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Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

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41. Inborn enzymatic defect as the probable cause of the formation of renal stones consisting of uric acid Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inborn enzymatic defect as the probable cause of the formation of renal stones consisting of uric acid In four persons of one family the existence of an enzymatic defect, presumably consisting of a deficiency of glutaminase in the cells of the renal tubules, is postulated, and is implied by a reduced elimination of ammonia in the urine, by a relatively low urinary pH, and by its increased titratable acidity. The most characteristic clinical symptom is irritation of the distal part (...) of the urinary tract, connected with numerous crystals of uric acid appearing in the urinary sediment. The elimination of uric acid is normal, or even reduced, and the level of uric acid in the blood serum is also within normal limits. After the administration of glutaminic acid elimination of ammonia is further decreased and the quantity of uric acid crystals is increased. Loading with glutaminic acid may also cause an attack of renal pain in the individual suffering from this defect but the administration

1965 Journal of Clinical Pathology

42. Renal Uptake of Fatty Acids (FFA) in Patients With Idiopathic Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis (IUAN)

. To accomplish this goal the investigators will measure renal FFa uptake FFa uptake in vivo in patients with iuan and matched non-stone forming subjects via single-photon emission computed tomography (SPeCT)/CT imaging. The definitive proof of the hypothesis rests on whether increased renal FFa uptake is demonstrable in humans with iuan. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis Other: 123I-BMIPP Other: 99mTc-MAG3 Not Applicable Detailed Description: This is a cross (...) table for MeSH terms Nephrolithiasis Kidney Calculi Kidney Diseases Urologic Diseases Urolithiasis Urinary Calculi Calculi Pathological Conditions, Anatomical Uric Acid Technetium Tc 99m Mertiatide Antioxidants Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action Protective Agents Physiological Effects of Drugs Radiopharmaceuticals

2016 Clinical Trials

43. Neutron activation analysis with a Monte Carlo simulation for kidney stones Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the stones, by both the experimentally measured gamma spectrum and the simulation. Among these, Ca, Br, and Zn were found to be of potential clinical relevance via a literature review. Concentrations of the elements were compared to those noted in the literature. For uric acid stones, a correlation with the literature was found for Zn and Ca. A negative correlation was found between Zn and Br for non-uric acid stones. More samples are needed to test for statistical significance. (...) Neutron activation analysis with a Monte Carlo simulation for kidney stones Mechanistic questions regarding kidney stone formation have led researchers to look for the presence of trace elements. Neutron activation analysis is able to identify elements at parts-per-million concentrations. Four different types of kidney stones were irradiated with thermal neutrons to produce radioisotopes. Gamma spectroscopy of samples at different counting times was used to reduce identification errors

2015 Biomedical physics & engineering express

44. Evaluate the Effect of ALLN-177 in Reducing Urinary Oxalate in Patients With Hyperoxaluria and Kidney Stones

urosepsis, renal failure, renal tubular acidosis, primary hyperparathyroidism, primary hyperoxaluria, pure uric acid and cystine stones, and/or medullary sponge kidney Treatment with cholestyramine Average daily dietary intake of oxalate <75 mg per day Contacts and Locations Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor. Please refer to this study by its (...) : January 2017 Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement: Plan to Share IPD: No Layout table for additional information Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No Keywords provided by Allena Pharmaceuticals: Kidney Stones Nephrolithiasis Urine Oxalate Hyperoxaluria Enteric Hyperoxaluria Idiopathic Hyperoxaluria Urological Diseases Kidney Diseases Dietary Oxalate Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Calculi Kidney

2015 Clinical Trials

45. Evaluate the Effect of ALLN-177 in Reducing Urinary Oxalate in Patients With Secondary Hyperoxaluria and Kidney Stones Over 28 Days

Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult) Sexes Eligible for Study: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Criteria Inclusion Criteria: History of enteric or idiopathic hyperoxaluria or kidney stones Urinary oxalate ≥ 50 mg/24 hours Exclusion Criteria: Hyperuricosuria Glomerular filtration rate < 45 mL/min/1.73m2 Hypercalcemia or hyperthyroidism Autoimmune disorder requiring systemic steroids Acute renal colic, primary hyperoxaluria, pure uric acid and/or cysteine stones, renal (...) Hyperoxaluria Nephrolithiasis Hyperoxaluria Kidney Stones Dietary Hyperoxaluria Drug: ALLN-177 Drug: Placebo Phase 2 Detailed Description: This is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of ALLN 177 compared with placebo in reducing the urinary excretion of oxalate in subjects with secondary hyperoxaluria and kidney stones. ALLN-177 is an orally administered form of oxalate decarboxylase. The goal of therapy with ALLN-177 is to reduce urinary oxalate

2015 Clinical Trials

46. Non-invasive Differentiation of Kidney Stone Types using X-ray Dark-Field Radiography Full Text available with Trip Pro

-ray dark-field radiography as a non-invasive, highly sensitive (100%) and specific (97%) tool for the differentiation of calcium oxalate, uric acid and mixed types of stones, while additionally improving the detectability of radio-lucent calculi. We prove clinical feasibility of the here proposed method by accurately classifying renal stones, embedded within a fresh pig kidney, using dose-compatible measurements and a quick and simple visual inspection. (...) Non-invasive Differentiation of Kidney Stone Types using X-ray Dark-Field Radiography Treatment of renal calculi is highly dependent on the chemical composition of the stone in question, which is difficult to determine using standard imaging techniques. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of scatter-sensitive X-ray dark-field radiography to differentiate between the most common types of kidney stones in clinical practice. Here, we examine the absorption-to-scattering ratio

2015 Scientific reports

47. Effect of demographics on excretion of key urinary factors related to kidney stone risk. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of demographics on excretion of key urinary factors related to kidney stone risk. To investigate the effect of demographics including age and sex on excretion of 4 key urinary factors (calcium [Ca], magnesium [Mg], oxalate and uric acid [UA]) related to kidney stone risk.Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected from non-Hispanic white sibships in Rochester, MN. Height, weight, blood pressure, serum creatinine, and cystatin C were measured. Diet was assessed using the Viocare food (...) , and BMI and eGFR (P <.05).Age and sex influence excretion of key urinary factors related to kidney stone risk and should be taken into account when evaluating kidney stone patients.Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2015 Urology

48. Increased production and reduced urinary buffering of acid in uric acid stone formers is ameliorated by pioglitazone. (Abstract)

Increased production and reduced urinary buffering of acid in uric acid stone formers is ameliorated by pioglitazone. Idiopathic uric acid nephrolithiasis is characterized by an overly acidic urine pH caused by the combination of increased acid production and inadequate buffering of urinary protons by ammonia. A large proportion of uric acid stone formers exhibit features of the metabolic syndrome. We previously demonstrated that thiazolidinediones improved the urinary biochemical profile (...) in an animal model of the metabolic syndrome. In this proof-of-concept study, we examined whether the thiazolidinedione pioglitazone can also ameliorate the overly acidic urine in uric acid stone formers. Thirty-six adults with idiopathic uric acid nephrolithiasis were randomized to pioglitazone 30 mg/day or matching placebo for 24 weeks. At baseline and study end, participants underwent collection of blood and 24-hour urine in an inpatient research unit while consuming a fixed metabolic diet, followed

2019 Kidney International Controlled trial quality: uncertain

49. Association between serum vitamin D and uric acid in the eastern Chinese population: a population-based cross-sectional study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association between serum vitamin D and uric acid in the eastern Chinese population: a population-based cross-sectional study. Uric acid (UA) is the end product of purine metabolism, which is thought to be related to many human diseases, such as nephrolithiasis, gout, cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome. However, the relationship between serum UA (SUA) and 25(OH) D is still unclear in the eastern Chinese population.We did a population-based observational

2020 BMC Endocrine Disorders

50. The Predictors of Successful Oral Dissolution Therapy in Radiolucent Renal Stones; A Prospective Evaluation

table for MeSH terms Calculi Urolithiasis Kidney Calculi Nephrolithiasis Pathological Conditions, Anatomical Urologic Diseases Kidney Diseases Urinary Calculi Citric Acid Sodium Citrate Allopurinol Uric Acid Potassium Citrate Anticoagulants Calcium Chelating Agents Chelating Agents Sequestering Agents Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action Antimetabolites Enzyme Inhibitors Gout Suppressants Antirheumatic Agents Free Radical Scavengers Antioxidants Protective Agents Physiological Effects (...) El-Sawy, Resident in Urology, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt, Mansoura University ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: Other Study ID Numbers: AEl-Sawy122015 First Posted: February 27, 2015 Last Update Posted: March 22, 2018 Last Verified: March 2018 Keywords provided by Amr Abdel-Lateif El-Sawy, Mansoura University: Radiolucent renal stones Oral dissolution therapy Systemic chemolysis Renal uric acid stones Alkalinization Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout

2015 Clinical Trials

51. Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis. 2. Differences between hypercalciuric and normocalciuric persons with recurrent kidney stone formation and persons without such a history. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis. 2. Differences between hypercalciuric and normocalciuric persons with recurrent kidney stone formation and persons without such a history. Normocalciuric and hypercalciuric patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis were compared with healthy individuals without such a history to examine the factors that predispose normocalciuric patients to stone formation. The urine calcium excretion rate was higher in the normocalciuric patients than (...) in the urine calcium excretion rate together with decreased urine magnesium and citrate excretion rates in normocalciuric persons with recurrent calcium stone formation. The urine of the hypercalciuric patients was more highly saturated with brushite than the urine of the normocalciuric patients and the control subjects, and the excretion rates of uric acid and oxalate were increased in the hypercalciuric patients. The hypercalciuric patients had a higher urine creatinine excretion rate than

1979 Canadian Medical Association Journal

52. Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis. 1. Differences in urine crystalloids, urine saturation with brushite and urine inhibitors of calcification between persons with and persons without recurrent kidney stone formation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis. 1. Differences in urine crystalloids, urine saturation with brushite and urine inhibitors of calcification between persons with and persons without recurrent kidney stone formation. The propensity of urine to promote calcium stone formation was compared in 64 patients with recurrent idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis and 30 healthy individuals without such a history. The rates of excretion of urine crystalloids, the urine saturation with brushite (CaHPO4-2H2O (...) ), the ability of the urine to calcify collagen in vitro, and the concentration of urine inhibitors of collagen calcification were measured. The patients had a reduced urine citrate excretion rate in addition to an increased urine calcium excretion rate, while the rates for urine magnesium, phosphate, uric acid and oxalate were not significantly different in the two groups of subjects. The urine concentration of magnesium, phosphate and uric acid was decreased in the patients because of the higher urine

1979 Canadian Medical Association Journal

53. An Increase Incidence in Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: Changing Patterns Full Text available with Trip Pro

An Increase Incidence in Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: Changing Patterns Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease affecting all age groups globally. As the causative factors for nephrolithiasis rises significantly, its incidence, prevalence and recurrence continues to baffle clinicians and patients.To study the prevalence of different types of renal stones extracted by Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and open surgical procedures.Renal stones from 50 patients were retrieved by Percutaneous (...) %, uric acid~1% and mixed stones~3%). Biochemical analysis of renal stones is warranted in all cases.

2016 Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR

54. Diagnostic accuracy of dual energy commuted tomography (DECT) to differentiate uric acid from non-uric acid calculi: systematic review and meta-analysis

Diagnostic accuracy of dual energy commuted tomography (DECT) to differentiate uric acid from non-uric acid calculi: systematic review and meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith (...) to be extracted: animal model Example: Dose, timing of administration, frequency of administration, route of administration, vehicle. ">Data to be extracted: intervention of interest Example: Serum creatinine; continuous; umol/L (may be recalculated from mg/dL). ">Data to be extracted: primary outcome(s) Example: Blood urea nitrogen; continuous; mmol/L (may be recalculated from mg/dL); Renal histological damage as assessed by Jablonski scale; continuous; Jablonski score. ">Data to be extracted: secondary

2018 PROSPERO

55. Assessment of urinary inhibitor or promoter activity in uric acid nephrolithiasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Assessment of urinary inhibitor or promoter activity in uric acid nephrolithiasis. We assessed decreased inhibitor activity or increased promoter activity in the urine of idiopathic uric acid stone formers compared to nonstone formers independent of urinary pH.A total of 30 idiopathic uric acid stone formers, and 9 obese and 12 lean nonstone formers collected 24-hour urine while on a metabolic diet. Three urine aliquots per subject were used to assess spontaneous nucleation (de novo crystal (...) formation), crystal growth using a 0.1 mg/ml anhydrous uric acid seed and steady-state uric acid solubility (the maximum amount of uric acid dissolvable in urine) using a 5 mg/ml uric acid seed. All experiments were performed for 6 hours at a constant pH of 5.0. Uric acid concentration was measured in filtered aliquots at 0, 3 and 6 hours.At baseline 24-hour urinary pH was significantly lower and uric acid saturation was significantly higher in idiopathic uric acid stone formers. No significant

2015 Journal of Urology

56. The case for uric acid-lowering treatment in patients with hyperuricaemia and CKD. (Abstract)

The case for uric acid-lowering treatment in patients with hyperuricaemia and CKD. Hyperuricaemia is common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and increases in severity with the deterioration of kidney function. Although existing guidelines for CKD management do not recommend testing for or treatment of hyperuricaemia in the absence of a diagnosis of gout or urate nephrolithiasis, an emerging body of evidence supports a direct causal relationship between serum urate levels (...) in the control arm, treatment with ULT was ineffective, but this finding should not be used as an argument against the use of uric acid-lowering therapy. Although additional studies are needed to identify threshold values of serum urate for treatment initiation and to confirm optimal target levels, we believe that sufficient evidence exists to recommend routine measurement of serum urate levels in patients with CKD and consider initiation of ULT among those who are hyperuricaemic with evidence

2019 Nature reviews. Nephrology

57. Relationship between serum uric acid and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors and renal disorders among Shanghai population: a multicentre and cross-sectional study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Relationship between serum uric acid and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors and renal disorders among Shanghai population: a multicentre and cross-sectional study. To estimate the current prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors (CRFs) and renal disorders across serum uric acid (SUA) quartiles, and evaluate the relationships between SUA and CRFs and renal diseases in Shanghai population.Observational, cross-sectional study.Data were obtained from the physical check-up (...) of local residents at three hospitals in Shanghai.Residents were invited to take part in a physical check-up and provided informed consent. Exclusion criteria were diseases that resemble cancer, hepatic disease, and other coexisting illnesses including autoimmune kidney diseases and renal artery stenosis, individuals treated with xanthine oxidase inhibitors, and those with incomplete information. There are 26 768 individuals in our study.Hyperuricaemia was defined as SUA ≥7 mg/dL in men and ≥6 mg/dL

2019 BMJ open

58. Serum uric acid levels and multiple health outcomes: umbrella review of evidence from observational studies, randomised controlled trials, and Mendelian randomisation studies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serum uric acid levels and multiple health outcomes: umbrella review of evidence from observational studies, randomised controlled trials, and Mendelian randomisation studies. Objective To map the diverse health outcomes associated with serum uric acid (SUA) levels.Design Umbrella review.Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and screening of citations and references.Eligibility criteria Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that examined (...) SUA levels). Only one outcome from randomised controlled trials (decreased risk of nephrolithiasis recurrence with SUA lowering treatment) had P<0.001, a 95% prediction interval excluding the null, and no large heterogeneity or bias. Only one outcome from Mendelian randomisation studies (increased risk of gout with high SUA levels) presented convincing evidence. Hypertension and chronic kidney disease showed concordant evidence in meta-analyses of observational studies, and in some (but not all

2017 BMJ

59. Molecular mechanisms of crystal-related kidney inflammation and injury. Implications for cholesterol embolism, crystalline nephropathies and kidney stone disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

immunity mechanisms drive crystalline nephropathies (CNs) that are associated with crystals of calcium phosphate, uric acid, cysteine, adenine, certain drugs or contrast media, and potentially of myoglobin during rhabdomyolysis and of light chains in myeloma. Here, we discuss the proven and potential mechanisms of renal inflammation and kidney injury in crystal-related kidney disorders. In addition, we list topics for further research in that field. This perspective may also provide novel therapeutic (...) Molecular mechanisms of crystal-related kidney inflammation and injury. Implications for cholesterol embolism, crystalline nephropathies and kidney stone disease. Crystals are particles of endogenous inorganic or organic composition that can trigger kidney injury when deposited or formed inside the kidney. While decades of research have focused on the molecular mechanisms of solute supersaturation and crystal formation, the pathomechanisms of crystal-induced renal inflammation remain largely

2013 Transplantation

60. Kidney stone formers, even past stone formers, are positively associated with conventional risk factors for coronary heart disease in Japanese men. (Abstract)

but no kidney stones on medical examination. Body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and serum uric acid were significantly higher in past and current kidney stone formers than in controls. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the multivariate adjusted OR for overweight/obesity, hypertension, gout/hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease significantly increased in the order corresponding to controls, and past and current kidney stone formers.Kidney stone formers, even past stone (...) Kidney stone formers, even past stone formers, are positively associated with conventional risk factors for coronary heart disease in Japanese men. We investigated the association between kidney stones and coronary heart disease risk factors in Japanese men.This cross-sectional study included 13,418 Japanese men 30 to 69 years old who voluntarily underwent medical examination between April 1995 and March 2001. Participants were divided into controls, and past and current kidney stone formers

2012 Journal of Urology

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