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Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

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841. Kidney Stones Full Text available with Trip Pro

Kidney Stones The prevalence of kidney stones has steadily risen during this century; passage of a calculus and a positive family history increase the probability of recurrence. Findings from recent studies on the cause of renal calculi have stressed crystallization and crystal aggregation of stone minerals from supersaturated urine, rather than excessive organic matrix. Absence of normal urine inhibitors of calcium salts is also stressed. Formation of calcium oxalate stones is the major (...) with uric acid calculi constitute only a small fraction of those in whom stones form, they represent a group in whom good medical therapy, based on sound physiologic principles, has proved extremely successful. Renal tubular syndromes lead to nephrocalcinosis and lithiasis through hypercalciuria, alkaline urine and hypocitraturia, the latter an inhibitor of calcium salt precipitation. Recent advances in surgical techniques are discussed, including the rationale for removing staghorn calculi. The ileal

1980 Western Journal of Medicine

842. Influence of cranberry juice on the urinary risk factors for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation. (Abstract)

Influence of cranberry juice on the urinary risk factors for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation. To investigate the potential influence of cranberry juice on urinary biochemical and physicochemical risk factors associated with the formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones, as this product might affect the chemical composition of urine.Urinary variables were assessed in a randomized cross-over trial in 20 South African men (students) with no previous history of kidney stones. The first (...) data were used to calculate the relative urinary supersaturations of calcium oxalate, uric acid and calcium phosphate. Data were assessed statistically by analysis of variance.The ingestion of cranberry juice significantly and uniquely altered three key urinary risk factors. Oxalate and phosphate excretion decreased while citrate excretion increased. In addition, there was a decrease in the relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate, which tended to be significantly lower than that induced

2003 BJU international Controlled trial quality: uncertain

843. Familial hypouricaemia associated with renal tubular uricosuria and uric acid calculi: case report Full Text available with Trip Pro

Familial hypouricaemia associated with renal tubular uricosuria and uric acid calculi: case report We describe a patient with the rare combination of uric acid calculi, familial hypouricaemia, and increased renal urate clearance.

1980 Journal of Clinical Pathology

844. 24-h uric acid excretion and the risk of kidney stones. Full Text available with Trip Pro

24-h uric acid excretion and the risk of kidney stones. There is uncertainty about the relation between 24-h urinary uric acid excretion and the risk of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. In addition, the risk associated with different levels of other urinary factors needs clarification. We performed a cross-sectional study of 24-h urine excretion and the risk of kidney stone formation in 3350 men and women, of whom 2237 had a history of nephrolithiasis. After adjusting for other urinary factors (...) , urinary uric acid had a significant inverse association with stone formation in men, a marginal inverse association with risk in younger women, and no association in older women. The risk of stone formation in men and women significantly rose with increasing urine calcium and oxalate, and significantly decreased with increasing citrate and urine volume, with the change in risk beginning below the traditional normal thresholds. Other urinary factors were also associated with risk, but this varied

2007 Kidney International

845. Presence of lipids in urine, crystals and stones: implications for the formation of kidney stones. Full Text available with Trip Pro

urine, crystals of CaOx and CaP produced in the urine of healthy individuals, and urinary stones containing struvite, uric acid, CaOx and CaP crystals for the presence of membrane lipids were analyzed. Crystallization of CaOx monohydrate at Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG), dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine (DPPS), dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG), palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG) and dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG (...) ) was investigated to directly demonstrate that phospholipid assemblies can catalyze CaOx nucleation.Urine as well as CaOx and CaP crystals made in the urine and various types of urinary stones investigated contained some lipids. Urine of both CaOx and uric acid stone formers contained significantly more cholesterol, cholesterol ester and triglycerides than urine of healthy subjects. However, urine of CaOx stone formers contained more acidic phospholipids. The organic matrix of calcific stones contained

2002 Kidney International

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