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Urine Sodium

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1. Formulas to Estimate Dietary Sodium Intake From Spot Urine Alter Sodium-Mortality Relationship. (PubMed)

Formulas to Estimate Dietary Sodium Intake From Spot Urine Alter Sodium-Mortality Relationship. To study the effect of formulas on the estimation of dietary sodium intake (sodium intake) and its association with mortality, we analyzed the TOHP (Trials of Hypertension Prevention) follow-up data. Sodium intake was assessed by measured 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and estimations from sodium concentration using the Kawasaki, Tanaka, and INTERSALT (International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other (...) Factors, and Blood Pressure) formulas. We used both the average of 3 to 7 urinary measurements during the trial period and the first measurement at the beginning of each trial. Additionally, we kept sodium concentration constant to test whether the formulas were independently associated with mortality. We included 2974 individuals aged 30 to 54 years with prehypertension, not assigned to sodium intervention. During a median 24-year follow-up, 272 deaths occurred. The average measured sodium intake

2019 Hypertension

2. Measurement of daily sodium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease; special reference to the difference between the amount measured from 24 h collected urine sample and the estimated amount from a spot urine (PubMed)

Measurement of daily sodium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease; special reference to the difference between the amount measured from 24 h collected urine sample and the estimated amount from a spot urine It is important to grasp a patient's daily sodium intake in the management of chronic kidney disease, as sodium intake is widely recommended at 6 g/day or less. There are multiple equations widely known for estimating the daily sodium excretion from a spot urine sample (...) , but these are aimed at healthy people. There are few reports that validate equations in patients with chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the amount of measured daily sodium excretion from a sample collected for 24-h urine (24HU) is equal to that of using an equation from a spot urine sample (SU) in patients with chronic kidney disease. One hundred sixty-two patients with chronic kidney disease from Kanagawa Prefecture Shiomidai Hospital, Japan and the Jikei University Kashiwa

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2018 Renal failure

3. Validity of predictive equations for 24-h urinary potassium excretion based on timing of spot urine collection among adults: the MESA and CARDIA Urinary Sodium Study and NHANES Urinary Sodium Calibration Study. (PubMed)

Validity of predictive equations for 24-h urinary potassium excretion based on timing of spot urine collection among adults: the MESA and CARDIA Urinary Sodium Study and NHANES Urinary Sodium Calibration Study. 24-h urine collections are the suggested method to measure daily urinary potassium excretion (uK) but are costly and burdensome to implement.This study tested how well existing equations with the use of spot urine samples can estimate 24-h uK and if accuracy varies by timing of spot (...) urine collection, age, race, or sex.This cross-sectional study used data from 407 participants aged 18-39 y from the Washington, DC area in 2011 and 554 participants aged 45-79 y from Chicago in 2013. Spot urine samples were collected in individual containers for 24 h, and 1 for each timed period (morning, afternoon, evening, and overnight) was selected. For each selected timed spot urine, 24-h uK was predicted through the use of published equations. Difference (bias) between predicted and measured

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2018 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

4. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies using 24-hour dietary recall and 24-hour urine to assess dietary sodium intake

A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies using 24-hour dietary recall and 24-hour urine to assess dietary sodium intake Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any

2019 PROSPERO

5. Serial assessment of spot urine sodium predicts effectiveness of decongestion and outcome in patients with acute heart failure. (PubMed)

Serial assessment of spot urine sodium predicts effectiveness of decongestion and outcome in patients with acute heart failure. The clinical significance of the measurement of urine sodium concentration (UNa+ ) in response to loop diuretic administration in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) is still unsettled. We studied the association of serial measurements of spot UNa+ during the first 48 h of AHF treatment with the indices of decongestion, renal function, and prognosis.We enrolled 111

2019 European Journal of Heart Failure

6. Spot Urine Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio Is a Predictor of Stroke. (PubMed)

Spot Urine Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio Is a Predictor of Stroke. Background and Purpose- Dietary sodium reduction with concurrent increase in potassium intake is a current public health priority to reduce risk of cardiovascular events. This study explored associations between the spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio and cardiovascular events in the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) longitudinal cohort. Methods- The MESA is a prospective cohort study of 6814 adults from 4 ethnic groups (...) (European-, Asian-, African- and Hispanic-American) with a mean age of 62 (±10.2) years and an average of 11.7 (±2.2) years of follow-up. Participants were free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline. Spot urine sodium and potassium excretion, as a marker of dietary intake, was collected at baseline. The impact of urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio on adjudicated cardiovascular events was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Results- Only 39% of MESA participants had a urinary sodium

2019 Stroke

7. Agreement between 24-h dietary recalls and 24-h urine collections for estimating sodium intake in China, Japan, UK, USA: the International Study of Macro- and Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure. (PubMed)

Agreement between 24-h dietary recalls and 24-h urine collections for estimating sodium intake in China, Japan, UK, USA: the International Study of Macro- and Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure. The present study aims to compare 24-h dietary recalls with 24-h urine collections for the estimation of sodium intake at both population and individual levels in China, Japan, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States of America (USA), using data from the International Study of Macro- and Micro (...) -nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP).Mean differences between 24-h dietary recalls and 24-h urine collections were calculated for their agreement in estimating sodium intake at the population level; relative and absolute differences as well as misclassification of salt intake groups (salt intake <6, 6-8.9, 9-11.9, 12-14.9, and ≥15 g/day) were used to determine the agreement at the individual level.The mean differences (95% CI) between dietary recalls and urine collections for China, Japan, UK

2019 Journal of Hypertension

8. Effects of Water Loading on Observed and Predicted Plasma Sodium, and Fluid and Urine Cation Excretion in Healthy Individuals. (PubMed)

Effects of Water Loading on Observed and Predicted Plasma Sodium, and Fluid and Urine Cation Excretion in Healthy Individuals. The discovery of sodium storage without concurrent water retention suggests the presence of an additional compartment for sodium distribution in the body. The osmoregulatory role of this compartment under hypotonic conditions is not known.Experimental interventional study.Single-center study of 12 apparently healthy men.To investigate whether sodium can be released from (...) its nonosmotic stores after a hypotonic fluid load, a water-loading test (20mL water/kg in 20 minutes) was performed.During a 240-minute follow-up, we compared the observed plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]) and fluid and urine cation excretion with values predicted by the Barsoum-Levine and Nguyen-Kurtz formulas. These formulas are used for guidance of fluid therapy during dysnatremia, but do not account for nonosmotic sodium stores.30 minutes after water loading, mean plasma [Na+] decreased 3.2

2019 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

9. Estimating 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion From Spot Urine Samples in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients. (PubMed)

Estimating 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion From Spot Urine Samples in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients. Spot urine sodium and associated estimating equations provide a suitable alternative assessment of 24-hour sodium excretion in many large-scale studies, but not in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with decreased renal function. Herein, we aimed to develop a novel predictive equation.We retrospectively enrolled all CKD patients at Stage 1-4 who received spot and 24-hour urinary analysis (...) in our single center from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2017. Multiple linear regression analysis generated a predictive equation for estimating 24-hour sodium excretion from spot urine samples in the derivation cohort admitted from 2014 to 2015, and then we assessed this predictive equation in a validation cohort admitted from 2016 to 2017.All 5,235 patients were finally analyzed and divided into derivation (n = 2,460) and validation (n = 2,775) cohort according to the admission date. We generated

2019 Journal of Renal Nutrition

10. Urine Spot Samples Can Be Used to Estimate 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion in Children. (PubMed)

Urine Spot Samples Can Be Used to Estimate 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion in Children. The gold standard to assess salt intake is 24-h urine collections. Use of a urine spot sample can be a simpler alternative, especially when the goal is to assess sodium intake at the population level. Several equations to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from urine spot samples have been tested in adults, but not in children.The objective of this study was to assess the ability of several equations (...) and urine spot samples to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion in children.A cross-sectional study of children between 6 and 16 y of age was conducted. Each child collected one 24-h urine sample and 3 timed urine spot samples, i.e., evening (last void before going to bed), overnight (first void in the morning), and morning (second void in the morning). Eight equations (i.e., Kawasaki, Tanaka, Remer, Mage, Brown with and without potassium, Toft, and Meng) were used to estimate 24-h urinary sodium

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2018 Journal of Nutrition

11. First spot urine sodium after initial diuretic identifies patients at high risk for adverse outcome after heart failure hospitalization. (PubMed)

First spot urine sodium after initial diuretic identifies patients at high risk for adverse outcome after heart failure hospitalization. Relief of congestion is the primary goal of initial therapy for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Early measurement of urine sodium concentration (UNa) may be useful to identify patients with diminished response to diuretics. The aim of this study was to determine if the first spot UNa after diuretic initiation could select patients likely to require

2018 American Heart Journal

12. Sodium excretion and associated factors in urine samples of African descendants in Alcântara, Brazil: a population based study (PubMed)

Sodium excretion and associated factors in urine samples of African descendants in Alcântara, Brazil: a population based study In most countries, salt intake has been excessive and constitutes one of the main risk factors for disease development, especially hypertension. Factors such as age, gender, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, African descent, obesity, dietary habits and family history of hypertension may be associated with high blood pressure. Studies show a positive association between (...) the excretion of sodium and increased blood pressure. We evaluated the urinary excretion of sodium and associated factors in isolated urine samples of African descendants from remaining Quilombos. We performed a cross-sectional, population-based study with 1162 African descendants living in remaining quilombos in Alcântara, Maranhão, Brazil. Demographic, nutritional, clinical and laboratory data were analyzed. Urinary sodium excretion was estimated using the Kawasaki equation. A multivariate linear

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2018 Renal failure

13. Assessing whether a spot urine specimen can predict 24-h urinary sodium excretion accurately: a validation study. (PubMed)

Assessing whether a spot urine specimen can predict 24-h urinary sodium excretion accurately: a validation study. Aimed to evaluate the validity of five published equations that estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24-h USE) by timed spot urine specimens.All of the spot urines within 24 h were collected from 99 healthy volunteers aged 21-57 years. The spot urinary sodium and 24-h USE were measured. The 24-h USE was estimated by INTERSALT equation and Tanaka equation with casual spot urine (...) and four timed spot urines (i.e. overnight, second morning, post meridiem, and evening urine), by Kawasaki equation and SunSMU equation with second morning urine, and by SunPM equation with post meridiem urine, respectively. At last, the agreement between measured and estimated 24-h USE was evaluated.The average of the measured 24-h USE was 4558.25 ± 1908.75 mg/day. The proportion of participants with more than ±40% of relative difference between measured 24-h USE and estimated 24-h USE by five

2018 Journal of Hypertension

14. Sodium and Potassium Intake from Food Diaries and 24-h Urine Collections from 7 Days in a Sample of Healthy Greek Adults (PubMed)

Sodium and Potassium Intake from Food Diaries and 24-h Urine Collections from 7 Days in a Sample of Healthy Greek Adults The main objective of the present study was to evaluate sodium and potassium intake, employing 24 h and spot urine samples and food diaries for seven consecutive days.For seven consecutive days subjects recorded their food and drink intakes, and recorded and collected all urinations. Food sodium and potassium intake were analyzed in 24- and 6-h intervals from wake-up time (...) . Urine indices were analyzed in first morning, 24- and 6-h intervals samples over the day from wake-up time. The study took place in Agricultural University of Athens, Greece. In total, 163 healthy subjects (age 39 ± 12 years; 74 females) were enrolled in the study.Mean urine sodium excretion was 2,803.3 ± 1,249.0 mg/day (121.9 ± 54.3 mmol/day) and mean urine potassium excretion was 2,152.2 ± 913.3 mg/day (55.2 ± 23.4 mmol/day). The highest potassium concentration was measured in the afternoon, while

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2018 Frontiers in nutrition

15. Sodium and Potassium Consumption in a Semi-Urban Area in Peru: Evaluation of a Population-Based 24-Hour Urine Collection (PubMed)

Sodium and Potassium Consumption in a Semi-Urban Area in Peru: Evaluation of a Population-Based 24-Hour Urine Collection Despite the negative effects of high sodium and low potassium consumption on cardiovascular health, their consumption has not been quantified in sites undergoing urbanization. We aimed to determine the sodium and potassium consumption in a semi-urban area in Peru with a cross-sectional study. 24-h urine samples were collected. The outcomes were mean consumption of sodium (...) and potassium, as well as adherence to their consumption recommendation: <2 g/day and ≥3.51 g/day, respectively. Bivariate analyses were conducted to identify socio-economic and clinical variables associated with the consumption recommendations of 602 participants, complete urine samples were found in 409: mean age of participants was 45.7 (standard deviation (SD): 16.2) years and 56% were women. The mean sodium and potassium consumption was 4.4 (SD: 2.1) and 2.0 (SD: 1.2) g/day. The sodium and potassium

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2018 Nutrients

16. Agreement between 24-h dietary recalls and 24-h urine collections for estimating sodium intake in China, Japan, UK, USA: the International Study of Macro- and Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure. (PubMed)

Agreement between 24-h dietary recalls and 24-h urine collections for estimating sodium intake in China, Japan, UK, USA: the International Study of Macro- and Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure. The present study aims to compare 24-h dietary recalls with 24-h urine collections for the estimation of sodium intake at both population and individual levels in China, Japan, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States of America (USA), using data from the International Study of Macro- and Micro (...) -nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP).Mean differences between 24-h dietary recalls and 24-h urine collections were calculated for their agreement in estimating sodium intake at the population level; relative and absolute differences as well as misclassification of salt intake groups (salt intake <6, 6-8.9, 9-11.9, 12-14.9, and ≥15 g/day) were used to determine the agreement at the individual level.The mean differences (95% CI) between dietary recalls and urine collections for China, Japan, UK

2018 Journal of Hypertension

17. Intravesical instillation of sodium hyaluronate (1.6%) & sodium chondroitin sulphate (2.0%) for Painful Bladder Syndrome / Interstitial Cystitis, Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Radiation Induced Cystitis

Intravesical instillation of sodium hyaluronate (1.6%) & sodium chondroitin sulphate (2.0%) for Painful Bladder Syndrome / Interstitial Cystitis, Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Radiation Induced Cystitis 1 Public Summary Document Application No. 1439 – Intravesical instillation of sodium hyaluronate (1.6%) & sodium chondroitin sulphate (2.0%) for painful bladder syndrome /interstitial cystitis and recurrent urinary tract infection and radiation induced cystitis Applicant: Juno (...) Pharmaceuticals Pty Ltd Date of MSAC consideration: MSAC 70 th Meeting, 27 July 2017 Context for decision: MSAC makes its advice in accordance with its Terms of Reference, visit the MSAC website 1. Purpose of application An application requesting a new Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) listing for the intravesical instillation of sodium hyaluronate (HA, 1.6%) & sodium chondroitin sulphate (CS, 2.0%) into the bladder as a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer replacement therapy, for patients with painful bladder

2017 Medical Services Advisory Committee

18. Spot urine sodium measurements do not accurately estimate dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease. (PubMed)

Spot urine sodium measurements do not accurately estimate dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease. Sodium intake influences blood pressure and proteinuria, yet the impact on long-term outcomes is uncertain in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Accurate assessment is essential for clinical and public policy recommendations, but few large-scale studies use 24-h urine collections. Recent studies that used spot urine sodium and associated estimating equations suggest that they may provide (...) a suitable alternative, but their accuracy in patients with CKD is unknown.We compared the accuracy of 4 equations [the Nerbass, INTERSALT (International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure), Tanaka, and Kawasaki equations] that use spot urine sodium to estimate 24-h sodium excretion in patients with moderate to advanced CKD.We evaluated the accuracy of spot urine sodium to predict mean 24-h urine sodium excretion over 9 mo in 129 participants with stage 3-4 CKD. Spot morning

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2016 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

19. Dose-effect relationship of perindopril 10, 14 and 20mg assessed by urine and plasma AcSDKP levels in mildly sodium-depleted healthy volunteers. (PubMed)

Dose-effect relationship of perindopril 10, 14 and 20mg assessed by urine and plasma AcSDKP levels in mildly sodium-depleted healthy volunteers. We describe a pharmacodynamic study of the dose-effect relationship of perindopril arginine at 10, 14, and 20mg with in vivo angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, assessed by urine and plasma AcSDKP levels, as well as the effect on plasma active renin concentrations and blood pressure.This randomized, double-blind, four-period, crossover study (...) involved single-dose administration of perindopril arginine (10, 14, and 20mg or placebo) to 32 healthy male normotensive mildly sodium-depleted volunteers. Blood and urine were collected over 48h for AcSDKP, ACE activity, and plasma active renin measurements.There were dose-related increases in urinary AcSDKP excretion and plasma AcSDKP concentration after administration of perindopril, with significant between-period differences (estimate of the median difference in urinary excretion over 48h

2017 International journal of cardiology

20. Urine 24-Hour Sodium Excretion Decreased between 1953 and 2014 in Japan, but Estimated Intake Still Exceeds the WHO Recommendation. (PubMed)

Urine 24-Hour Sodium Excretion Decreased between 1953 and 2014 in Japan, but Estimated Intake Still Exceeds the WHO Recommendation. Background: Accurate monitoring of sodium intake is necessary for evaluating strategies used to reduce sodium intake. However, no repeat survey has been conducted in representative populations in Japan to examine trends in sodium intake with the use of 24-h urinary sodium excretion, a standard evaluation method for sodium intake monitoring.Objective: The objective (...) with the use of weighted linear regression and random-effects meta-regression analyses, with adjustment or stratification to address study characteristics (population mean age, percentage of men, and sample size) and study assessment for completeness of urine collection.Results: We identified 68 reports of urinary sodium excretion from 53 articles published from 1953 through 2014 that showed high rates of urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations (weighted mean: 4900 mg/d). The rate

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2017 Journal of Nutrition

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