatinine, urea, uric acid and glucose serum concentrations as well (...) as albumin and creatinine urine levels.Prevalence of CKD in the adult male population is 7.9%, highest in men over 65 years of age (46.7%), while in the other age groups it is 3.6-12.6%. The largest number of examinees with a positive CKD marker suffer from arterial hypertension (HTA) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Only 1.3% of examinees with eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and/or ACR≥ 3 mg/mmol had been aware of positive CKD biomarkers.Obtained results show the prevalence of CKD in adult males is 7.9%, HTA and DM

2017 Journal of medical biochemistry PubMed abstract

277. Prevention of Recurrent Kidney Stones

with residual or recurrent struvite stones in whom surgical options have been exhausted, AUA cites acetohydroxamic acid as a treatment option. AUA recommends potassium citrate for patients with uric acid and cystine stones in order to raise urinary pH to an optimal level. Prevention of Recurrent Kidney Stones ACP (2014) Recommendation 1 : The ACP recommends management with increased fluid intake spread throughout the day to achieve at least 2 L of urine per day to prevent recurrent nephrolithiasis. ( Grade (...) animal protein. ( Expert Opinion ) Clinicians should counsel patients with uric acid stones or calcium stones and relatively high urinary uric acid to limit intake of non-dairy animal protein. ( Expert Opinion ) Clinicians should counsel patients with cystine stones to limit sodium and protein intake. ( Expert Opinion ) Pharmacologic Therapies Clinicians should offer thiazide diuretics to patients with high or relatively high urine calcium and recurrent calcium stones. ( Standard; Evidence Strength

2015 National Guideline Clearinghouse (partial archive)

279. Sonidegib (Odomzo)

have been exposed to ODOMZO during pregnancy, either directly or through seminal fluid, to contact the Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation at 1-888-669-6682. Blood Donation ? Advise patients not to donate blood or blood products while taking ODOMZO and for 20 months after stopping treatment. Musculoskeletal Adverse Reactions Advise patients to contact their healthcare provider immediately for new or worsening signs or symptoms of muscle toxicity, dark urine, decreased urine output (...) , or the inability to urinate [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Administration Instructions Advise patients to take ODOMZO on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. Lactation Advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with ODOMZO and for up to 20 months after the last dose [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)]. Reference ID: 3796270

2014 FDA - Drug Approval Package

280. Urolithiasis

characteristics may provide information on the type of stone. Oral chemolitholysis is based on alkalinisation of urine by application of alkaline citrate or sodium bicarbonate [78, 80]. The pH should be adjusted to 7.0-7,2. Within this range, chemolysis is more effective at a higher pH, which might lead to calcium phosphate stone formation. Monitoring of radiolucent stones during therapy is the domain of US, however, repeat NCCT might be necessary. In the case of uric acid obstruction of the collecting system (...) related to calcium stones 44 4.6.1 Hyperparathyroidism 44 4.6.2 Granulomatous diseases 45 4.6.3 Primary hyperoxaluria 45 4.6.4 Enteric hyperoxaluria 45 4.6.5 Renal tubular acidosis 45 4.6.6 Nephrocalcinosis 47 4.6.6.1 Diagnosis 47 4.7 Uric acid and ammonium urate stones 47 4.7.1 Diagnosis 47 4.7.2 Interpretation of results 47 4.7.3 Specific treatment 48 4.8 Struvite and infection stones 48 4.8.1 Diagnosis 48 4.8.2 Specific treatment 49 4.8.3 Recommendations for therapeutic measures of infection stones

2015 European Association of Urology

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