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Urine Sodium

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1. Spot urine samples compared with 24-h urine samples for estimating changes in urinary sodium and potassium excretion in the China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Spot urine samples compared with 24-h urine samples for estimating changes in urinary sodium and potassium excretion in the China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. The capacity of spot urine samples for detecting changes in population sodium and potassium excretion is unclear.Changes in urinary sodium and potassium excretion, over a 6-month to 2-year interval, were measured from 24-h urine samples and estimated from spot urine samples using several published methods in 3270 Chinese. Additional (...) estimates were made by multiplying individual spot sodium and potassium concentrations by a single estimated 24-h urine volume derived from external data.The measured difference in 24-h urinary excretion between intervention and control groups was -0.35 g (95% CI: -0.68 to -0.02; P = 0.039) for sodium and 0.66 g (95% CI: 0.52 to 0.80; P < 0.001) for potassium, based upon 24-h urine samples. The corresponding estimates of sodium differences for the Tanaka (-0.06 g), Kawasaki (-0.09 g), Intersalt without

2019 International journal of epidemiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2. Formulas to Estimate Dietary Sodium Intake From Spot Urine Alter Sodium-Mortality Relationship. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Formulas to Estimate Dietary Sodium Intake From Spot Urine Alter Sodium-Mortality Relationship. To study the effect of formulas on the estimation of dietary sodium intake (sodium intake) and its association with mortality, we analyzed the TOHP (Trials of Hypertension Prevention) follow-up data. Sodium intake was assessed by measured 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and estimations from sodium concentration using the Kawasaki, Tanaka, and INTERSALT (International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other (...) Factors, and Blood Pressure) formulas. We used both the average of 3 to 7 urinary measurements during the trial period and the first measurement at the beginning of each trial. Additionally, we kept sodium concentration constant to test whether the formulas were independently associated with mortality. We included 2974 individuals aged 30 to 54 years with prehypertension, not assigned to sodium intervention. During a median 24-year follow-up, 272 deaths occurred. The average measured sodium intake

2019 Hypertension

3. Measurement of daily sodium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease; special reference to the difference between the amount measured from 24 h collected urine sample and the estimated amount from a spot urine Full Text available with Trip Pro

Measurement of daily sodium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease; special reference to the difference between the amount measured from 24 h collected urine sample and the estimated amount from a spot urine It is important to grasp a patient's daily sodium intake in the management of chronic kidney disease, as sodium intake is widely recommended at 6 g/day or less. There are multiple equations widely known for estimating the daily sodium excretion from a spot urine sample (...) , but these are aimed at healthy people. There are few reports that validate equations in patients with chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the amount of measured daily sodium excretion from a sample collected for 24-h urine (24HU) is equal to that of using an equation from a spot urine sample (SU) in patients with chronic kidney disease. One hundred sixty-two patients with chronic kidney disease from Kanagawa Prefecture Shiomidai Hospital, Japan and the Jikei University Kashiwa

2018 Renal failure

4. Validity of predictive equations for 24-h urinary potassium excretion based on timing of spot urine collection among adults: the MESA and CARDIA Urinary Sodium Study and NHANES Urinary Sodium Calibration Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Validity of predictive equations for 24-h urinary potassium excretion based on timing of spot urine collection among adults: the MESA and CARDIA Urinary Sodium Study and NHANES Urinary Sodium Calibration Study. 24-h urine collections are the suggested method to measure daily urinary potassium excretion (uK) but are costly and burdensome to implement.This study tested how well existing equations with the use of spot urine samples can estimate 24-h uK and if accuracy varies by timing of spot (...) urine collection, age, race, or sex.This cross-sectional study used data from 407 participants aged 18-39 y from the Washington, DC area in 2011 and 554 participants aged 45-79 y from Chicago in 2013. Spot urine samples were collected in individual containers for 24 h, and 1 for each timed period (morning, afternoon, evening, and overnight) was selected. For each selected timed spot urine, 24-h uK was predicted through the use of published equations. Difference (bias) between predicted and measured

2018 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

5. Estimating 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion From Spot Urine Samples in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients. (Abstract)

Estimating 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion From Spot Urine Samples in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients. Spot urine sodium and associated estimating equations provide a suitable alternative assessment of 24-hour sodium excretion in many large-scale studies, but not in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with decreased renal function. Herein, we aimed to develop a novel predictive equation.We retrospectively enrolled all CKD patients at Stage 1-4 who received spot and 24-hour urinary analysis (...) in our single center from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2017. Multiple linear regression analysis generated a predictive equation for estimating 24-hour sodium excretion from spot urine samples in the derivation cohort admitted from 2014 to 2015, and then we assessed this predictive equation in a validation cohort admitted from 2016 to 2017.All 5,235 patients were finally analyzed and divided into derivation (n = 2,460) and validation (n = 2,775) cohort according to the admission date. We generated

2019 Journal of Renal Nutrition

6. Effects of Water Loading on Observed and Predicted Plasma Sodium, and Fluid and Urine Cation Excretion in Healthy Individuals. (Abstract)

Effects of Water Loading on Observed and Predicted Plasma Sodium, and Fluid and Urine Cation Excretion in Healthy Individuals. The discovery of sodium storage without concurrent water retention suggests the presence of an additional compartment for sodium distribution in the body. The osmoregulatory role of this compartment under hypotonic conditions is not known.Experimental interventional study.Single-center study of 12 apparently healthy men.To investigate whether sodium can be released from (...) its nonosmotic stores after a hypotonic fluid load, a water-loading test (20mL water/kg in 20 minutes) was performed.During a 240-minute follow-up, we compared the observed plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]) and fluid and urine cation excretion with values predicted by the Barsoum-Levine and Nguyen-Kurtz formulas. These formulas are used for guidance of fluid therapy during dysnatremia, but do not account for nonosmotic sodium stores.30 minutes after water loading, mean plasma [Na+] decreased 3.2

2019 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

7. Development of a simple HPLC-MS/MS method to simultaneously determine teriflunomide and its metabolite in human plasma and urine: Application to clinical pharmacokinetic study of teriflunomide sodium and leflunomide. (Abstract)

Development of a simple HPLC-MS/MS method to simultaneously determine teriflunomide and its metabolite in human plasma and urine: Application to clinical pharmacokinetic study of teriflunomide sodium and leflunomide. A simple high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and fully validated to simultaneously determine teriflunomide (TER) and its metabolite 4-trifluoro-methylaniline oxanilic acid (4-TMOA) in human plasma and urine. Merely 50 μL (...) 203.8 → 120.1), operating in the negative ion mode. This method proved to have better accuracy and precision over concentration range of 10-5000 ng/mL in plasma as well as 10-10,000 ng/mL in urine. After a full validation, this method was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study of teriflunomide sodium and leflunomide in Chinese healthy volunteers.© 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

2019 Biomedical chromatography : BMC Controlled trial quality: uncertain

8. Serial assessment of spot urine sodium predicts effectiveness of decongestion and outcome in patients with acute heart failure. (Abstract)

Serial assessment of spot urine sodium predicts effectiveness of decongestion and outcome in patients with acute heart failure. The clinical significance of the measurement of urine sodium concentration (UNa+ ) in response to loop diuretic administration in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) is still unsettled. We studied the association of serial measurements of spot UNa+ during the first 48 h of AHF treatment with the indices of decongestion, renal function, and prognosis.We enrolled 111

2019 European Journal of Heart Failure Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9. Spot Urine Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio Is a Predictor of Stroke. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Spot Urine Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio Is a Predictor of Stroke. Background and Purpose- Dietary sodium reduction with concurrent increase in potassium intake is a current public health priority to reduce risk of cardiovascular events. This study explored associations between the spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio and cardiovascular events in the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) longitudinal cohort. Methods- The MESA is a prospective cohort study of 6814 adults from 4 ethnic groups (...) (European-, Asian-, African- and Hispanic-American) with a mean age of 62 (±10.2) years and an average of 11.7 (±2.2) years of follow-up. Participants were free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline. Spot urine sodium and potassium excretion, as a marker of dietary intake, was collected at baseline. The impact of urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio on adjudicated cardiovascular events was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Results- Only 39% of MESA participants had a urinary sodium

2019 Stroke

10. Agreement between 24-h dietary recalls and 24-h urine collections for estimating sodium intake in China, Japan, UK, USA: the International Study of Macro- and Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP).Mean differences between 24-h dietary recalls and 24-h urine collections were calculated for their agreement in estimating sodium intake at the population level; relative and absolute differences as well as misclassification of salt intake groups (salt intake <6, 6-8.9, 9-11.9, 12-14.9, and ≥15 g/day) were used to determine the agreement at the individual level.The mean differences (95% CI) between dietary recalls and urine collections for China, Japan, UK (...) Agreement between 24-h dietary recalls and 24-h urine collections for estimating sodium intake in China, Japan, UK, USA: the International Study of Macro- and Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure. The present study aims to compare 24-h dietary recalls with 24-h urine collections for the estimation of sodium intake at both population and individual levels in China, Japan, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States of America (USA), using data from the International Study of Macro- and Micro

2019 Journal of Hypertension

11. Sodium excretion and associated factors in urine samples of African descendants in Alcântara, Brazil: a population based study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sodium excretion and associated factors in urine samples of African descendants in Alcântara, Brazil: a population based study In most countries, salt intake has been excessive and constitutes one of the main risk factors for disease development, especially hypertension. Factors such as age, gender, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, African descent, obesity, dietary habits and family history of hypertension may be associated with high blood pressure. Studies show a positive association between (...) the excretion of sodium and increased blood pressure. We evaluated the urinary excretion of sodium and associated factors in isolated urine samples of African descendants from remaining Quilombos. We performed a cross-sectional, population-based study with 1162 African descendants living in remaining quilombos in Alcântara, Maranhão, Brazil. Demographic, nutritional, clinical and laboratory data were analyzed. Urinary sodium excretion was estimated using the Kawasaki equation. A multivariate linear

2018 Renal failure

12. Potassium Citrate is Better in Reducing Salt and Increasing Urine pH than Oral Intake of Lemonade: A Cross-Over Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Potassium Citrate is Better in Reducing Salt and Increasing Urine pH than Oral Intake of Lemonade: A Cross-Over Study BACKGROUND Urine solute supersaturation leads to the formation of urinary tract caliceal stones. Many parameters can be involved in the supersaturation of solutes in urine, such as pH. Uric acid has pKa ≤5.5, and it is solubilized at pH ≥5.5. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of potassium citrate and lemonade supplementation in pediatric patients (...) level, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. Urinary parameters for 1-day urine collection measurements after each supplementation were compared with baseline using the Mann-Whitney test following Tukey post hoc test at 95% confidence level. RESULTS Potassium citrate supplementation resulted in reduction of sodium concentration (p=0.0337; q=3.76) and increased pH of urine (p=0.0118; q=4.389). However, urine volume, citrate level, and uric acid level, as well as elemental magnesium

2018 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

13. Assessing whether a spot urine specimen can predict 24-h urinary sodium excretion accurately: a validation study. (Abstract)

Assessing whether a spot urine specimen can predict 24-h urinary sodium excretion accurately: a validation study. Aimed to evaluate the validity of five published equations that estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24-h USE) by timed spot urine specimens.All of the spot urines within 24 h were collected from 99 healthy volunteers aged 21-57 years. The spot urinary sodium and 24-h USE were measured. The 24-h USE was estimated by INTERSALT equation and Tanaka equation with casual spot urine (...) equations varied from 21.18 to 42.35%. The absolute differences of 24-h USE among approximately half of the participants were more than ±1170.00 mg/day estimated by Kawasaki equation, INTERSALT equation, and SunPM equation, respectively. In addition, misclassification rates of individual salt intake for five equations were more than 60%. It was found that overestimation occurred at low levels of sodium excretion whereas underestimation occurred at high levels of sodium excretion except Kawasaki equation

2018 Journal of Hypertension

14. COMPARISON OF IODINE CONCENTRATIONS IN KITCHEN SALT AND URINE WITH THE THYROID VOLUME OF SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM RIBEIRAO PRETO,SAO PAULO, BRAZIL: WARNING OF WORSENING AFTER 10 YEARS OF STUDY. (Abstract)

COMPARISON OF IODINE CONCENTRATIONS IN KITCHEN SALT AND URINE WITH THE THYROID VOLUME OF SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM RIBEIRAO PRETO,SAO PAULO, BRAZIL: WARNING OF WORSENING AFTER 10 YEARS OF STUDY. In 2007 and 2015, two studies were conducted in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, on schoolchildren of both sexes attending schools of three different socioeconomic levels (school 1: low; school 2: middle; school 3: high).Iodine concentrations were measured in samples of kitchen salt from the home provided (...) by the schoolchildren and in urine samples, and these levels were compared to the thyroid volume by clinical assessment.In 2007, a marked discrepancy in iodine concentrations was found in salt samples in 300 schoolchildren of both sexes (age range 8-10 years). Urinary iodine excretion >100 μg/L was detected in all cases, and 55.2% had concentrations of >300 μg/L (considered to be the upper limit by the World Health Organization). There was no increase in thyroid volume among the schoolchildren. In 2015, after

2018 Thyroid

15. Urine Spot Samples Can Be Used to Estimate 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion in Children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Urine Spot Samples Can Be Used to Estimate 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion in Children. The gold standard to assess salt intake is 24-h urine collections. Use of a urine spot sample can be a simpler alternative, especially when the goal is to assess sodium intake at the population level. Several equations to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from urine spot samples have been tested in adults, but not in children.The objective of this study was to assess the ability of several equations (...) and urine spot samples to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion in children.A cross-sectional study of children between 6 and 16 y of age was conducted. Each child collected one 24-h urine sample and 3 timed urine spot samples, i.e., evening (last void before going to bed), overnight (first void in the morning), and morning (second void in the morning). Eight equations (i.e., Kawasaki, Tanaka, Remer, Mage, Brown with and without potassium, Toft, and Meng) were used to estimate 24-h urinary sodium

2018 Journal of Nutrition

16. Sodium and Potassium Intake from Food Diaries and 24-h Urine Collections from 7 Days in a Sample of Healthy Greek Adults Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sodium and Potassium Intake from Food Diaries and 24-h Urine Collections from 7 Days in a Sample of Healthy Greek Adults The main objective of the present study was to evaluate sodium and potassium intake, employing 24 h and spot urine samples and food diaries for seven consecutive days.For seven consecutive days subjects recorded their food and drink intakes, and recorded and collected all urinations. Food sodium and potassium intake were analyzed in 24- and 6-h intervals from wake-up time (...) . Urine indices were analyzed in first morning, 24- and 6-h intervals samples over the day from wake-up time. The study took place in Agricultural University of Athens, Greece. In total, 163 healthy subjects (age 39 ± 12 years; 74 females) were enrolled in the study.Mean urine sodium excretion was 2,803.3 ± 1,249.0 mg/day (121.9 ± 54.3 mmol/day) and mean urine potassium excretion was 2,152.2 ± 913.3 mg/day (55.2 ± 23.4 mmol/day). The highest potassium concentration was measured in the afternoon, while

2018 Frontiers in nutrition

17. Sodium and Potassium Consumption in a Semi-Urban Area in Peru: Evaluation of a Population-Based 24-Hour Urine Collection Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sodium and Potassium Consumption in a Semi-Urban Area in Peru: Evaluation of a Population-Based 24-Hour Urine Collection Despite the negative effects of high sodium and low potassium consumption on cardiovascular health, their consumption has not been quantified in sites undergoing urbanization. We aimed to determine the sodium and potassium consumption in a semi-urban area in Peru with a cross-sectional study. 24-h urine samples were collected. The outcomes were mean consumption of sodium (...) and potassium, as well as adherence to their consumption recommendation: <2 g/day and ≥3.51 g/day, respectively. Bivariate analyses were conducted to identify socio-economic and clinical variables associated with the consumption recommendations of 602 participants, complete urine samples were found in 409: mean age of participants was 45.7 (standard deviation (SD): 16.2) years and 56% were women. The mean sodium and potassium consumption was 4.4 (SD: 2.1) and 2.0 (SD: 1.2) g/day. The sodium and potassium

2018 Nutrients

18. First spot urine sodium after initial diuretic identifies patients at high risk for adverse outcome after heart failure hospitalization. (Abstract)

First spot urine sodium after initial diuretic identifies patients at high risk for adverse outcome after heart failure hospitalization. Relief of congestion is the primary goal of initial therapy for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Early measurement of urine sodium concentration (UNa) may be useful to identify patients with diminished response to diuretics. The aim of this study was to determine if the first spot UNa after diuretic initiation could select patients likely to require

2018 American Heart Journal

19. Intravesical instillation of sodium hyaluronate (1.6%) & sodium chondroitin sulphate (2.0%) for Painful Bladder Syndrome / Interstitial Cystitis, Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Radiation Induced Cystitis

are registered on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG) as shown in Table 1. 5 Table 1 iAluRil listed on the ARTG ARTG no. Product no. Product description Product category Sponsor 233622 44670, Bladder instillation, barrier iAluRil Procedure pack consisting of a clear plastic pre-filled syringe containing a sterile aqueous solution of hyaluronic acid sodium salt (1.6%), sodium chondroitin sulphate (2%) and calcium chloride administered as a bladder instillation via connection to a catheter (...) using the leur lock adaptor included in the pack. Medical Device Class III Juno Pharmaceuticals Pty Ltd 230280 44670 Bladder instillation, barrier iAluRil Prefill consisting of clear plastic pre-filled syringe containing a sterile aqueous solution of hyaluronic acid sodium salt (1.6%), sodium chondroitin sulphate (2%) and calcium chloride administered as a bladder instillation via a catheter. Medical Device Class III Juno Pharmaceuticals Pty Ltd Source: Therapeutic Goods Administration, accessed 02

2017 Medical Services Advisory Committee

20. Urine 24-Hour Sodium Excretion Decreased between 1953 and 2014 in Japan, but Estimated Intake Still Exceeds the WHO Recommendation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Urine 24-Hour Sodium Excretion Decreased between 1953 and 2014 in Japan, but Estimated Intake Still Exceeds the WHO Recommendation. Background: Accurate monitoring of sodium intake is necessary for evaluating strategies used to reduce sodium intake. However, no repeat survey has been conducted in representative populations in Japan to examine trends in sodium intake with the use of 24-h urinary sodium excretion, a standard evaluation method for sodium intake monitoring.Objective: The objective (...) with the use of weighted linear regression and random-effects meta-regression analyses, with adjustment or stratification to address study characteristics (population mean age, percentage of men, and sample size) and study assessment for completeness of urine collection.Results: We identified 68 reports of urinary sodium excretion from 53 articles published from 1953 through 2014 that showed high rates of urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations (weighted mean: 4900 mg/d). The rate

2017 Journal of Nutrition

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