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Urine Uric Acid

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181. The alkalizer citrate reduces serum uric Acid levels and improves renal function in hyperuricemic patients treated with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. (PubMed)

The alkalizer citrate reduces serum uric Acid levels and improves renal function in hyperuricemic patients treated with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. Hyperuricemia, an integral component of metabolic syndrome, is a major health problem causing gout and renal damage. Urine alkalizers such as citrate preparations facilitate renal excretion of the uric acid, but its supportive effect on xanthine oxidase inhibitors has not been tested yet. We performed a randomized, prospective study (...) of the effect of a combination of allopurinol and a citrate preparation on renal function in patients with hyperuricemia, employing 70 patients who had hyperuricemia with serum uric acid levels ≥7.0 mg/dL, or those diagnosed as having hyperuricemia in the past.They were randomly enrolled into two study groups: the allopurinol monotherapy (MT) group or combination treatment (CT) group with allopurinol and a citrate preparation. Allopurinol (100-200 mg/day) in the absence or presence of a citrate preparation

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2010 Endocrine research

182. Association of Uric Acid With Change in Kidney Function in Healthy Normotensive Individuals. (PubMed)

of eGFR decrease in both women and men (HR, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.04-1.39] per each 1-mg/dL increase in uric acid level); in multivariable analyses adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, blood glucose level, total cholesterol level, mean blood pressure, urine albumin-creatinine ratio, and serum triglyceride level, the association remained highly significant (HR, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.12-1.48]). Results were similar using different estimating equations and when the association was examined in sex-specific (...) Association of Uric Acid With Change in Kidney Function in Healthy Normotensive Individuals. Despite recent evidence, the role of uric acid as a causal factor in the pathogenesis and progression of kidney disease remains controversial, partly because of the inclusion in epidemiologic studies of patients with hypertension, diabetes, and/or proteinuria.Prospective observational cohort.900 healthy normotensive adult blood donors (153 women, 747 men) evaluated at baseline and after 5 years.Serum

2010 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

183. Evaluation of Intravenous Ascorbic Acid

: Healthy adults age 21 or older Laboratory: ANC ≥1,500/mm3, Hemoglobin > 8g/dL, platelet ≥ 100,000/mm3, total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 mg/dL, creatinine ≤2.0 mg/dL, transaminase (AST/ALT) ≤2.5X upper limit, urine uric acid < 1,000mg/d, urine pH <6, urine oxalate <60 mg/d. Participants who have no language barrier, are cooperative, and can give informed consent before entering the study after being informed of the medications and procedures to be used in this study may participate. Exclusion: Glucose-6-phosphate (...) limit, urine uric acid < 1,000mg/d, urine pH <6, urine oxalate <60 mg/d. Participants who have no language barrier, are cooperative, and can give informed consent before entering the study after being informed of the medications and procedures to be used in this study may participate. Exclusion: Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency Currently receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy History of bleeding disorder History of oxalate renal calculi; urine oxalate level > 60 mg/d

2012 Clinical Trials

184. The BANGALORE Study; Combination of Berberine, Lipoic Acid, and Picrorhiza

in: Endothelial function using noninvasive brachial artery reactivity (BAR) ultrasound Biomarkers including IL-6, HOMA-IR, HbA1C, hsCRP, adiponectin, plasma/urine isoprostanes, PAI-1, TNFα-II, aldosterone, and glutathione redox ratio Urinary protein excretion Clinical chemistry including plasma glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total bilirubin, uric acid, transaminases (SGOT/AST, SGPT/ALT), alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, and lipoproteins Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase (...) , and glutathione redox ratio Urinary protein excretion Clinical chemistry including plasma glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total bilirubin, uric acid, transaminases (SGOT/AST, SGPT/ALT), alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, and lipoproteins Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Actual Enrollment : 28 participants Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator

2012 Clinical Trials

185. Can a Spot Urine Replace or Improve 24 Hour Urine Collections in Kidney Stone Patients

.), different crystals may precipitate. Therefore therapy is tailored to the individual, based on stone composition and the results of the 24-hour urine collection. The majority of the stones are calcium based (calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate) while the remaining are comprised of uric acid, struvite, cystine or other substances. While some stones can pass spontaneously, the majority will require some form of treatment, and more than 50% will require surgical intervention. Until the 1980s, treatment (...) : All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Sampling Method: Non-Probability Sample Study Population Patients receiving care at Vancouver General Hospital for their kidney stone disease. Criteria Inclusion Criteria: Patients who have been diagnosed as having calcium based urinary stones at least 19 years of age do not have any additional serious disease Exclusion Criteria: Patients who do not have calcium based urinary stones (such as: uric acid, cystine, struvite) less than 19 years of age have a serious

2010 Clinical Trials

186. Hypercalciuria Associated with High Dietary Protein Intake Is Not Due to Acid Load. (PubMed)

at the end of each of four phases while consuming metabolic diets with fixed calcium and sodium content. Phases 1 and 3 consisted of a control diet (CD). Phases 2 and 4 consisted of a eucaloric HPD (60 g/d animal proteins added to CD). Along with HPD in phases 2 and 4, subjects ingested 30 mEq twice daily of either potassium citrate (KCitrate, alkaline salt) or potassium chloride (KCl, control neutral salt).KCitrate completely neutralized the acid load imparted by HPD (based on changes in urine pH (...) and net acid excretion) and increased urinary citrate. Urinary calcium increased during both HPD phases compared with CD but was not significantly different between the HPD + KCl and HPD + KCitrate phases (182 ± 85 vs. 170 ± 85 mg/d; P = 0.28). Increased urinary saturation with respect to calcium oxalate and uric acid with HPD was abrogated by KCitrate.This study suggests that, at least in the short-term, mechanism(s) other than acid load account for hypercalciuria induced by HPD. The beneficial

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2011 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

187. Uricosuric agents in uremic sera. Identification of indoxyl sulfata and hippuric acid. (PubMed)

Uricosuric agents in uremic sera. Identification of indoxyl sulfata and hippuric acid. Serum and urine from chronically uremic patients and normal individuals were subjected to gel filtration of Sephadex-G10. The effects of the eluted fractions on the uptake of urate and para-aminohippurate by isolated cortical tubules of rabbit kidney were investigated. According to the origin of the samples, one to three major groups of fractions inhibiting both urate and para-aminohippurate transport were (...) disclosed. The first eluted group occurred for all the samples under study. The second one was demonstrated in both sera and urines from uremic patients but only in urines from normal individuals. The third one was exclusively detected in uremic sera and urines. Among all the compounds identified, only hippuric acid, eluted in the fractions of the second group, was capable of inhibiting the uptake of urate and para-aminohippurate in vitro. The concentration for which this inhbiitory effect of hippuric

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1975 Journal of Clinical Investigation

188. The elimination of salicylic acid in man: serum concentrations and urinary excretion rates. (PubMed)

blood metabolism urine Uric Acid physiology 1966 2 1 1966 2 1 0 1 1966 2 1 0 0 ppublish 5912691 PMC1510654 J Pharm Sci. 1965 Jul;54(7):959-67 5862532 Nature. 1966 Feb 5;209(5023):620-1 5921196 J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1957 Aug;120(4):528-39 13476377 Br Med J. 1964 Aug 1;2(5404):286-8 14160212 Biochem Pharmacol. 1964 May;13:767-76 14181279 Nature. 1964 May 23;202:779-80 14187617 Br Med J. 1964 Oct 24;2(5416):1033-6 14191162 Br J Pharmacol Chemother. 1965 Apr;24:418-31 14320855 J Am Pharm Assoc Am Pharm (...) The elimination of salicylic acid in man: serum concentrations and urinary excretion rates. 5912691 1966 11 28 2018 11 13 0366-0826 26 2 1966 Feb British journal of pharmacology and chemotherapy Br J Pharmacol Chemother The elimination of salicylic acid in man: serum concentrations and urinary excretion rates. 461-7 Cummings A J AJ Martin B K BK Renton R R eng Journal Article England Br J Pharmacol Chemother 0154627 0366-0826 0 Salicylates 268B43MJ25 Uric Acid IM Adult Humans Male Salicylates

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1966 British journal of pharmacology and chemotherapy

189. Organic acid excretion patterns in gout. (PubMed)

Organic acid excretion patterns in gout. 5016863 1972 06 15 2018 11 13 0003-4967 31 2 1972 Mar Annals of the rheumatic diseases Ann. Rheum. Dis. Organic acid excretion patterns in gout. 137-44 Kramer H J HJ Lu E E Gonick H C HC eng Journal Article England Ann Rheum Dis 0372355 0003-4967 0 Acids 0 Citrates 0 Fumarates 0 Ketoglutaric Acids 0 Lactates 0 Malates 0 Oxalates 0 Pyruvates 0 Succinates 0 Tricarboxylic Acids 142M471B3J Carbon Dioxide 268B43MJ25 Uric Acid IM Acids urine Adult Aged Carbon (...) Dioxide blood Chromatography, Gas Citrates urine Citric Acid Cycle Fumarates urine Glomerular Filtration Rate Gout urine Humans Hydrogen-Ion Concentration Ketoglutaric Acids urine Lactates urine Malates urine Male Middle Aged Osmolar Concentration Oxalates urine Pyruvates urine Succinates urine Tricarboxylic Acids urine Uric Acid blood metabolism urine 1972 3 1 1972 3 1 0 1 1972 3 1 0 0 ppublish 5016863 PMC1005883 Metabolism. 1960 Jan;9:52-8 13815869 Proc R Soc Med. 1966 Apr;59(4):292-302 5327976 Anal

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1972 Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

190. Nitrogen Sparing Induced by a Mixture of Essential Amino Acids Given Chiefly as Their Keto-Analogues during Prolonged Starvation in Obese Subjects (PubMed)

/day on the last day of infusions; 5 days later it was still lower (0.63 g/day) and in two subjects studied for 9 and 17 days postinfusion it remained below preinfusion control values. Urine ammonia, creatinine, and uric acid were unaltered. Nitrogen balance became less negative during and after infusions. The results indicate that this mixture of essential amino acids and their keto-analogues facilitates nitrogen sparing during prolonged starvation, in part by conversion of the ketoacids to amino (...) Nitrogen Sparing Induced by a Mixture of Essential Amino Acids Given Chiefly as Their Keto-Analogues during Prolonged Starvation in Obese Subjects 11 normal obese subjects were fasted for 33 days. In five, who served as controls, urine urea nitrogen excretion remained constant for 2 wk thereafter. The other six were given seven daily infusions containing 6-8 mmol each of the alpha-keto-analogues of valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and methionine (as sodium salts) plus 3-4 mmol each

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1974 Journal of Clinical Investigation

191. Tienilic acid: pharmacokinetics, salicylate interaction and creatinine secretion studies. (PubMed)

metabolites. A 650 mg dose of acetylsalicylic acid significantly decreased the uricosuric effect of tienilic acid by inhibiting uric acid secretion. Urine pH fell significantly with tienilic acid administration. Tienilic acid inhibited salicylate excretion by either competition for tubular secretion or by increasing passive, pH dependent reabsorption. In normal subjects given a creatinine load, tienilic acid did not inhibit creatinine secretion. (...) Tienilic acid: pharmacokinetics, salicylate interaction and creatinine secretion studies. Tienilic acid is a diuretic-uricosuric compound whose natriuretic site of action is in the cortical diluting segment of the distal nephron. Oral doses of 250 mg given to normal human volunteers provided peak blood levels of 10--11 micrograms/ml at 3--4 hours after administration. Approximately 40% of the dose was recovered in 24 hours, 30% as the parent compound and 10% as the alcohol and diacid

1979 Postgraduate medical journal

192. Urination

and reptiles is whitish, consisting of a pastelike suspension of uric acid crystals, and discharged with the of the animal via the , whereas mammals' urine is a yellowish colour, with mostly instead of uric acid, and is discharged via the urethra, separately from the . Some animals' (example: ') urine possesses a strong odour, especially when it is used to mark territory or communicate in other ways. [ ] Stallions sometimes exhibit the by smelling the urine of a mare in heat. A stallion sometimes his (...) Urination Urination - Wikipedia Urination From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia release of urine from the urinary bladder "Tinkling" redirects here. For a dictionary definition, see . For the Filipino dance, see . "Voiding" redirects here. For other uses, see . depicts a urinating boy. Urination is the release of from the through the to the outside of the body. It is the 's form of . It is also known medically as micturition , voiding , uresis , or, rarely, emiction , and known colloquially

2012 Wikipedia

194. Adequacy of a single 24-hour urine collection for metabolic evaluation of recurrent nephrolithiasis. (PubMed)

collected 3 days or less apart before pharmacological intervention and analyzed elsewhere for routine stone risk profiles of urine calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, ammonium, chloride, urea nitrogen and creatinine.No parameters showed a statistically significant difference between 24-hour urine samples 1 and 2 when mean values were compared (pairwise t test each p >0.05, range 0.06 to 0.87). Using Pearson's correlation all parameters showed positive (...) Adequacy of a single 24-hour urine collection for metabolic evaluation of recurrent nephrolithiasis. There is much debate about whether 1 or 2, 24-hour urinalyses are adequate for metabolic evaluation of stone formers. We determined whether repeat 24-hour urine collection provides information similar to that of the initial 24-hour urine collection and whether repeat collection is necessary.We analyzed 2, 24-hour urine collections in 777 patients obtained from 2001 to 2005. Samples were

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2010 Journal of Urology

195. Metabonomic fingerprints of fasting plasma and spot urine reveal human pre-diabetic metabolic traits (PubMed)

identify pathways affected by the pre-diabetic metabolic state. We could clearly demonstrate that normal glucose tolerant (NGT) and IGT subjects clustered in two distinct groups independent of the investigated metabonome. These findings reflect considerable differences in individual metabolite fingerprints, both in plasma and urine. Pre-diabetes associated alterations in fatty acid-, tryptophan-, uric acid-, bile acid-, and lysophosphatidylcholine-metabolism, as well as the TCA cycle were identified (...) . Of note, individuals with IGT also showed decreased levels of gut flora-associated metabolites namely hippuric acid, methylxanthine, methyluric acid, and 3-hydroxyhippuric acid. The findings of our non-targeted UPLC-qTOF-MS metabonomics analysis in plasma and spot urine of individuals with IGT vs NGT offers novel insights into the metabolic alterations occurring in the long, asymptomatic period preceding the manifestation of T2DM thereby giving prospects for new intervention targets. ELECTRONIC

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2010 Metabolomics

196. The Role of Race in Determining 24-Hour Urine Composition in White and Asian/Pacific Islander Stone Formers. (PubMed)

in the electronic medical record. Univariate analysis was done to compare 24-hour urine composition between white and Asian/Pacific Islander stone formers. We performed multivariate linear regression adjusted for possible confounders, including age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, thiazide use, potassium citrate use and 24-hour urine chemistry (volume, pH, calcium, citrate, creatinine, oxalate, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, sodium, sulfate and uric acid).Included in analysis were (...) 371 white and 91 Asian/Pacific Islander patients. On univariate analysis Asian/Pacific Islander patients excreted significantly greater uric acid, and significantly less citrate, magnesium, phosphate and creatinine than white patients. On multivariate analysis Asian/Pacific Islander patients excreted significantly greater uric acid, and significantly less urine citrate, phosphate, creatinine and volume than white patients.Significant differences exist in 24-hour urine chemistry between white

2010 Journal of Urology

197. DuoCover - clopidogrel / acetylsalicylic acid

DuoCover - clopidogrel / acetylsalicylic acid European Medicines Agency 7 Westferry Circus, Canary Wharf, London E14 4HB, UK Tel. (44-20) 74 18 84 00 Fax (44-20) 74 18 86 13 E-mail: mail@ema.europa.eu http://www.ema.europa.eu London, 17 December 2009 Doc. Ref: EMA/CHMP/195986/2010 CHMP ASSESSMENT REPORT FOR DuoCover International Nonproprietary Name: clopidogrel / acetylsalicylic acid Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/001144 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON THE PROCEDURE 3 1.1 Submission (...) indication: DuoCover is indicated for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in adult patients already taking both clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). DuoCover is a fixed-dose combination product for continuation of therapy in: ? Non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction) including patients undergoing a stent placement following percutaneous coronary intervention ? ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction in medically treated

2010 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

198. DuoPlavin - clopidogrel / acetylsalicylic acid

DuoPlavin - clopidogrel / acetylsalicylic acid European Medicines Agency 7 Westferry Circus, Canary Wharf, London E14 4HB, UK Tel. (44-20) 74 18 84 00 Fax (44-20) 74 18 86 13 E-mail: mail@ema.europa.eu http://www.ema.europa.eu London, 17 December 2009 Doc. Ref: EMA/CHMP/196090/2010 CHMP ASSESSMENT REPORT FOR DuoPlavin International Nonproprietary Name: clopidogrel / acetylsalicylic acid Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/001143 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON THE PROCEDURE 3 1.1 Submission (...) for the following indication: DuoPlavin is indicated for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in adult patients already taking both clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). DuoPlavin is a fixed-dose combination product for continuation of therapy in: ? Non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction) including patients undergoing a stent placement following percutaneous coronary intervention ? ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction

2010 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

200. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone

headache seizure coma no hx of recent diuretic use age >50 years pulmonary conditions (e.g., pneumonia) nursing home residence postoperative state malignancy medicine associated with SIADH induction central nervous system (CNS) disorder endurance exercise Diagnostic investigations serum sodium serum osmolality serum urea urine osmolality urine sodium diagnostic trial with normal saline infusion serum uric acid fractional excretion of sodium fractional excretion of urea serum TSH serum cortisol level (...) with the antidiuretic hormone AVP for binding at the vasopressin receptor, permitting free water excretion. Definition The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is characterised by hypotonic hyponatraemia, concentrated urine, and a euvolaemic state. The impairment of free water excretion is caused by increased arginine vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone or AVP) release. Pseudohyponatraemia due to hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia, or hyperproteinaemia should be ruled out first. Renal failure, adrenal

2018 BMJ Best Practice

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