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Urine Potassium

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1. Spot Urine Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio Is a Predictor of Stroke. (PubMed)

Spot Urine Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio Is a Predictor of Stroke. Background and Purpose- Dietary sodium reduction with concurrent increase in potassium intake is a current public health priority to reduce risk of cardiovascular events. This study explored associations between the spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio and cardiovascular events in the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) longitudinal cohort. Methods- The MESA is a prospective cohort study of 6814 adults from 4 ethnic groups (...) (European-, Asian-, African- and Hispanic-American) with a mean age of 62 (±10.2) years and an average of 11.7 (±2.2) years of follow-up. Participants were free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline. Spot urine sodium and potassium excretion, as a marker of dietary intake, was collected at baseline. The impact of urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio on adjudicated cardiovascular events was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Results- Only 39% of MESA participants had a urinary sodium

2019 Stroke

2. Sodium and Potassium Intake from Food Diaries and 24-h Urine Collections from 7 Days in a Sample of Healthy Greek Adults (PubMed)

Sodium and Potassium Intake from Food Diaries and 24-h Urine Collections from 7 Days in a Sample of Healthy Greek Adults The main objective of the present study was to evaluate sodium and potassium intake, employing 24 h and spot urine samples and food diaries for seven consecutive days.For seven consecutive days subjects recorded their food and drink intakes, and recorded and collected all urinations. Food sodium and potassium intake were analyzed in 24- and 6-h intervals from wake-up time (...) . Urine indices were analyzed in first morning, 24- and 6-h intervals samples over the day from wake-up time. The study took place in Agricultural University of Athens, Greece. In total, 163 healthy subjects (age 39 ± 12 years; 74 females) were enrolled in the study.Mean urine sodium excretion was 2,803.3 ± 1,249.0 mg/day (121.9 ± 54.3 mmol/day) and mean urine potassium excretion was 2,152.2 ± 913.3 mg/day (55.2 ± 23.4 mmol/day). The highest potassium concentration was measured in the afternoon, while

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2018 Frontiers in nutrition

3. Sodium and Potassium Consumption in a Semi-Urban Area in Peru: Evaluation of a Population-Based 24-Hour Urine Collection (PubMed)

Sodium and Potassium Consumption in a Semi-Urban Area in Peru: Evaluation of a Population-Based 24-Hour Urine Collection Despite the negative effects of high sodium and low potassium consumption on cardiovascular health, their consumption has not been quantified in sites undergoing urbanization. We aimed to determine the sodium and potassium consumption in a semi-urban area in Peru with a cross-sectional study. 24-h urine samples were collected. The outcomes were mean consumption of sodium (...) and potassium, as well as adherence to their consumption recommendation: <2 g/day and ≥3.51 g/day, respectively. Bivariate analyses were conducted to identify socio-economic and clinical variables associated with the consumption recommendations of 602 participants, complete urine samples were found in 409: mean age of participants was 45.7 (standard deviation (SD): 16.2) years and 56% were women. The mean sodium and potassium consumption was 4.4 (SD: 2.1) and 2.0 (SD: 1.2) g/day. The sodium and potassium

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2018 Nutrients

4. Validity of predictive equations for 24-h urinary potassium excretion based on timing of spot urine collection among adults: the MESA and CARDIA Urinary Sodium Study and NHANES Urinary Sodium Calibration Study. (PubMed)

Validity of predictive equations for 24-h urinary potassium excretion based on timing of spot urine collection among adults: the MESA and CARDIA Urinary Sodium Study and NHANES Urinary Sodium Calibration Study. 24-h urine collections are the suggested method to measure daily urinary potassium excretion (uK) but are costly and burdensome to implement.This study tested how well existing equations with the use of spot urine samples can estimate 24-h uK and if accuracy varies by timing of spot (...) urine collection, age, race, or sex.This cross-sectional study used data from 407 participants aged 18-39 y from the Washington, DC area in 2011 and 554 participants aged 45-79 y from Chicago in 2013. Spot urine samples were collected in individual containers for 24 h, and 1 for each timed period (morning, afternoon, evening, and overnight) was selected. For each selected timed spot urine, 24-h uK was predicted through the use of published equations. Difference (bias) between predicted and measured

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2018 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

5. Potassium Citrate is Better in Reducing Salt and Increasing Urine pH than Oral Intake of Lemonade: A Cross-Over Study (PubMed)

Potassium Citrate is Better in Reducing Salt and Increasing Urine pH than Oral Intake of Lemonade: A Cross-Over Study BACKGROUND Urine solute supersaturation leads to the formation of urinary tract caliceal stones. Many parameters can be involved in the supersaturation of solutes in urine, such as pH. Uric acid has pKa ≤5.5, and it is solubilized at pH ≥5.5. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of potassium citrate and lemonade supplementation in pediatric patients (...) with urolithiasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 126 children who had lower ureteral stones calculi and fragments with severe colic pain participated in this cross-over study. Children drank lemonade (2 mEq/kg/day citrate) in 3 divided doses for 5 days. After a 15-day washout period, children drank 2 mEq/kg/day of potassium citrate in 3 divided doses for 5 days. On the sixth of the day of individual intervention, a 24-h urine sample was collected and evaluated for pH, urine volume, citrate level, uric acid

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2018 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6. Urine Potassium Excretion, Kidney Failure, and Mortality in CKD. (PubMed)

Urine Potassium Excretion, Kidney Failure, and Mortality in CKD. Low urine potassium excretion, as a surrogate for dietary potassium intake, is associated with higher risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease in a general population. Few studies have investigated the relationship of urine potassium with clinical outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD).Longitudinal cohort study.The MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) Study was a randomized controlled trial (N = 840) conducted (...) in 1989 to 1993 to examine the effects of blood pressure control and dietary protein restriction on kidney disease progression in adults aged 18 to 70 years with CKD stages 2 to 4. This post hoc analysis included 812 participants.The primary predictor variable was 24-hour urine potassium excretion, measured at baseline and at multiple time points (presented as time-updated average urine potassium excretion).Kidney failure, defined as initiation of dialysis therapy or transplantation, was determined

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2017 American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation Controlled trial quality: predicted high

7. Urine Potassium

Urine Potassium Urine Potassium Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Urine Potassium Urine Potassium Aka: Urine Potassium (...) , Urine K , Urine K+ II. Interpretation: Normal Urine Potassium Urine Potassium: 25-100 mEq/24 hr III. Interpretation: Increased Urine Potassium Primary or Secondary Glucocorticoids Alkalosis Excess intake IV. Interpretation: Decreased Urine Potassium s Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Urine Potassium." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip

2018 FP Notebook

8. [OP.8E.02] SALT AND POTASSIUM INTAKE IN SOUTH AFRICA: AN EVALUATION OF 24-HOUR URINE COLLECTIONS IN THREE ETHNIC GROUPS. (PubMed)

[OP.8E.02] SALT AND POTASSIUM INTAKE IN SOUTH AFRICA: AN EVALUATION OF 24-HOUR URINE COLLECTIONS IN THREE ETHNIC GROUPS.

2016 Journal of Hypertension

9. Estimation of populational 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion from spot urine samples: evaluation of four formulas in a large national representative population. (PubMed)

Estimation of populational 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion from spot urine samples: evaluation of four formulas in a large national representative population. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the estimation of 24-h urinary sodium (UNa) and urinary potassium (UK) excretion obtained through four formulae based on occasional urine samples.We analysed 2399 individuals (51% females) aged 18 to 96 years representatives of Portuguese population. Tanaka, Kawasaki (...) , INTERSALT and NHANES formulae were used to predict 24-h UNa and UK excretions from spot morning urinary samples (OUrS). We compared it with validated real 24-h urine samples (VUrS) (24-h UNa: 4052 ± 1432 mg/day, 24-h UK = 2928 ± 1004 mg/day). We compared observed vs. estimated measurements by examining bias (observed minus predicted UNa and UK), the correlation and intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients between measurements, and Bland-Altman plots. We analysed the differences between observed

2016 Journal of Hypertension

10. Potassium Sparing Effects of Furosemide in Mice on High Potassium Diets. (PubMed)

Potassium Sparing Effects of Furosemide in Mice on High Potassium Diets. On a regular "Western" diet, furosemide induces a kaliuresis and reduction in plasma [K] by inhibiting Na reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL), enhancing the delivery of Na to the aldosterone sensitive distal nephron. In the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron, the increased Na delivery stimulates K wasting and due to an exaggerated exchange of epithelial Na channel (ENaC)-mediated Na (...) reabsorption for secreted K. The effects of furosemide are different in mice given a high K, alkaline diet (HK). On HK, the large, Ca-activated K channel (BK), in conjunction with the BK-b4 subunit (BK-a/b4), mediates K secretion from intercalated cells (IC) of the connecting tubule and collecting ducts. The urinary alkaline load is necessary for BK-a/b4-mediated K secretion in mice on HK. However, furosemide acidifies the urine by increasing V-ATPase expression and acid secretion from IC, thereby

2019 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

11. Effects of Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intake on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks

and systematic error. More accurate but still error prone methods include 24- to 72-hour food diaries or recall assessment or 8-hour (overnight) urine assays. The most accurate method of assessing sodium intake in observational studies, particularly decreases in sodium intake, is the repeated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion with validation. 19, 20 In light of the limitations of the existing observational studies, the current state of knowledge needs to be reconsidered. Potassium DRIs The 2005 IOM committee (...) Effects of Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intake on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks Comparative Effectiveness Review Number 206 Sodium and Potassium Intake: Effects on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risk s eComparative Effectiveness Review Number 206 Sodium and Potassium Intake: Effects on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks Prepared for: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, MD 20857 www.ahrq.gov Contract No. 290-2015

2018 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

12. Sodium and Potassium Intake: Effects on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks

and systematic error. More accurate but still error prone methods include 24- to 72-hour food diaries or recall assessment or 8-hour (overnight) urine assays. The most accurate method of assessing sodium intake in observational studies, particularly decreases in sodium intake, is the repeated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion with validation. 19, 20 In light of the limitations of the existing observational studies, the current state of knowledge needs to be reconsidered. Potassium DRIs The 2005 IOM committee (...) Sodium and Potassium Intake: Effects on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks Comparative Effectiveness Review Number 206 Sodium and Potassium Intake: Effects on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risk s eComparative Effectiveness Review Number 206 Sodium and Potassium Intake: Effects on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks Prepared for: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, MD 20857 www.ahrq.gov Contract No. 290-2015-00010-I

2018 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

13. A Bioequivalence Study of Losartan Potassium Tablets (Containing Losartan Potassium 100 mg) in Normal, Healthy, Adults Under Fasting Conditions

A Bioequivalence Study of Losartan Potassium Tablets (Containing Losartan Potassium 100 mg) in Normal, Healthy, Adults Under Fasting Conditions A Bioequivalence Study of Losartan Potassium Tablets (Containing Losartan Potassium 100 mg) in Normal, Healthy, Adults Under Fasting Conditions - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save (...) this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. A Bioequivalence Study of Losartan Potassium Tablets (Containing Losartan Potassium 100 mg) in Normal, Healthy, Adults Under Fasting Conditions The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details

2018 Clinical Trials

14. Renal potassium handling in carriers of the Gly40Ser mutation of the glucagon receptor suggests a role for glucagon in potassium homeostasis (PubMed)

influence of glucagon on potassium handling in humans. We took advantage of the Gly40Ser mutation of the glucagon receptor (GR) that results in a partial loss of function of the GR. In the Olivetti cohort (male workers), 25 subjects who carried this mutation were matched 1:4 to 100 noncarriers for age and weight. Estimated osmolarity of serum and 24-h urine (Sosm and Uosm, respectively) was calculated from the concentrations of the main solutes: [(Na+K)*2 + urea (+glucose for serum)]. Transtubular (...) potassium gradient (TTKG), reflecting the intensity of K secretion in the distal nephron, was calculated as [(urine K/serum K)(Uosm /Sosm )]. There was no significant difference in serum K, or 24-h urine urea, Na and K excretion rates. But urine K concentration was significantly lower in carriers than in noncarriers. Means (interquartile range): 38 (34-43) versus 47 (43-51) mmol/L, P = 0.030. TTKG was also significantly lower in carriers: 4.2 (3.9-4.6) versus 5.0 (4.7-5.2), P = 0.015. This difference

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2018 Physiological reports

15. Urine Anion Gap to Predict Urine Ammonium and Related Outcomes in Kidney Disease. (PubMed)

, potassium, chloride, phosphate, and sulfate from baseline 24-hour urine collections in 1044 African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension participants. We evaluated the cross-sectional correlations between urine ammonium, the standard urine anion gap (sodium + potassium - chloride), and a modified urine anion gap that includes urine phosphate and sulfate in the calculation. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models determined the associations of the standard urine anion gap and the modified urine (...) Urine Anion Gap to Predict Urine Ammonium and Related Outcomes in Kidney Disease. Low urine ammonium excretion is associated with ESRD in CKD. Few laboratories measure urine ammonium, limiting clinical application. We determined correlations between urine ammonium, the standard urine anion gap, and a modified urine anion gap that includes sulfate and phosphate and compared risks of ESRD or death between these ammonium estimates and directly measured ammonium.We measured ammonium, sodium

2017 Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

16. Time to Consider Use of the Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio for Practical Sodium Reduction and Potassium Increase (PubMed)

in daily practice. Epidemiological studies suggest that the urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio may be a superior metric as compared to separate sodium and potassium values for determining the relation to blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risks. Higher correlations and better agreements are seen for the casual urine sodium-to-potassium ratio than for casual urine sodium or potassium alone when compared with the 24-h urine values. Repeated measurements of the casual urine provide reliable (...) estimates of the 7-day 24-h urine value with less bias for the sodium-to-potassium ratio as compared to the common formulas used for estimating the single 24-h urine from the casual urine for sodium and potassium separately. Self-monitoring devices for the urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio measurement makes it possible to provide prompt onsite feedback. Although these devices have been evaluated with a view to support an individual approach for sodium reduction and potassium increase, there has yet

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2017 Nutrients

17. Comparison of metabolic changes for stone risks in 24-hour urine between non- and postmenopausal women. (PubMed)

, with urinary tract infection, gout, hyperthyroidism, malignancy, had a history of cancer, kidney stones, enterectomy, had taken thiazide diuretics, allopurinol, vitamin supplement, potassium citrate or calcium supplements during the past two weeks. The compositions associated with urinary stone in 24-hour urine were measured and compared between non-and postmenopausal women.A total of 603 24-hour urine samples of female participants were analyzed. 354 women with a mean age of 52.5± 14.03 (range 19-84 (...) Comparison of metabolic changes for stone risks in 24-hour urine between non- and postmenopausal women. To explore the differences of 24-hour urine compositions associated with urolithiasis between non- and postmenopausal females.The 24-hour urine samples of female participants were collected from May 2013 to July 2014 along with national cross-sectional study of urolithiasis among adults aged ≥18 years in China. The exclusion criteria for the participants were: serum creatinine > 133μmol/L

2019 PLoS ONE

18. Guideline for the transition from the MDRD to the CKD-EPI equation for the calculation of an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and its interpretation in concert with the urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR)

Guideline for the transition from the MDRD to the CKD-EPI equation for the calculation of an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and its interpretation in concert with the urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) Page 1 of 6 April, 2015 Guideline for the Transition from the MDRD to the CKD-EPI Equation for the Calculation of an Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR), and its Interpretation in Concert with the Urine Albumin/Creatinine Ratio (ACR) 1. Purpose Ontario’s community (...) is confirmed when: ? The eGFR is less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , if duration exceeds 3 months. ? The ACR is equal to or greater than 3 mg/mmol creatinine, determined on 2 of 3 samples collected at least 3 months apart. The KDIGO 2012 guideline highlights the importance of using both the eGFR and the ACR, expressed as the ratio of urine albumin to creatinine, in screening, diagnosis, and management of CKD. The CSN supports routine reassessment of the eGFR and the ACR at clinically relevant intervals

2015 CPG Infobase

19. Descriptive epidemiology of spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio clarified close relationship with blood pressure level: the Nagahama study. (PubMed)

Descriptive epidemiology of spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio clarified close relationship with blood pressure level: the Nagahama study. We undertook descriptive epidemiology of spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na/K) in a population sample to clarify the close relationship between Na/K and blood pressure level independently of potential confounding factors.Study participants consisted of 9144 apparently healthy citizens (aged 54 ± 13 years). All clinical parameters were obtained (...) significantly associated with Na/K, namely age, sex, obesity, blood pressure, renal function, salt restriction status, serum phosphate and urinary creatinine level, and fasting period and season at urine sample collection. However, the association between Na/K and BP was independent of these factors (adjusted β = 0.112, P < 0.001). No direct association was observed between Na/K and large arterial remodeling assessed by pulse wave analysis (P = 0.496) or retinal arteriolar morphological change (P = 0.431

2015 Journal of Hypertension

20. Prediction of Cortical Defect Using C-Reactive Protein and Urine Sodium to Potassium Ratio in Infants with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection (PubMed)

Prediction of Cortical Defect Using C-Reactive Protein and Urine Sodium to Potassium Ratio in Infants with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection We investigated whether C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, urine protein-creatinine ratio (uProt/Cr), and urine electrolytes can be useful for discriminating acute pyelonephritis (APN) from other febrile illnesses or the presence of a cortical defect on 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scanning (true APN) from its absence in infants with febrile urinary (...) tract infection (UTI).We examined 150 infants experiencing their first febrile UTI and 100 controls with other febrile illnesses consecutively admitted to our hospital from January 2010 to December 2012. Blood (CRP, electrolytes, Cr) and urine tests [uProt/Cr, electrolytes, and sodium-potassium ratio (uNa/K)] were performed upon admission. All infants with UTI underwent DMSA scans during admission. All data were compared between infants with UTI and controls and between infants with or without

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2015 Yonsei medical journal

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