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Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

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161. Nephrolithiasis/Urolithiasis

. Intravenous contrast is required, with resultant risks of an allergic reaction or nephrotoxicity. IVU is less sensitive than CT, especially for small or nonobstructing stones. (Images of stone disease are provided below.) Scout intravenous urogram shows a smooth, dense, round calculus in the left kidney. Renal sonogram demonstrates an echogenic shadowing calculus in the renal collecting system with hydronephrosis. Contrast-enhanced CT scan demonstrates an opaque staghorn calculus filling the left renal (...) collecting system. Renal longitudinal sonogram in a patient with nephrocalcinosis shows diffuse echogenic shadowing calcifications in the renal pyramids. Nonenhanced CT image shows an obstructing left proximal ureteral calculus with a slight soft-tissue rim around the stone (ie, rim sign). Ultrasonography (US) use for initial evaluation of suspected urinary calculi is common outside the United States. [ ] US is useful in young or pregnant patients [ , ] and in patients allergic to iodinated contrast

2014 eMedicine Radiology

162. Body Fat Content and Distribution and Urinary Risk Factors for Nephrolithiasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Body Fat Content and Distribution and Urinary Risk Factors for Nephrolithiasis. Obesity is associated with a higher risk of nephrolithiasis. However, it is not known whether higher body fat mass or abnormal fat distribution influences stone risk independent of dietary factors.In this cross-sectional study, non-stone-forming men with no known kidney disease and with a wide range of body weight collected a 24-hour urine specimen while consuming a fixed metabolic diet. They underwent dual-energy x (...) -ray absorptiometry to assess body composition and fat distribution. Urinary risk factors for nephrolithiasis and urine saturation with respect to calcium oxalate and uric acid (assessed as supersaturation index [SI]) were correlated with various measures of adiposity.Study participants included 21 men with a mean age of 52.1 years, mean weight of 91.1 kg, and mean total fat mass of 24.3 kg. Twenty-four-hour urine pH and SI uric acid were more closely correlated with fat mass than with lean mass

2013 Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

163. Nephrolithiasis and loss of kidney function. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Across several studies, patients with nephrolithiasis had about a two-fold higher risk for decreased renal function or need for renal replacement therapy. This risk appears to be independent of risk factors for CKD that are common in stone formers such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Specific risk factors for CKD in stone formers include recurrent urinary tract infections, struvite and possibly uric acid stone composition, symptomatic stones, solitary kidney, ileal conduit, neurogenic bladder (...) Nephrolithiasis and loss of kidney function. The prevalence of nephrolithiasis has been on the rise over recent decades. There have also been extensive efforts to identify risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this review is to highlight recent evidence on the association of nephrolithiasis with the development of CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Several epidemiologic studies over the past decade assessed the relationship between history of nephrolithiasis and CKD

2013 Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension

164. The changing profile of patients with calcium nephrolithiasis: a comparison of two patient series observed 25 years apart. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The changing profile of patients with calcium nephrolithiasis: a comparison of two patient series observed 25 years apart. Epidemiological data indicate an increasing incidence and prevalence of nephrolithiasis (NL) worldwide in the last few decades.The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and biochemical profiles of recurrent stone formers referred to a Kidney Stone Centre from March 1983 to June 1986 with the one featured by patients seen 25 years later in the same geographical area (...) in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism enrolled in the same periods. A greater prevalence of uric acid stone formers was also observed in the 2008-11 population.The massive epidemics of overweight/obesity and the substantial modifications of dietary habits over the last few decades in most Western countries may be the factors underlying the changing clinical and biochemical profiles of patients with recurrent NL.

2013 Transplantation

165. Antiurolithiatic Effects of Solanum xanthocarpum Fruit Extract on Ethylene-Glycol-Induced Nephrolithiasis in Rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

extract in different doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg p.o., Cystone (750 mg/kg, p.o.) served as a standard. Hyperoxaluria as well as an increase in the excretion of calcium, phosphate, uric acid and decrease in citrate and magnesium in urine, impairment of renal function and oxidative imbalance in kidney were observed in the calculi-induced group. Treatment with S. xanthocarpum decreases hyperoxaluria, calcium, and uric acid, improves renal function, and also produces antioxidant effects. Crystalluria (...) was characterized by excretion calcium oxalate (CaOX) crystals, which were enormous in the lithogenic group but smaller in the drug-treated group. The histology showed that the calculi-induced group had a large deposition of CaOX crystals in kidney while the treated group had trivial and fewer deposits. The result indicates the antiurolithiatic activity of S. xanthocarpum mediated possibly by CaOX crystal inhibition, diuretic, antioxidant and maintaining balance between stone promoter and inhibitor constituents

2012 Journal of young pharmacists : JYP

166. Clinical Characteristics of Refractory Melamine-related Renal Calculi. (Abstract)

Clinical Characteristics of Refractory Melamine-related Renal Calculi. The melamine urinary stones are uric acid-based and amenable to alkalization and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). However, a significant percentage of stones failed in alkalization and ESWL. To predict it before a likely deemed failed treatment, we attempt to confirm their clinical characteristics.A total of 6 refractory- and 9 sensitive-melamine-related renal calculi were included from 15 children (age 6-51 (...) months, mean 14). Renal function, and blood calcium and uric acid level were measured before treatment. Stone composition was determined qualitatively using Fourier transform infrared. Stone computed tomography (CT)-attenuation value, stone melamine and cyanuric acid level, and stone calcium level were performed quantitatively using spiral CT, high-performance liquid chromatography, and flame atomic absorption spectrum, respectively.Blood biochemical parameters in all children within the normal

2011 Urology

167. Study of Vitamin D and Uric Acid Lowering on Kidney and Blood Vessel Function

information, Layout table for eligibility information Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years to 75 Years (Adult, Older Adult) Sexes Eligible for Study: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: Yes Criteria Inclusion Criteria: 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL OR Uric acid ≥ 5 mg/dL Age ≥ 18, ≤ 75 years Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m^2 Exclusion Criteria: Hypertension, or on BP-lowering medicine Diabetes Coronary Heart Disease estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR) <60 mL/min Kidney stones Active cancer (except non-melanoma skin (...) Study of Vitamin D and Uric Acid Lowering on Kidney and Blood Vessel Function Study of Vitamin D and Uric Acid Lowering on Kidney and Blood Vessel Function - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more

2011 Clinical Trials

168. Uric acid: A Danger Signal from the RNA World that may have a role in the Epidemic of Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and CardioRenal Disease: Evolutionary Considerations Full Text available with Trip Pro

. This increases our risk for gout and kidney stones, but there is also increasing evidence that uric acid increases our risk for hypertension, kidney disease, obesity, and diabetes. This raises the question of why this mutation occurred. In this article we review current hypotheses. We suggest that uric acid is a danger and survival signal carried over from the RNA world. The mutation of uricase that occurred during the food shortage and global cooling that occurred in the Miocene epoch resulted in a survival (...) Uric acid: A Danger Signal from the RNA World that may have a role in the Epidemic of Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and CardioRenal Disease: Evolutionary Considerations All human beings are uricase knockouts; we lost the uricase gene as a result of a mutation that occurred in the mid-Miocene epoch approximately 15 million years ago. The consequence of being a uricase knockout is that we have higher serum uric acid levels that are less regulatable and can be readily influenced by diet

2011 Seminars in Nephrology

169. The Relationship Between Uric Acid and Inflammatory Markers

The Relationship Between Uric Acid and Inflammatory Markers The Relationship Between Uric Acid and Inflammatory Markers - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. The Relationship Between Uric Acid (...) (CC) ( National Institute on Aging (NIA) ) Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Background: - Uric acid is a substance found in the blood that may contribute to certain chronic medical conditions and disorders, such as diabetes, insulin resistance, and high blood pressure. High uric acid concentrations have been associated with stroke and heart disease, as well as chronic heart failure. In particular, researchers are interested in determining the relationship between uric acid

2011 Clinical Trials

170. Uric acid Full Text available with Trip Pro

by Robert Behrend who was attempting to synthesize derivatives of uric acid References [ ] This article lacks for the books listed in it . Please by listing ISBNs. If the {{ }} or {{ }} templates are in use, you may , or discuss this issue on the . ( August 2016 ) (1776). "Examen Chemicum Calculi Urinari" [A chemical examiniation of kidney stones]. Opuscula . 2 : 73. Horbaczewski, Johann (1882). [Synthesis of uric acid]. Monatshefte für Chemie und Verwandte Teile Anderer Wissenschaften . 3 : 796–797 (...) % of humans, impaired renal (kidney) excretion leads to . Normal excretion of uric acid in the urine is 250 to 750 mg per day (concentration of 250 to 750 mg/L if one litre of urine is produced per day — higher than the solubility of uric acid because it is in the form of dissolved acid urates). Dogs . The has a genetic defect in uric acid uptake by the and , resulting in decreased conversion to allantoin, so this breed excretes uric acid, and not allantoin, in the urine. Birds and reptiles

2012 Wikipedia

171. The Links Between Water and Salt Intake, Body Weight, Hypertension and Kidney Stones: a Difficult Puzzle

provided by University of Parma: Low-salt diet calciuria blood pressure nephrolithiasis hypertension BMI urinary stone risk factors Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Hypertension Overweight Calculi Body Weight Kidney Calculi Nephrolithiasis Urinary Calculi Urolithiasis Vascular Diseases Cardiovascular Diseases Signs and Symptoms Pathological Conditions, Anatomical Kidney Diseases Urologic Diseases (...) importance; a pH>7 promotes the formation of stones prevalently composed of phosphates, while a pH of between 6 and 7, associated with a volume <1l/day, can raise CaP supersaturation to a dangerously high level and lead to the formation of mixed CaOx and CaP stones. For uric acid stones, the elements involved are hyperuricosuria and pH<5.5. In general, the most prevalent alteration in ICN is hypercalciuria (50%). Hypertension and obesity are also social diseases with important epidemiological

2010 Clinical Trials

172. Can a Spot Urine Replace or Improve 24 Hour Urine Collections in Kidney Stone Patients

) Sharing Statement: Plan to Share IPD: No Keywords provided by University of British Columbia: Metabolic stones kidney stones renal calculi metabolic evaluation Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Calculi Kidney Calculi Nephrolithiasis Pathological Conditions, Anatomical Kidney Diseases Urologic Diseases Urolithiasis Urinary Calculi (...) : All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Sampling Method: Non-Probability Sample Study Population Patients receiving care at Vancouver General Hospital for their kidney stone disease. Criteria Inclusion Criteria: Patients who have been diagnosed as having calcium based urinary stones at least 19 years of age do not have any additional serious disease Exclusion Criteria: Patients who do not have calcium based urinary stones (such as: uric acid, cystine, struvite) less than 19 years of age have a serious

2010 Clinical Trials

173. Apatite in Kidney Stones is a Molecular Composite With Glycosaminoglycans and Proteins: Evidence From Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, and Relevance to Randall's Plaque, Pathogenesis and Prophylaxis. (Abstract)

showed the expected strong (13)C{(31)P} rotational echo double resonance effects. Conversely when present, lipid, calcium oxalate hydrates and uric acid showed no rotational echo double resonance effects, proving that they exist as deposits or crystals distinct from phosphatic mineral/biomacromolecular composites.The intimate coexistence of biomacromolecules, especially glycosaminoglycan, with apatite in phosphatic stones supports the notion that they may have a key role in stone pathogenesis (...) Apatite in Kidney Stones is a Molecular Composite With Glycosaminoglycans and Proteins: Evidence From Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, and Relevance to Randall's Plaque, Pathogenesis and Prophylaxis. We characterized the biomacromolecular composition of phosphatic urinary stones using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We identified possible parallels between the nature of the organic matrix-mineral interface in stones and that in other mineralized tissue using nuclear

2010 Journal of Urology

174. Determination of Renal Stone Composition with Dual-Energy CT: In Vivo Analysis and Comparison with X-ray Diffraction. (Abstract)

compositions. After surgery, the extracted stones were analyzed by using x-ray diffraction. The results of in vivo multidetector CT and ex vivo chemical analysis were compared.Dual-energy low- and high-energy attenuation ratios measured with the phantom were less than 1.1 for uric acid, 1.1-1.24 for cystine, and greater than 1.24 for calcified stones. Struvite stones had attenuation ratios that overlapped with calcified stone ratios and thus could not be assessed reliably. Four patients had mixed stones (...) (<75% of a single component), and one patient had a struvite stone. Of 27 patients, 22 (82%) (exact confidence interval [CI]: 68%, 92%) received a correct diagnosis with dual-energy CT: all six (100%; exact CI: 54%, 100%) patients with uric acid stones, 15 (79%; exact CI: 62%, 95%) of the 19 patients with calcium stones, and the one (100%) patient with a cystine stone. The patient with a struvite stone did not receive a correct dual-energy CT-based diagnosis.Dual-energy multidetector CT may enable

2010 Radiology

175. Application of a New Method for GWAS in a Related Case/Control Sample with Known Pedigree Structure: Identification of New Loci for Nephrolithiasis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Application of a New Method for GWAS in a Related Case/Control Sample with Known Pedigree Structure: Identification of New Loci for Nephrolithiasis In contrast to large GWA studies based on thousands of individuals and large meta-analyses combining GWAS results, we analyzed a small case/control sample for uric acid nephrolithiasis. Our cohort of closely related individuals is derived from a small, genetically isolated village in Sardinia, with well-characterized genealogical data linking (...) that this locus might lead a pathway for uric acid metabolism that may be involved in gout as well as in nephrolithiasis.

2011 PLoS genetics

176. Nephrolithiasis in Medullary Sponge Kidney: Evaluation of Clinical and Metabolic Features. (Abstract)

Nephrolithiasis in Medullary Sponge Kidney: Evaluation of Clinical and Metabolic Features. Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) is a disorder characterized by tubular dilation of renal collecting ducts and cystic dilation of medullary pyramids that has been associated with stone disease. The significance of nephrolithiasis and the mechanisms by which it occurs are incompletely understood. We describe clinical and metabolic features of nephrolithiasis in a cohort of patients with MSK.Records were (...) composed of calcium oxalate monohydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium phosphate apatite, and uric acid. Metabolic profile was obtained for 26 of 39 (67%) stone-forming patients demonstrating abnormalities in 22/26 (84.6%). These included hypercalciuria, 58% (15/26); low urine volume, 35% (9/26); hyperuricosuria, 27% (7/26); hypocitraturia, 19% (5/26); elevated urine sodium, 15% (4/26); and hyperoxaluria, 12% (3/26).Many patients with MSK have no evidence of nephrolithiasis. Among those who do

2011 Urology

177. Beware the low urine ph - the major cause of the increased prevalence of nephrolithiasis in the patient with type 2 diabetes. (Abstract)

Beware the low urine ph - the major cause of the increased prevalence of nephrolithiasis in the patient with type 2 diabetes. There is an increased prevalence of nephrolithiasis and an increase in the incidence of renal colic in patients with diabetes, obesity, hypertension and insulin resistance because of an increased frequency of uric acid crystallization. Uric acid crystallization occurs in the milieu of an acid urine and is not due to hyperuricosuria as with insulin resistance, urinary (...) uric acid levels are generally decreased because of increased renal tubular reabsorption. However, in the presence of insulin resistance, there is decreased renal tubular generation of ammonia and increased sodium absorption leading to acidification of the urine and uric acid crystallization. The presence of a low urine pH should alert the clinician to the increased risk of nephrolithiasis particularly in the obese, diabetic or hypertensive patient. Prevention of nephrolithiasis can be achieved

2011 obesity & metabolism

178. Metabolic Syndrome, Urine pH, and Time-dependent Risk of Nephrolithiasis in Korean Men Without Hypertension and Diabetes. (Abstract)

Metabolic Syndrome, Urine pH, and Time-dependent Risk of Nephrolithiasis in Korean Men Without Hypertension and Diabetes. To examine the independent effect of metabolic syndrome (MS) on nephrolithiasis (NL) even with changes in MS status over time.From 2002-2003, 3872 men who were reexamined annually or biannually until 2009 were enrolled in the analysis and observed for development of NL. The examination included anthropometric measurements, biochemical measurement, and kidney ultrasonography (...) (US). A standard Cox proportional hazards model and a time-dependent Cox model were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratio in the NL model.After adjusting for age, baseline glomerular filtration rate, and uric acid level, MS at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of NL (HR, 1.771; 95% confidence interval, 1.157-2.711). MS over time as a time-dependent variable also predicted the development of NL (HR, 1.678; 95% CI, 1.151-2.447) after adjusted baseline covariate. After

2011 Urology

179. Prospective randomized clinical trial comparing phytotherapy with potassium citrate in management of minimal burden (≤8 mm) nephrolithiasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prospective randomized clinical trial comparing phytotherapy with potassium citrate in management of minimal burden (≤8 mm) nephrolithiasis. To compare efficacy and tolerability of phytotherapy (PT) vs. potassium citrate (KC) in patients with minimal nephrolithiasis. To compare and assess changes in value of certain serum (Ca(2)+, PO(4) (3-), uric acid [UA]) and urinary (24-hr Ca(2+), PO(4) (3-), UA, citrate, oxalate, and urine pH) parameters in patients being treated with PT or KC.After (...) and increased urinary citrate) along with significant symptomatic improvement (reduction/clearance in the stone size), but without any noticeable side effects.Medical therapies with both KC and PT (with lupeol extract using Calcury™) were effective in reducing the stone size and symptoms of nephrolithiasis. It appeared that KC was biochemically efficacious in producing some favorable biochemical changes with some side effects, whereas PT was probably clinically efficacious in hastening stone expulsion (<8

2011 Urology annals Controlled trial quality: uncertain

180. Evaluation of Intravenous Ascorbic Acid

limit, urine uric acid < 1,000mg/d, urine pH <6, urine oxalate <60 mg/d. Participants who have no language barrier, are cooperative, and can give informed consent before entering the study after being informed of the medications and procedures to be used in this study may participate. Exclusion: Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency Currently receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy History of bleeding disorder History of oxalate renal calculi; urine oxalate level > 60 mg/d (...) : Healthy adults age 21 or older Laboratory: ANC ≥1,500/mm3, Hemoglobin > 8g/dL, platelet ≥ 100,000/mm3, total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 mg/dL, creatinine ≤2.0 mg/dL, transaminase (AST/ALT) ≤2.5X upper limit, urine uric acid < 1,000mg/d, urine pH <6, urine oxalate <60 mg/d. Participants who have no language barrier, are cooperative, and can give informed consent before entering the study after being informed of the medications and procedures to be used in this study may participate. Exclusion: Glucose-6-phosphate

2012 Clinical Trials

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