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Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

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61. Investigation of Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Men with Uronephrolithiasis and Metabolic Syndrome (PubMed)

Investigation of Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Men with Uronephrolithiasis and Metabolic Syndrome BACKGROUND Fatty acids (FA) and their metabolites are closely related to some mechanisms involved in the development of uronephrolithiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between FA composition and type of kidney stones. MATERIAL AND METHODS Abdominal adipose tissue fatty acid methyl esters of 71 men with nephrolithiasis were identified by GC/MS, and the type (...) of kidney stones was identified using FTIR infrared spectroscopy. Patients were divided into groups according to diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MS) and type of kidney stone. The composition of FA was compared within different groups of patients with different types of kidney stones and between the patients and healthy individuals (control group) (n=100). RESULTS Individuals with nephrolithiasis had a significantly higher level of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and a lower level of polyunsaturated

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2018 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research

62. Body Fat Content and Distribution and Urinary Risk Factors for Nephrolithiasis. (PubMed)

-ray absorptiometry to assess body composition and fat distribution. Urinary risk factors for nephrolithiasis and urine saturation with respect to calcium oxalate and uric acid (assessed as supersaturation index [SI]) were correlated with various measures of adiposity.Study participants included 21 men with a mean age of 52.1 years, mean weight of 91.1 kg, and mean total fat mass of 24.3 kg. Twenty-four-hour urine pH and SI uric acid were more closely correlated with fat mass than with lean mass (...) or total body weight. Both 24-hour urine pH and SI uric acid were also significantly correlated with truncal fat mass but not with leg fat mass. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between truncal/leg fat mass and NH4(+)/net acid excretion ratio (R=-0.62; P=0.009). However, there was no significant association between SI calcium oxalate and body weight, lean mass, fat mass, trunk fat mass, or leg fat mass.The association between 24-hour urine pH and SI uric acid and various measures

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2013 Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

63. Nephrolithiasis and loss of kidney function. (PubMed)

. Across several studies, patients with nephrolithiasis had about a two-fold higher risk for decreased renal function or need for renal replacement therapy. This risk appears to be independent of risk factors for CKD that are common in stone formers such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Specific risk factors for CKD in stone formers include recurrent urinary tract infections, struvite and possibly uric acid stone composition, symptomatic stones, solitary kidney, ileal conduit, neurogenic bladder (...) Nephrolithiasis and loss of kidney function. The prevalence of nephrolithiasis has been on the rise over recent decades. There have also been extensive efforts to identify risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this review is to highlight recent evidence on the association of nephrolithiasis with the development of CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Several epidemiologic studies over the past decade assessed the relationship between history of nephrolithiasis and CKD

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2013 Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension

64. The changing profile of patients with calcium nephrolithiasis: a comparison of two patient series observed 25 years apart. (PubMed)

in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism enrolled in the same periods. A greater prevalence of uric acid stone formers was also observed in the 2008-11 population.The massive epidemics of overweight/obesity and the substantial modifications of dietary habits over the last few decades in most Western countries may be the factors underlying the changing clinical and biochemical profiles of patients with recurrent NL. (...) The changing profile of patients with calcium nephrolithiasis: a comparison of two patient series observed 25 years apart. Epidemiological data indicate an increasing incidence and prevalence of nephrolithiasis (NL) worldwide in the last few decades.The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and biochemical profiles of recurrent stone formers referred to a Kidney Stone Centre from March 1983 to June 1986 with the one featured by patients seen 25 years later in the same geographical area

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2013 Transplantation

65. Antiurolithiatic Effects of Solanum xanthocarpum Fruit Extract on Ethylene-Glycol-Induced Nephrolithiasis in Rats (PubMed)

extract in different doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg p.o., Cystone (750 mg/kg, p.o.) served as a standard. Hyperoxaluria as well as an increase in the excretion of calcium, phosphate, uric acid and decrease in citrate and magnesium in urine, impairment of renal function and oxidative imbalance in kidney were observed in the calculi-induced group. Treatment with S. xanthocarpum decreases hyperoxaluria, calcium, and uric acid, improves renal function, and also produces antioxidant effects. Crystalluria (...) Antiurolithiatic Effects of Solanum xanthocarpum Fruit Extract on Ethylene-Glycol-Induced Nephrolithiasis in Rats This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Solanum xanthocarpum fruit extract in ethylene-glycol-induced urolithiasis in the male Wistar rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in male Wistar rats by adding ethylene glycol (0.75%) in drinking water for 28 days. Animals were divided into six groups, each containing six viz. Vehicle control, model control, S. xanthocarpum methanol

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2012 Journal of young pharmacists : JYP

66. Application of a New Method for GWAS in a Related Case/Control Sample with Known Pedigree Structure: Identification of New Loci for Nephrolithiasis (PubMed)

Application of a New Method for GWAS in a Related Case/Control Sample with Known Pedigree Structure: Identification of New Loci for Nephrolithiasis In contrast to large GWA studies based on thousands of individuals and large meta-analyses combining GWAS results, we analyzed a small case/control sample for uric acid nephrolithiasis. Our cohort of closely related individuals is derived from a small, genetically isolated village in Sardinia, with well-characterized genealogical data linking (...) that this locus might lead a pathway for uric acid metabolism that may be involved in gout as well as in nephrolithiasis.

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2011 PLoS genetics

67. Prospective randomized clinical trial comparing phytotherapy with potassium citrate in management of minimal burden (≤8 mm) nephrolithiasis. (PubMed)

Prospective randomized clinical trial comparing phytotherapy with potassium citrate in management of minimal burden (≤8 mm) nephrolithiasis. To compare efficacy and tolerability of phytotherapy (PT) vs. potassium citrate (KC) in patients with minimal nephrolithiasis. To compare and assess changes in value of certain serum (Ca(2)+, PO(4) (3-), uric acid [UA]) and urinary (24-hr Ca(2+), PO(4) (3-), UA, citrate, oxalate, and urine pH) parameters in patients being treated with PT or KC.After (...) clearance by the local institutional ethics committee, 60 patients of nephrolithiasis who had consented for the study, were enrolled (as per entry criteria) and randomized into citrate therapy (group-I) or PT (group-II). PT was administered as a nutritional supplement, using a lupeol-based extract (Tablet Calcury™, two tablets twice a day). They were monitored for the changes in the serum and urinary biochemical, radiological, and clinical parameters (efficacy and tolerability) as per protocol.Group-I

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2011 Urology annals

68. Nephrolithiasis in Medullary Sponge Kidney: Evaluation of Clinical and Metabolic Features. (PubMed)

composed of calcium oxalate monohydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium phosphate apatite, and uric acid. Metabolic profile was obtained for 26 of 39 (67%) stone-forming patients demonstrating abnormalities in 22/26 (84.6%). These included hypercalciuria, 58% (15/26); low urine volume, 35% (9/26); hyperuricosuria, 27% (7/26); hypocitraturia, 19% (5/26); elevated urine sodium, 15% (4/26); and hyperoxaluria, 12% (3/26).Many patients with MSK have no evidence of nephrolithiasis. Among those who do (...) Nephrolithiasis in Medullary Sponge Kidney: Evaluation of Clinical and Metabolic Features. Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) is a disorder characterized by tubular dilation of renal collecting ducts and cystic dilation of medullary pyramids that has been associated with stone disease. The significance of nephrolithiasis and the mechanisms by which it occurs are incompletely understood. We describe clinical and metabolic features of nephrolithiasis in a cohort of patients with MSK.Records were

2011 Urology

69. Beware the low urine ph - the major cause of the increased prevalence of nephrolithiasis in the patient with type 2 diabetes. (PubMed)

Beware the low urine ph - the major cause of the increased prevalence of nephrolithiasis in the patient with type 2 diabetes. There is an increased prevalence of nephrolithiasis and an increase in the incidence of renal colic in patients with diabetes, obesity, hypertension and insulin resistance because of an increased frequency of uric acid crystallization. Uric acid crystallization occurs in the milieu of an acid urine and is not due to hyperuricosuria as with insulin resistance, urinary (...) uric acid levels are generally decreased because of increased renal tubular reabsorption. However, in the presence of insulin resistance, there is decreased renal tubular generation of ammonia and increased sodium absorption leading to acidification of the urine and uric acid crystallization. The presence of a low urine pH should alert the clinician to the increased risk of nephrolithiasis particularly in the obese, diabetic or hypertensive patient. Prevention of nephrolithiasis can be achieved

2011 obesity & metabolism

70. Metabolic Syndrome, Urine pH, and Time-dependent Risk of Nephrolithiasis in Korean Men Without Hypertension and Diabetes. (PubMed)

(US). A standard Cox proportional hazards model and a time-dependent Cox model were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratio in the NL model.After adjusting for age, baseline glomerular filtration rate, and uric acid level, MS at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of NL (HR, 1.771; 95% confidence interval, 1.157-2.711). MS over time as a time-dependent variable also predicted the development of NL (HR, 1.678; 95% CI, 1.151-2.447) after adjusted baseline covariate. After (...) Metabolic Syndrome, Urine pH, and Time-dependent Risk of Nephrolithiasis in Korean Men Without Hypertension and Diabetes. To examine the independent effect of metabolic syndrome (MS) on nephrolithiasis (NL) even with changes in MS status over time.From 2002-2003, 3872 men who were reexamined annually or biannually until 2009 were enrolled in the analysis and observed for development of NL. The examination included anthropometric measurements, biochemical measurement, and kidney ultrasonography

2011 Urology

71. Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis. 2. Differences between hypercalciuric and normocalciuric persons with recurrent kidney stone formation and persons without such a history. (PubMed)

in the control subjects (227 v. 183 mg/24 h; P less than 0.01), but the urine calcium concentration was not significantly different. The urine magnesium and citrate excretion rates and concentrations were lower in the normocalciuric patients than in the control subjects (P less than 0.001), while the urine uric acid and oxalate excretion rates and concentrations and the urine saturation with brushite (CaHPO4-2H2O) were not significantly different. These results suggest the importance of slight increases (...) in the urine calcium excretion rate together with decreased urine magnesium and citrate excretion rates in normocalciuric persons with recurrent calcium stone formation. The urine of the hypercalciuric patients was more highly saturated with brushite than the urine of the normocalciuric patients and the control subjects, and the excretion rates of uric acid and oxalate were increased in the hypercalciuric patients. The hypercalciuric patients had a higher urine creatinine excretion rate than

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1979 Canadian Medical Association Journal

72. Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis. 1. Differences in urine crystalloids, urine saturation with brushite and urine inhibitors of calcification between persons with and persons without recurrent kidney stone formation. (PubMed)

), the ability of the urine to calcify collagen in vitro, and the concentration of urine inhibitors of collagen calcification were measured. The patients had a reduced urine citrate excretion rate in addition to an increased urine calcium excretion rate, while the rates for urine magnesium, phosphate, uric acid and oxalate were not significantly different in the two groups of subjects. The urine concentration of magnesium, phosphate and uric acid was decreased in the patients because of the higher urine (...) volume. The urine creatinine excretion rate correlated with the rates of excretion of urine calcium, magnesium, phosphate, uric acid and oxalate in both groups, which suggested that increased lean body mass, possibly associated with greater food intake, may be an important determinant of crystalloid excretion. The urine of the patients was significantly more saturated with brushite than the urine of the control subjects and resulted in greater collagen calcification when incubated in vitro. The urine

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1979 Canadian Medical Association Journal

73. Adequacy of a single 24-hour urine collection for metabolic evaluation of recurrent nephrolithiasis. (PubMed)

collected 3 days or less apart before pharmacological intervention and analyzed elsewhere for routine stone risk profiles of urine calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, ammonium, chloride, urea nitrogen and creatinine.No parameters showed a statistically significant difference between 24-hour urine samples 1 and 2 when mean values were compared (pairwise t test each p >0.05, range 0.06 to 0.87). Using Pearson's correlation all parameters showed positive (...) Adequacy of a single 24-hour urine collection for metabolic evaluation of recurrent nephrolithiasis. There is much debate about whether 1 or 2, 24-hour urinalyses are adequate for metabolic evaluation of stone formers. We determined whether repeat 24-hour urine collection provides information similar to that of the initial 24-hour urine collection and whether repeat collection is necessary.We analyzed 2, 24-hour urine collections in 777 patients obtained from 2001 to 2005. Samples were

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2010 Journal of Urology

74. Testosterone and Androgen Receptor in Human Nephrolithiasis. (PubMed)

or uric acid. Mean±SD serum total and free testosterone was 13.29±4.79 ng/ml and 63.23±28.58 pg/ml in patients, and 7.30±0.82 ng/ml and 35.59±24.91 pg/ml in healthy men, respectively (each p<0.001). Immunohistochemistry revealed androgen receptor up-regulation in the kidneys of patients with nephrolithiasis.Our data suggest the important role of enhanced androgen signaling in human nephrolithiasis.Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc (...) Testosterone and Androgen Receptor in Human Nephrolithiasis. We investigated the relationship of kidney calculi with plasma free and total testosterone, and androgen receptor up-regulation in the kidneys of men with nephrolithiasis.Male patients with kidney stone and healthy men were included in the study. Blood was collected in a tube containing 2% heparin in the morning. Total and free serum testosterone was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. All patients underwent percutaneous

2010 Journal of Urology

75. Citrate, Malate and Alkali Content in Commonly Consumed Diet Sodas: Implications for Nephrolithiasis Treatment. (PubMed)

Citrate, Malate and Alkali Content in Commonly Consumed Diet Sodas: Implications for Nephrolithiasis Treatment. Citrate is a known inhibitor of calcium stone formation. Dietary citrate and alkali intake may have an effect on citraturia. Increasing alkali intake also increases urine pH, which can help prevent uric acid stones. We determined citrate, malate and total alkali concentrations in commonly consumed diet sodas to help direct dietary recommendations in patients with hypocitraturic (...) calcium or uric acid nephrolithiasis.Citrate and malate were measured in a lemonade beverage commonly used to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis and in 15 diet sodas. Anions were measured by ion chromatography. The pH of each beverage was measured to allow calculation of the unprotonated anion concentration using the known pK of citric and malic acid. Total alkali equivalents were calculated for each beverage. Statistical analysis was done using Pearson's correlation coefficient.Several

2010 Journal of Urology

76. Nephrolithiasis Prevention by Lemon Juice

Nephrolithiasis (LIMONE Study) Actual Study Start Date : January 2009 Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 2018 Estimated Study Completion Date : March 2019 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: related topics: available for: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Experimental: Lemon supplementation YES 60 ml of lemon juice twice daily (an amount expected to provide 6 grams or 92 mEq of citric acid per day) Dietary Supplement: Lemon (...) calcium oxalate or mixed (calcium oxalate and phosphate, calcium oxalate and uric acid) stone formation over the last 5 years at least one kidney stone at baseline documented by renal echography and/or X-ray evaluation. written informed consent Exclusion Criteria: Obstructive uropathy, chronic urosepsis, renal failure (serum creatinine >1.8 mg/dl), renal tubular acidosis, primary hyperparathyroidism, primary hyperoxaluria, pure uric acid and cystine stones, medullary sponge kidney lithotripsy

2010 Clinical Trials

77. Pharmacological and toxicological effects of Paronychia argentea in experimental calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats. (PubMed)

) nephrolithiasis in Wistar rats.The two extracts (APA and BPA) were administrated orally and daily, during 28 days to nephrolithiasic treated rats at the dose of 250, 500 mg/kg b.w. and 10, 20mg/kg b.w. respectively. Body weight, renal index, liver index, serum level of creatinine, uric acid, urea, K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+) and transaminase (alanine aminotransferase, ALT; aspartate aminotransferase, AST), phosphatase alkaline activity (PAL) were evaluated following the 28 days treatment in rats. In addition (...) Pharmacological and toxicological effects of Paronychia argentea in experimental calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats. Renal protection and antiurolithiasic effects of two extracts of Paronychia argentea (PA), a traditional Algerian plant commonly known as Algerian tea, were evaluated. This study was carried out to determine whether the aqueous extract (APA) or the butanolic extract (BPA) of aerial parts could prevent or reduce calculi aggregation in experimental calcium oxalate (Ox

2010 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

78. Hypercalciuria Associated with High Dietary Protein Intake Is Not Due to Acid Load. (PubMed)

Hypercalciuria Associated with High Dietary Protein Intake Is Not Due to Acid Load. Dietary intake of animal proteins is associated with an increase in urinary calcium and nephrolithiasis risk. We tested the hypothesis that the acid load imposed by dietary proteins causes this hypercalciuria.In a short-term crossover metabolic study, an alkali salt was provided with a high-protein diet (HPD) to neutralize the acid load imparted by dietary proteins.Eleven healthy volunteers were evaluated (...) and net acid excretion) and increased urinary citrate. Urinary calcium increased during both HPD phases compared with CD but was not significantly different between the HPD + KCl and HPD + KCitrate phases (182 ± 85 vs. 170 ± 85 mg/d; P = 0.28). Increased urinary saturation with respect to calcium oxalate and uric acid with HPD was abrogated by KCitrate.This study suggests that, at least in the short-term, mechanism(s) other than acid load account for hypercalciuria induced by HPD. The beneficial

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2011 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

79. Lesch-Nyhan disease

originally diagnosed with cerebral palsy were later recognised as suffering from a previously undescribed inherited metabolic disease because of the familial occurrence and unusual clinical features. Lesch M, Nyhan WL. A familial disorder of uric acid metabolism and central nervous system function. Am J Med. 1964;36:561-570. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14142409?tool=bestpractice.com HPRT deficiency causes overproduction of uric acid, which may lead to hyperuricaemia, nephrolithiasis, gouty (...) movement disorder dominated by dystonia, attentional deficits, and behavioural disturbances with self-injury. Should be considered when delayed development is accompanied by a hyperkinetic movement disorder, including dystonia, particularly when routine brain MRI is normal. Should be suspected if a delayed development is accompanied by self-injurious behaviour or evidence of excessive production of uric acid. Diagnosis is based on HPRT enzyme activity, preferably measured in live cells such as cultured

2018 BMJ Best Practice

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