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Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

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21. Renal stone composition does not affect the outcome of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children. (Abstract)

359 children (160 girls, 199 boys) with stone analyses. Patients were divided into five groups according to the stone composition [group 1: calcium oxalate; group 2: calcium phosphate; group 3: infection stones (magnesium ammonium phosphate, ammonium urate); group 4: cystine; group 5: uric acid, xanthine stones].Patient characteristics, perioperative, postoperative, and stone characteristics were compared considering the stone composition. There were no significant differences between the groups (...) Renal stone composition does not affect the outcome of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children. We sought to investigate the association between renal stone composition and percutaneous nephrolithotomy outcomes in pediatric patients and define the characterization of the stone composition.The data of 1157 children who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy between 1991 and 2012 were retrieved from the multicenter database of the Turkish Pediatric Urology Society. The study population comprised

2018 World journal of urology

22. Targeted renal knockdown of Na<sup>+</sup>/H<sup>+</sup> exchanger regulatory factor <i>Sip1</i> produces uric acid nephrolithiasis in <i>Drosophila</i>. (Abstract)

Targeted renal knockdown of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor Sip1 produces uric acid nephrolithiasis in Drosophila. Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common kidney diseases, with poorly understood pathophysiology, but experimental study has been hindered by lack of experimentally tractable models. Drosophila melanogaster is a useful model organism for renal diseases because of genetic and functional similarities of Malpighian (renal) tubules with the human (...) increased renal uric acid stone formation, and so a model was developed in which SIP1 normally regulates NHE2 activity and luminal pH, ultimately leading to uric acid stone formation. Drosophila renal tubules may thus offer a useful model for urate nephrolithiasis.

2019 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

23. Medical dissolution therapy for the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. (Abstract)

Medical dissolution therapy for the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Uric acid (UA) nephrolithiasis represents 10% of kidney stones in the US with low urine pH and high saturation of UA as the main risk factors for stone development. Dissolution therapy for UA kidney stones via urinary alkalization has been described as a treatment option. We present our experience in treating UA nephrolithiasis with medical dissolution therapy.A retrospective review was performed of UA stone patients (...) nephrolithiasis after initial referral for surgical management. Three patients (13%) did not tolerate the initiation of dissolution therapy and discontinued this treatment. Of the 21 patients that were maintained on dissolution therapy, 14 patients (67%) showed complete resolution of nephrolithiasis and 7 patients (33%) showed partial reduction. Patients with partial response had a mean reduction in stone burden of 68%. There were 3 recorded complications (UTI, GI upset with therapy, and throat irritation

2019 World journal of urology

24. Nomogram to predict uric acid kidney stones based on patient’s age, BMI and 24-hour urine profiles: A multicentre validation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Nomogram to predict uric acid kidney stones based on patient’s age, BMI and 24-hour urine profiles: A multicentre validation We performed a multicentre validation of a nomogram to predict uric acid kidney stones in two populations.We reviewed the kidney stone database of two institutions, searching for patients with kidney stones who had stone composition analysis and 24-hour urine collection from January 2010 to December 2013. A nomogram to predict uric acid kidneys stones based on patient (...) with uric acid or calcium stones were included.Predicting uric acid kidneys stone based on a nomogram, which includes only demographic data and 24-hour urine parameters, is feasible with a high degree of accuracy.

2015 Canadian Urological Association Journal

25. Toxicity of Perirenal Fat in Overweight or Obese Subjects: A Pathophysiological Link Between Uric Acid Stones and Renal Ammonium Formation

the renal cortex, seat of the ammoniogenesis. In humans the pathogenic role of the perirenal fat is demonstrated in chronic kidney disease and essential hypertension. However, the amount of fat and perirenal that of intra-abdominal fat are positively correlated. Investigators hypothesis is that the perirenal fat also exert a pathogenic role in uric because of anatomical links between kidney stones and greasy environment and because excess fatty acids reaching the renal cortex decreases ammoniogenesis (...) Toxicity of Perirenal Fat in Overweight or Obese Subjects: A Pathophysiological Link Between Uric Acid Stones and Renal Ammonium Formation Toxicity of Perirenal Fat in Overweight or Obese Subjects: A Pathophysiological Link Between Uric Acid Stones and Renal Ammonium Formation - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study

2015 Clinical Trials

26. Mediators of the Effects of Gender on Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: A Novel Application of Structural Equation Modeling Full Text available with Trip Pro

 < 0.001), and higher incidence rate of gout (estimate: 0.009, standard error: 0.005, critical ratio: 2.028, 95% confidence interval: 0.002-0.021, P = 0.009). We conclude that low urine pH, impaired renal function, and gout are the mediators of the effect of male gender on the development of uric acid nephrolithiasis. The survey, treatment, and follow-up of kidney diseases, acidic urine, and uric acid metabolism disorders should be considered in men with uric acid nephrolithiasis. (...) Mediators of the Effects of Gender on Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: A Novel Application of Structural Equation Modeling Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that male patients with uric acid nephrolithiasis outnumber female patients. To our knowledge, no research exists evaluating the reasons gender affects the development of uric acid nephrolithiasis. We hereby used a novel application of structural equation modeling to analyze the mediators of the effects of gender on uric acid

2018 Scientific reports

27. Effectiveness of Treatment Modalities on Kidney Stone Recurrence. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effectiveness of Treatment Modalities on Kidney Stone Recurrence. Nephrolithiasis is highly prevalent across all demographic groups in the Western world and beyond, and its incidence rates are rising. In addition to the morbidity of the acute event, stone disease often becomes a lifelong problem that requires preventative therapy to diminish ongoing morbidity. Across the majority of stone types, increased fluid intake and targeted dietary modifications are mainstays of therapy. Specific dietary (...) interventions associated with reduced calcium stone risk include adequate dietary calcium intake and restriction of sodium, protein, and oxalate intake, among others. Pharmaceutical therapy may be required if lifestyle changes are insufficient to minimize risk of stone recurrence, and must be targeted to the specific metabolic abnormalities portending risk for a given patient. Therapeutic options for idiopathic calcium stone disease include thiazides, citrate salts, and uric acid-lowering agents. Alkali

2017 Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

28. Relative Supersaturation of 24-hour Urine and Likelihood of Kidney Stones. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Relative Supersaturation of 24-hour Urine and Likelihood of Kidney Stones. The relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and uric acid is used clinically in kidney stone prevention. The magnitude of the association between relative supersaturation and stone risk requires further quantification.We performed a cross-sectional study using 24-hour urine collections from the NHS (Nurses' Health Study) I and II, and HPFS (Health Professionals Follow-up Study) cohorts to quantify (...) the association between the relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and uric acid, and the likelihood of stone formation.The OR of being a stone former was 5.85 (95% CI 3.40-10.04) in NHS I, 6.38 (95% CI 3.72-11.0) in NHS II and 6.95 (95% CI 3.56-13.6) in HPFS for the highest category of calcium oxalate relative supersaturation compared with less than 1.0. The OR of being a stone former was 1.86 (95% CI 0.94-3.71) in NHS I, 4.37 (95% CI 2.68-7.10) in NHS II and 3.59 (95% CI 2.04-6.31

2017 Journal of Urology

29. Dual Energy CT Kidney Stone Differentiation in Photon Counting Computed Tomography Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dual Energy CT Kidney Stone Differentiation in Photon Counting Computed Tomography This study evaluates the capabilities of a whole-body photon counting CT system to differentiate between four common kidney stone materials, namely uric acid (UA), calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), cystine (CYS),and apatite (APA) ex vivo. Two different x-ray spectra (120 kV and 140 kV) were applied and two acquisition modes were investigated; The macro-mode generates two energy threshold based image-volumes (...) kidney stones were utilized to quantify the discriminability of the different materials. The dual energy ratios of the two acquisition modes showed high correlation for both applied spectra. Wilcoxon-rank sum tests and the evaluation of the area under the receiver operating characteristics curves suggest that the UA kidney stones are best differentiable from all other materials (AUC = 1.0), followed by CYS (AUC ≈ 0.9 compared against COM and APA). COM and APA, however, are hardly distinguishable (AUC

2017 Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering

30. Preventive Kidney Stones: Continue Medical Education Full Text available with Trip Pro

abdominal film and renal sonography, a noncontrast helical computed tomography scan of the abdomen is the diagnostic procedure of choice for detection of small and radiolucent kidney stones with sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100%. Stones smaller than 5 mm in diameter often pass the urinary tract system and rarely require surgical interventions. The main risk factors for stone formation are low urine output, high urinary concentrations of calcium, oxalate, phosphate, and uric acid compounded (...) Preventive Kidney Stones: Continue Medical Education Nephrolithiasis is a common health problem across the globe with a prevalence of 15%-20%. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is the most common cause of nephrolithiasis, and calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of stones in idiopathic hypercalciuric patients. Calcium phosphate stones are frequently associated with other diseases such as renal tubular acidosis type 1, urinary tract infections, and hyperparathyroidism. Compared with flat

2017 International journal of preventive medicine

31. Renal Stone Characterization using High Resolution Imaging Mode on a Photon Counting Detector CT System Full Text available with Trip Pro

resolution at iso-center for the HR mode. In this study, we quantified ex vivo the capabilities of the HR mode to characterize renal stones in terms of morphology and mineral composition. Forty pure stones - 10 uric acid (UA), 10 cystine (CYS), 10 calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and 10 apatite (APA) - and 14 mixed stones were placed in a 20 cm water phantom and scanned in HR mode, at radiation dose matched to that of routine dual-energy stone exams. Data from micro CT provided a reference (...) Renal Stone Characterization using High Resolution Imaging Mode on a Photon Counting Detector CT System In addition to the standard-resolution (SR) acquisition mode, a high-resolution (HR) mode is available on a research photon-counting-detector (PCD) whole-body CT system. In the HR mode each detector consists of a 2x2 array of 0.225 mm × 0.225 mm subpixel elements. This is in contrast to the SR mode that consists of a 4x4 array of the same sub-elements, and results in 0.25 mm isotropic

2017 Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering

32. Who makes uric acid stones and why--observations from a renal stones clinic. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Who makes uric acid stones and why--observations from a renal stones clinic. Excessively acidic urine is the dominant factor in uric acid stone formation. Recent evidence implicating insulin resistance has revived interest in its causation. We reviewed data on uric acid stone formers attending a general stones clinic to find out whether this supports and adds to current concepts.A retrospective database study of 1504 stone formers investigated at the Southampton renal stones clinic from 1990 (...) to March 2007. Uric acid stone formers and idiopathic calcium stone formers were compared using non-parametric tests.Fifty-nine patients (3.9%; 43 men) had uric acid stones. In men the commonest associated conditions were diabetes (20%), gout (20%) and an ileostomy (15%); in women, diabetes (33%), urinary infections (27%) and hyperparathyroidism (20%). Most patients with diabetes (85% of men, 75% of women), however, produced calcium stones. Risk factors did not differ significantly between calcium

2013 Journal of Clinical Pathology

33. Stone Composition Among First-Time Symptomatic Kidney Stone Formers in the Community. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of symptomatic recurrence were compared between stone compositions.There were 2961 validated first-time symptomatic kidney stone formers. Stone composition analysis was obtained in 1508 (51%) at the first episode. Stone formers were divided into the following mutually exclusive groups: any brushite (0.9%), any struvite (0.9%), any uric acid (4.8%), and majority calcium oxalate (76%) or majority hydroxyapatite (18%). Stone composition varied with clinical characteristics. A multivariable model had a 69 (...) % probability of correctly estimating stone composition but assuming calcium oxalate monohydrate stone was correct 65% of the time. Symptomatic recurrence at 10 years was approximately 50% for brushite, struvite, and uric acid but approximately 30% for calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite stones (P<.001). Recurrence was similar across different proportions of calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite (P for trend=.10). However, among calcium oxalate stones, 10-year recurrence rate ranged from 38% for 100% calcium

2015 Mayo Clinic Proceedings

34. Renal ammonium excretion after an acute acid load: Blunted response in uric acid stone formers but not in patients with type 2 diabetes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Renal ammonium excretion after an acute acid load: Blunted response in uric acid stone formers but not in patients with type 2 diabetes. Idiopathic uric acid nephrolithiasis is characterized by elevated urinary net acid excretion and insufficient buffering by ammonium, resulting in excessively acidic urine and titration of the relatively soluble urate anion to insoluble uric acid. Patients with type 2 diabetes have similar changes in urinary pH, net acid excretion, and ammonium in 24-h urine (...) collections at baseline, even after controlling for dietary factors, and are at increased risk for uric acid nephrolithiasis. However, not all patients with type 2 diabetes develop kidney stones, suggesting that uric acid stone formers may have additional urinary defects, perhaps not apparent at baseline. We performed a metabolic study of 14 patients with idiopathic uric acid nephrolithiasis, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes, and 8 healthy control subjects of similar body mass index. After equilibration

2013 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

35. Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

Acid Nephrolithiasis Aka: Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis , Urate Stones , Hyperuricosuria , Uric Acid Calculi From Related Chapters II. Epidemiology Represents 10% of s III. Evaluation See IV. Types Pure Uric Acid Calculi Mixed calcium and Uric Acid Calculi V. Causes Primary cause Acidic urine (pH <5.5) Other causes (confers 2 fold risk of calculi) Excessive dietary purine intake (meats) End Ileostomy Results in impaired ammonia and citrate excretion Results in lower pH and increased urinary ammonia (...) Increased crystallization VI. Labs AM spot urine for and Crystaluria stones form in acidic urine VII. Imaging Non-contrast XRay Pure Uric Acid Calculi are radiolucent May be visualized if mixed calcium and VIII. Management: Prevention of Uric Acid stone recurrence ral Restrict dietary intake of and protein Maintain : over 2.5 liters per day Alkalinize urine (especially if is low, acidic) Maintain >5.5 (6.5 - 7.0 preferred) Citrate 10-20 mEq orally three times daily with meals 500 mg, two tablets daily

2018 FP Notebook

36. Proteomic Study of Renal Uric Acid Stone. (Abstract)

Proteomic Study of Renal Uric Acid Stone. To analyze urinary uric acid stone matrix proteins (SMP) with mass spectrometry (MS) to evaluate the mechanisms of uric acid stone formation. SMP plays an important role in urinary stone formation. Several proteomic studies apply to calcium-containing stones have been reported; however no proteomic study for urinary uric acid stone has been reported.Pure kidney uric acid stones from 5 individuals were demineralized, and SMPs were isolated. The obtained (...) proteomic results and the number of the identified protein of each result ranged from 52 to 156. Metacore software analysis suggested that inflammation may play an important role for kidney uric acid stone formation. Endogenous metabolic pathways were also analyzed and submitted to KEGG Web site, which revealed that these proteins may participate in fat metabolism. Five identified proteins were selected for immunoblot validation, and 3 proteins were confirmed.Our results suggest that inflammatory

2012 Urology

37. Influence of Hypocaloric Diet on Urinary Lithogenic Factors of Obese Patients With Kidney Stones

and lithogenic metabolic abnormalities. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Obesity Kidney Stones Behavioral: Hypocaloric diet Not Applicable Detailed Description: Objective: to evaluate the influence of low-calorie diet on serum and urinary metabolic parameters of obese adults with urinary calculi and lithogenic metabolic abnormalities. Method: prospective study of 50 patients, aged over 18 years, with a body mass index above 30 kg/m2, urinary calculi and lithogenic metabolic abnormalities (...) and requested total serum calcium, phosphate, sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, uric acid, and PTH, pH venous blood, urine tests type I, culture of urine and urine tests of calcium, oxalate, phosphate, sodium, potassium, citrate, magnesium, creatinine, uric acid, cystine and computed tomography for evaluation of urinary calculus. In the second evaluation, 30 days after, anthropometric measures will be repeated, bioimpedance and nutritional assessment will be made with recommendation of daily ingestion

2016 Clinical Trials

38. Bacterial Analysis of Kidney Stones Removed by Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

First Posted: April 15, 2016 Last Update Posted: May 2, 2018 Last Verified: November 2016 Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement: Plan to Share IPD: No Keywords provided by Dirk Lange, University of British Columbia: Kidney stones Renal Calculi Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Kidney Calculi Nephrolithiasis Urolithiasis Kidney Diseases Urologic Diseases Urinary Calculi Calculi Pathological Conditions, Anatomical (...) characterized. Previous studies have found bacteria present in stones of patients without active infection and with negative pre-operative urine tests. There are various compositions of kidney stones, including calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, struvite and uric acid, with calcium oxalate being the most common. It is well known that struvite stones are associated with active infection, however the role of bacteria in the formation of other types of kidney stones, including calcium oxalate, is not well

2016 Clinical Trials

39. The Effect of Vitamin D Repletion on Kidney Stone Risk

provided by (Responsible Party): Jie Tang, Brown University Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Examine the effect of nutritional vitamin D repletion on urinary calcium excretion and kidney stone burden in calcium kidney stone formers Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Calculi Dietary Supplement: Nutritional vitamin D repletion and maintenance Not Applicable Detailed Description: The investigators plan to conduct a clinic-based interventional study of 50 patients (...) followed at Miriam Hospital Kidney Stone Clinic with history of nephrolithiasis, urinary calcium excretion between 150 and 400 mg/day, and 25-vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency (defined as serum level ≤ 30ng/ml). The intervention is oral ergocalciferol 50,000 IU per week for 12 weeks (repletion course). After that, the same repletion course will be repeated if serum 25-vitamin D remains ≤ 30ng/ml or drops to ≤ 30ng/ml anytime during the study. Otherwise, a maintenance dose of cholecalciferol 1,000 IU

2016 Clinical Trials

40. Dissolution of Renal Uric Acid Stones Complicating Ileostomy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dissolution of Renal Uric Acid Stones Complicating Ileostomy 4690048 1973 05 02 2018 11 13 0035-9157 66 1 Pt 1 1973 Jan Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine Proc. R. Soc. Med. Dissolution of renal uric acid stones complicating ileostomy. 13 Elias E E Lawrence M A S t St eng Case Reports Journal Article England Proc R Soc Med 7505890 0035-9157 0 Bicarbonates 268B43MJ25 Uric Acid IM Bicarbonates therapeutic use Hematuria etiology Humans Ileostomy adverse effects Kidney Calculi drug (...) therapy etiology Male Middle Aged Uric Acid 1973 1 1 1973 1 1 0 1 1973 1 1 0 0 ppublish 4690048 PMC1644407 Aust N Z J Surg. 1966 Nov;36(2):153-8 5224810 Br Med J. 1972 May 27;2(5812):494-6 5031208 N Engl J Med. 1958 Aug 14;259(7):307-14 13566470 Br J Urol. 1960 Dec;32:374-82 13685747 Ann Intern Med. 1962 Jun;56:843-53 13885565

1973 Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine

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