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Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

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101. Multiple Sclerosis and Nephrolithiasis: A Matched Case Comparative Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Multiple Sclerosis and Nephrolithiasis: A Matched Case Comparative Study. To compare stone composition and serum/urine biochemistries in stone formers with multiple sclerosis (MS) against stone formers without MS and to examine the association between mobility, methods of bladder emptying, and stone formation.In this retrospective case-control study, we identified patients diagnosed with MS and kidney stone disease who were seen at our institution between 2001 and 2016. For the first part (...) nephrolithotomy (PCNL; 25% vs 12%, P = 0.005) or a cystolithopaxy (16% vs 3%, P < 0.001) compared to their matched controls. In all, 61 patients had a complete 24-h urinary stone panel. There were no significant differences in urinary pH, volume, creatinine, calcium, citrate, oxalate, sodium, and uric acid as well as rates of hypocitraturia, hyperoxaluria, hypercalciuria, and hyperuricosuria among patients with MS. Use of intermittent straight catheterisation [ISC; odds ratio (OR) 3.50, 95% confidence

2017 BJU international

102. Association Between Sonographically Diagnosed Nephrolithiasis and Subclinical Coronary Artery Calcification in Adults. (Abstract)

of screening examination, physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking status, education level, body mass index, family history of cardiovascular disease, total energy intake, glucose concentration, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride concentration, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, uric acid concentration, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, the CAC score ratio was attenuated, but remained significant (CAC score ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00-1.71).Computed tomographic diagnosis (...) of nephrolithiasis was unavailable.Nephrolithiasis was associated with the presence of CAC in adults without known coronary heart disease, supporting the hypothesis that these 2 health conditions share a common pathophysiology.Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2017 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

103. Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial Assessing the Efficacy of Standard and Low Dose Hydrochlorothiazide Treatment in the Prevention of Recurrent Nephrolithiasis

Statement: Plan to Share IPD: No Layout table for additional information Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No Keywords provided by University Hospital Inselspital, Berne: kidney stones hydrochlorothiazide Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Nephrolithiasis Kidney Calculi Kidney Diseases Urologic Diseases Urolithiasis Urinary Calculi Calculi Pathological Conditions, Anatomical Hydrochlorothiazide Antihypertensive Agents (...) nephrolithiasis, however, this practice is not supported by randomized evidence and consequently, the investigators do not know whether the currently employed low dose thiazide regimens are effective in reducing the risk for stone recurrence. Thus, evidence for benefits and harms of thiazide diuretics in the prevention of calcium-containing kidney stones in general remains unclear. In addition, the efficacy of the currently employed low dose thiazide regimens to prevent stone recurrence is not known. Study

2017 Clinical Trials

104. Mature Vinegar Prophylaxis Against Recurrent Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis

was associated with decreased risk of kidney stones formations. Furthermore, our previous in vivo study found that mature vinegar could inhibit renal calcium oxalate crystals formation in rat model. These findings inspire us to clarify the nephrolithiasis prevention effect of mature vinegar in a clinical trial. In this study, investigators would like to examine the efficacy of mature vinegar prophylaxis for preventing recurrent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment (...) calcium oxalate or mixed (calcium oxalate and phosphate, calcium oxalate and uric acid) stone formation over the last 5 years; the stone had been removed completely confirmed by CT scan; No current treatment for the prevention of recurrent stones except for the advice to increase water intake; Residence in the area of Guangzhou, China; Written informed consent Exclusion Criteria: Obstructive uropathy, chronic urosepsis, renal failure (serum creatinine > 177 umol/L), renal tubular acidosis, primary

2017 Clinical Trials

105. Development of Nephrolithiasis in Asymptomatic Hyperuricemia: A Cohort Study. (Abstract)

adjustment for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level.Dietary information and computed tomographic diagnosis of nephrolithiasis were unavailable.In this large cohort study, increased serum uric acid level was modestly and independently associated with increased risk for the development of nephrolithiasis in a dose-response manner in apparently healthy men.Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights (...) Development of Nephrolithiasis in Asymptomatic Hyperuricemia: A Cohort Study. Although the association between gout and nephrolithiasis is well known, the relationship between asymptomatic hyperuricemia and the development of nephrolithiasis is largely unknown.Cohort study.239,331 Korean adults who underwent a health checkup examination during January 2002 to December 2014 and were followed up annually or biennially through December 2014.Baseline serum uric acid levels of participants.The

2017 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

106. Etiopathogenesis of Nephrolithiasis in Ulcerative Colitis Patients with the Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and no nephrolithiasis.Using cross-sectional study design, serum and 24-hour urine metabolic compositions were compared between IPAA patients with nephrolithiasis (the study group) and those without (the control group). Urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid was calculated.A total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study. There were no significant differences in serum electrolytes, vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and kidney function tests between the study (n = 20) and control groups (...) %) patient.Ulcerative colitis-IPAA patients are at risk for the development of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones. Nephrolithiasis is symptomatic in a majority of the patients and frequently requires procedural intervention for treatment.

2017 Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

107. Dual energy can accurately differentiate uric acid-containing urinary calculi from calcium stones. (Abstract)

Dual energy can accurately differentiate uric acid-containing urinary calculi from calcium stones. To retrospectively evaluate the accuracy of dual-energy CT (DECT) in the detection of the chemical composition of urinary calculi in correlation with infrared spectroscopic stone analysis.We reviewed the CT scans of 255 patients who underwent DECT due to a clinical suspicion of urolithiasis. Out of this group, we included 64 patients with clinically symptomatic urolithiasis requiring stone removal (...) ) were color-coded in blue, while stones containing uric acid (UA) were colored red. Median DEI in UA-containing stones were 0.001. Non-UA-containing stones had a DEI between 0.073 for pure CA stones and 0.077 containing CA and other substances (p = 0.001; p = 0.03, respectively). Sensitivity of DECT was 98.4 % for differentiation of UA from non-UA-containing calculi. Specificity was 98.1 %. Mean effective radiation dose of DECT was 4.18 mSv (0.44-14.27 mSv), thus comparable to conventional CT scans

2016 World journal of urology

108. Uric acid in the pathogenesis of metabolic, renal, and cardiovascular diseases: A review Full Text available with Trip Pro

Uric acid in the pathogenesis of metabolic, renal, and cardiovascular diseases: A review The association between uric acid (UA) on one side and systemic hypertension (Htn), dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, overweight, fatty liver, renal disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the other side is well recognized. However, the causal relationship between UA and these different clinical problems is still debatable. The recent years have witnessed hundreds of experimental and clinical trials (...) that favored the opinion that UA is a probable player in the pathogenesis of these disease entities. These studies disclosed the strong association between hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity, Htn, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertriglyceridemia, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease (CKD), coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure and increased mortality among cardiac and CKD patients. The association between UA and nephrolithiasis

2016 Journal of advanced research

109. GWAS and transcriptional analysis prioritize ITPR1 and CNTN4 for a serum uric acid 3p26 QTL in Mexican Americans Full Text available with Trip Pro

GWAS and transcriptional analysis prioritize ITPR1 and CNTN4 for a serum uric acid 3p26 QTL in Mexican Americans The variation in serum uric acid concentrations is under significant genetic influence. Elevated SUA concentrations have been linked to increased risk for gout, kidney stones, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease whereas reduced serum uric acid concentrations have been linked to multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Previously, we identified (...) a novel locus on chromosome 3p26 affecting serum uric acid concentrations in Mexican Americans from San Antonio Family Heart Study. As a follow up, we examined genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data in an extended cohort of 1281 Mexican Americans from multigenerational families of the San Antonio Family Heart Study and the San Antonio Family Diabetes/Gallbladder Study. We used a linear regression-based joint linkage/association test under an additive model of allelic effect, while accounting

2016 BMC genomics

110. Randomized Controlled Trial of Febuxostat Versus Allopurinol or Placebo in Individuals with Higher Urinary Uric Acid Excretion and Calcium Stones Full Text available with Trip Pro

with febuxostat compared with allopurinol or placebo. There was no change in stone size, stone number, or renal function. No new safety concerns were noted for either drug.Febuxostat (80 mg) lowered 24-hour urinary uric acid significantly more than allopurinol (300 mg) in stone formers with higher urinary uric acid excretion after 6 months of treatment. There was no change in stone size or number over the 6-month period. (...) Randomized Controlled Trial of Febuxostat Versus Allopurinol or Placebo in Individuals with Higher Urinary Uric Acid Excretion and Calcium Stones Higher urinary uric acid excretion is a suspected risk factor for calcium oxalate stone formation. Febuxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, is effective in lowering serum urate concentration and urinary uric acid excretion in healthy volunteers and people with gout. This work studied whether febuxostat, compared with allopurinol and placebo

2013 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: predicted high

111. Uric acid and coronary artery disease: An elusive link deserving further attention. (Abstract)

Uric acid and coronary artery disease: An elusive link deserving further attention. Uric acid is the final product of purine metabolism. Classically it is recognized as the cause of gouty arthritis and kidney stones. Western civilization has increased serum levels of uric acid which is no longer considered a benign plasma solute. It has been postulated and recently demonstrated that it can penetrate cell membrane and exerts damaging intracellular actions such as oxidation and inflammation (...) . These observations have stimulated several epidemiological researches suggesting that hyperuricemia is linked or even provokes hypertension and coronary artery disease. In this review we summarize the current evidences regarding uric acid which contribute in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

2015 International journal of cardiology

112. Effect of canagliflozin on serum uric acid in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of canagliflozin on serum uric acid in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hyperuricaemia is associated with an increased risk of gout, kidney stones and cardiovascular disease. The present post hoc analysis of pooled data from four placebo-controlled phase III studies assessed the effect of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on serum uric acid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and in a subset of patients with hyperuricaemia [defined (...) %). Incidences of gout and kidney stones were low and similar across groups. In conclusion, canagliflozin treatment decreased serum uric acid in patients with T2DM, including those with baseline hyperuricaemia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

2015 obesity & metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

113. Endoscopic and Histologic Findings in a Cohort of Uric Acid and Calcium Oxalate Stone Formers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Endoscopic and Histologic Findings in a Cohort of Uric Acid and Calcium Oxalate Stone Formers. To characterize the endoscopic and histologic renal papillary lesions in a cohort of uric acid (UA) stone formers (SF).Data were prospectively obtained during percutaneous nephrolithotomy between 2009 and 2013. Renal papillae were endoscopically analyzed to quantitate surface area occupied by plaque or plug, and biopsies were obtained. UA SF were compared with non-SF controls and patients with >50 (...) % calcium oxalate (CaOx) in the absence of UA.There were 23 UA SF; of which 19 stones (83%) were admixed with CaOx and 4 (17%) were pure. Compared with CaOx SF and controls, UA SF had a higher prevalence of diabetes and obesity, greater serum creatinine and UA levels, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and urine pH, and elevated UA supersaturation. Characteristics of UA SF were compared with 95 CaOx SF and 19 controls. Overall, 23 (100%) UA SF had endoscopic plaque and 13 (57%) plugs

2015 Urology

114. 100% uric Acid stone formers: what makes them different? (Abstract)

100% uric Acid stone formers: what makes them different? To identify what risk factors on 24-hour urinalysis, if any, predispose patients to have higher percentages of uric acid (UA) stone composition in their stones, with specific emphasis on patients with pure UA stones.We retrospectively identified 308 patients from review of a kidney stone analysis database. Patients were grouped according to the percentage UA composition: 10%-20%, 30%-50%, 60%-90%, and 100% UA. Data were extracted from 24 (...) -hour urine collections and serum chemistries. Patients taking allopurinol, citrates, or thiazide diuretics were excluded.The percentage UA stone composition increased as patients became older (P = .05) or heavier (P <.001). Gender did not impact the percentage of UA in stones. Although a higher serum UA level was associated with higher UA stone composition (P <.0006), urinary UA levels did not correlate (P = .1). In contrast, urinary pH correlated significantly with higher UA stone composition (P

2015 Urology

115. Ertugliflozin l-pyroglutamic acid (Steglatro) - Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2

Ertugliflozin l-pyroglutamic acid (Steglatro) - Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 30 Churchill Place ? Canary Wharf ? London E14 5EU ? United Kingdom An agency of the European Union Telephone +44 (0)20 3660 6000 Facsimile +44 (0)20 3660 5520 Send a question via our website www.ema.europa.eu/contact © European Medicines Agency, 2018. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. 25 January 2018 EMA/86938/2018 Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) Assessment report (...) during any dosing interval at steady state BA bioavailability BCS biopharmaceutical classification system BCRP breast cancer resistance protein BE bioequivalence bid twice (two times) a day BMD bone mineral density BMI body mass index BSA body surface area CFU colony forming units CHMP Committee for Medicinal Products for Human use CKD chronic kidney disease cLDA constrained longitudinal data analysis CL/F apparent clearance of drug C max maximum observed plasma concentration CQA Critical Quality

2018 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

116. Ertugliflozin l-pyroglutamic acid / sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate (Steglujan) - Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2

Ertugliflozin l-pyroglutamic acid / sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate (Steglujan) - Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 30 Churchill Place ? Canary Wharf ? London E14 5EU ? United Kingdom An agency of the European Union Telephone +44 (0)20 3660 6000 Facsimile +44 (0)20 3660 5555 Send a question via our website www.ema.europa.eu/contact © European Medicines Agency, 2018. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. 25 January 2018 EMA/86941/2018 Committee for Medicinal Products (...) AMP adenosine monophosphate AST (SGOT) aspartate aminotransferase AUC area under the concentration-time curve AUC inf area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity BCS biopharmaceutical classification system BE bioequivalence BMI body mass index CHMP Committee for Medicinal Products for Human use CFU colony forming units CI confidence interval CKD chronic kidney disease cLDA constrained longitudinal data analysis C max maximum observed plasma concentration CPP critical process

2018 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

117. Ertugliflozin l-pyroglutamic acid / metformin hydrochloride (Segluromet) - Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2

Ertugliflozin l-pyroglutamic acid / metformin hydrochloride (Segluromet) - Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 30 Churchill Place ? Canary Wharf ? London E14 5EU ? United Kingdom An agency of the European Union Telephone +44 (0)20 3660 6000 Facsimile +44 (0)20 3660 5555 Send a question via our website www.ema.europa.eu/contact © European Medicines Agency, 2018. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. 25 January 2018 EMA/86928/2018 Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (...) Ertu/Met ertugliflozin/metformin Ertu/Met pool pooled safety data from placebo-controlled ertugliflozin add-on metformin phase III studies ESFA European Food Safety Authority ESI-MS electrospray positive ionization mass spectra FA Focus area FAS full analysis set Assessment report EMA/86928/2018 Page 5/159 FDA Food and Drug Administration FDC fixed-dose combination FeCl 3 Iron (III) chloride Fpen Market penetration factor FPG fasting plasma glucose GAD glutamic acid decarboxylase GC gas

2018 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

118. The presence of protein-bound gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in calcium-containing renal calculi. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The presence of protein-bound gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in calcium-containing renal calculi. The amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) is found in four blood-clotting proteins, in a bone protein, in kidney protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications. This paper reports the presence of Gla in the EDTA-soluble, nondialyzable proteins of calcium-containing renal calculi including calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite, and mixed stores of apatite and struvite (MgNH4PO4 (...) ). Calculi composed of pure struvite and those composed of only uric acid or cystine do not contain Gla. From calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite stontes, a protein of about 17,000 daltons was obtained which contained about 40 residues of Gla per 1,000 amino acids. The amino acid composition of this protein had no apparent relationship to the Gla-containing bone protein or to the similarly-sized F1 fragment of prothrombin which contains about 64 residues of Gla per 1,000 amino acid residues. The Gla-rich

1977 Journal of Clinical Investigation

119. Renal Calculi (Treatment)

paramount whenever a UTI is suspected in conjunction with hydronephrosis or renal colic a septic patient. The vast majority of symptomatic urinary tract calculi are now treated with noninvasive or minimally invasive techniques. Open surgical excision of a stone from the urinary tract is now limited to isolated atypical cases. Guidelines are now available to assist the urologist in selecting surgical treatments. The 2005 AUA staghorn calculus guidelines recommend percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (...) %). [ ] Anatrophic nephrolithotomy Anatrophic nephrolithotomy was classically an open procedure indicated for large staghorn calculi. It involved accessing the kidney through an open approach, identifying the avascular plane of Brodel, which is a relatively avascular plane in the posterior kidney, and then making an incision through this plane and subsequently removing the calculus. During this procedure the renal artery is clamped, which raises the risk for ischemic injury, as well as reperfusion injury once

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

120. Renal Calculi (Diagnosis)

of calculus (eg, calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine), respectively Microscopic urinalysis 24-Hour urine profile Imaging studies The following imaging studies are used in the evaluation of nephrolithiasis: Noncontrast abdominopelvic CT scan: The imaging modality of choice for assessment of urinary tract disease, especially acute renal colic Renal ultrasonography: To determine presence of a renal stone and the presence of hydronephrosis or ureteral dilation; used alone or in combination with plain (...) . [ ] The term nephrolithiasis specifically refers to calculi in the kidneys, but this article discusses both renal calculi (see the first image below) and ureteral calculi (ureterolithiasis; see the second image below). Ureteral calculi almost always originate in the kidneys, although they may continue to grow once they lodge in the ureter. Small renal calculus that would likely respond to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Distal ureteral stone observed through a small, rigid ureteroscope prior

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

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